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1 parent 89e7173 commit 9ec9ff5dc51b74270f7ecdb357de3040acc9b252 martin committed Sep 25, 2002
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Choice options</B></P>
+
+<P>Here is where you specify the options that participants
+ have to choose from.
+
+<P>You can fill in any number of these: it's OK to leave some blank
+ if you don't need the full 6 options.
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Allowing new discussions</B></P>
+
+<P>For most forums you will want to allow non-teachers to start new
+ discussion topics (threads).
+
+<P>Sometimes, however, you will want to disable this ability. For
+ example, this is useful for the News forum when you only want
+ teachers to post new items that appear on the course main page.
+ Students will still be able to REPLY to existing posts though.
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Attachments for posts</B></P>
+
+<P>You can optionally attach ONE file from your own computer
+ to any post in the forums. This file is uploaded to the
+ server and stored with your post.
+
+<P>This is useful when you want to share a picture, for example,
+ or a Word document.
+
+<P>This file can be of any type, however it is highly recommended
+ that the file is named using standard 3-letter internet
+ suffixes such as .doc for a Word document, .jpg or .png
+ for an image, and so on. This will make it easier for others
+ to download and view your attachment in their browsers.
+
+<P>If you re-edit a posting and attach a new file, then any
+ previous attached files for that post will be replaced.
+
+<P>If you re-edit a posting with an attachment and leave
+ this space blank, then the original attachment will be
+ retained.
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Forum Types</B></P>
+
+<P>There are several different types of forum to choose from:
+
+<P><B>A single simple discussion</B> - is just a single topic, all on one page.
+Useful for short, focussed discussions.
+
+<P><B>Standard forum for general use</B> - is an open forum where any one can
+start a new topic at any time. This is the best general-purpose forum.
+
+<P><B>Each person posts one discussion</B> - Each person can post exactly one
+new discussion topic (everyone can reply to them though). This is useful when
+you want each student to start a discussion about, say, their reflections on
+the week's topic, and everyone else responds to these.
+
+<P>(More development to come in future versions of Moodle)
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Forum Ratings</B></P>
+
+<P>Individual posts can be rated using a scale based on the theory of
+<strong>separate and connected knowing</strong>.
+
+<p>This theory may help you to look at human interactions
+ in a new way. It describes two different ways that we can evaluate and learn
+ about the things we see and hear.
+
+<p>Although each of us may use these two methods in different amounts at different
+ times, it may be useful to imagine two people as examples, one who is a mostly
+ separate knower (Jim) and the other a mostly connected knower (Mary).</p>
+<ul>
+ <li>Jim likes to remain as 'objective' as possible without including his feelings
+ and emotions. When in a discussion with other people who may have different
+ ideas, he likes to defend his own ideas, using logic to find holes in his
+ opponent's ideas. He is critical of new ideas unless they are proven facts
+ from reputable sources such as textbooks, respected teachers or his own direct
+ experience. Jim is a very <strong>separate knower</strong>.<br><br>
+ </li>
+ <li>Mary is more sensitive to other people. She is skilled at empathy and tends
+ to listen and ask questions until she feels she can connect and &quot;understand
+ things from their point of view&quot;. She learns by trying to share the experiences
+ that led to the knowledge she finds in other people. When talking to others,
+ she avoids confrontation and will often try to help the other person if she
+ can see a way to do so, using logical suggestions. Mary is a very <strong>connected
+ knower</strong>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Did you notice in these examples that the separate knower is male and the connected
+ knower is female? Some studies have shown that statistically this tends to be
+ the case, however individual people can be anywhere in the spectrum between
+ these two extremes. </p>
+<p>For a collaborative and effective group of learners it may be best if everyone
+ were able to use BOTH ways of knowing.</p>
+<p>In a particular situation like an online forum, a single post by a person may
+ exhibit either of these characteristics, or even both. Someone who is generally
+ very connected may post a very separate-sounding message, and vice versa. The
+ purpose of rating each post using this scale is to:</p>
+<blockquote>
+ <p>a) help you think about these issues when reading other posts<br>
+ b) provide feedback to each author on how they are being seen by others</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>The results are not used towards student assessment in any way, they are just
+ to help improve communication and learning.</p>
+<hr>
+<p><br>
+ In case you're interested, here are some references to papers by the authors
+ who originally developed these ideas:</p>
+<ul>
+ <li>Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B.M., Goldberger, N.R., &amp; Tarule, J.M. (1986).
+ Women's ways of knowing: the development of self, voice, and mind. New York,
+ NY: Basic Books.</li>
+ <li>Clinchy, B.M. (1989a). The development of thoughtfulness in college women:
+ Integrating reason and care. American Behavioural Scientist, 32(6), 647-657.</li>
+ <li>Clinchy, B.M. (1989b). On critical thinking &amp; connected knowing. Liberal
+ education, 75(5), 14-19.</li>
+ <li>Clinchy, B.M. (1996). Connected and separate knowing; Toward a marriage
+ of two minds. In N.R. Goldberger, Tarule, J.M., Clinchy, B.M. &amp;</li>
+ <li>Belenky, M.F. (Eds.), Knowledge, Difference, and Power; Essays inspired
+ by &#8220;Women&#8217;s Ways of Knowing&#8221; (pp. 205-247). New York, NY:
+ Basic Books.</li>
+ <li>Galotti, K. M., Clinchy, B. M., Ainsworth, K., Lavin, B., &amp; Mansfield,
+ A. F. (1999). A New Way of Assessing Ways of Knowing: The Attitudes Towards
+ Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS). Sex Roles, 40(9/10), 745-766.</li>
+ <li>Galotti, K. M., Reimer, R. L., &amp; Drebus, D. W. (2001). Ways of knowing
+ as learning styles: Learning MAGIC with a partner. Sex Roles, 44(7/8), 419-436.
+ <br>
+ </li>
+</ul>
+
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Forum Subscription</B></P>
+
+<P>When a person is subscribed to a forum it means that
+they will be sent email copies of every post in that forum
+(posts are sent about 30 minutes after the post was first
+written).
+
+<P>People can usually choose whether or not they want to be
+subscribed to each forum.
+
+<P>However, if a teacher forces subscription on a particular forum
+then this choice is taken away and everyone in the class will get
+email copies.
+
+<P>This is especially useful in the News forum and in forums
+towards the beginning of the course (before everyone has
+worked out that they can subscribe to these emails themselves).
+

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