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commit b1ca03e9cf7534df5812e04abec294b0c881db2c 1 parent cdf198d
authored March 04, 2003
14  lang/de/help/pgassignment/anonymous.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Anonymous Grading</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment can be graded anonymously. In this
  4
+	case the names (and any photos) of the students doing the grading 
  5
+	are not shown. Only the (file) names of the submissions are used to identify
  6
+	the peices of work being graded. 
  7
+
  8
+<P>When the peer graded assignment is not graded anonymously, the 
  9
+	pieces of work are shown with the names (and any photos) of the 
  10
+	students who submitted the work. This may lead to bias in the gradings.
  11
+
  12
+<P>Note that if the teacher's grades are shown to the students these are
  13
+	never shown anonymously.
  14
+</P>
21  lang/de/help/pgassignment/assignmenttype.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Peer Graded Assignment Type</B></P>
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+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment can have one of two types:
  4
+
  5
+<OL>
  6
+<LI>Only feedback on the assessment elements and the general comment 
  7
+	is entered. The grading of assessment elements is not seen in the 
  8
+	grading pages. Assignments themselves are not given an overall grade. 
  9
+	However, the grading performance of the students is measured and
  10
+	this, and only this measure contributes towards the final grades given
  11
+	to the students.
  12
+	
  13
+<LI>Here the teacher and peers are asked to provide both feedback and
  14
+	grades. The assignments are given an overall quantative grade as well
  15
+	as the qualative data. The final grade for a student will be calculated 
  16
+	from the (weighted) contributions of the teacher's grade, the mean 
  17
+	peers' grade and the student's grading performance.
  18
+	
  19
+</OL>
  20
+
  21
+</P>
23  lang/de/help/pgassignment/breakdownoffinalgrade.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Breakdown of the Final Grade</B></P>
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+
  3
+<P>The table on this screen shows your final grade and how it was calculated. 
  4
+	The final grade is made up from three possible components.
  5
+	
  6
+<OL>
  7
+<LI>The teacher's grade for your submitted work.
  8
+<LI>The average of the peer grades for your submitted work. 
  9
+<LI>A grade for your performance in the peer grading phase. This 
  10
+	performance was based by (a) whether your grades were too high or too low
  11
+	when compared with the average grade of the other students (this is called bias), 
  12
+	(b) whether your grades follow, again on average, the grades given by 
  13
+	the other students (this is called reliability)
  14
+	and (c) on the quality of your comments on the other pieces of work you graded. 
  15
+	This was graded by the teacher. These three performance grades were weighted 
  16
+	by the factors 1:2:3 respectively to give an overall &quot;grading&quot; 
  17
+	grade. In other words the teacher's grading of the comments is given the 
  18
+	same weight as the Bias and Reliability factors combined.
  19
+</OL>
  20
+
  21
+<P>These three components can be weighted as deemed appropriate for the 
  22
+	assignment. These weights are shown in the smaller table.
  23
+</P>
40  lang/de/help/pgassignment/calculatingfinalgrade.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Calculation of the Final Grade</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>The table at the foot of the screen shows the final grade for each student 
  4
+	for this assignment. Their grade is made up from three components.
  5
+	
  6
+<OL>
  7
+<LI>The teacher's grade for their submitted work.
  8
+<LI>The average of the peer grades for their submitted work. This can optionally
  9
+	include the teacher's grade. This grade would be included if the number of
  10
+	peer gradings is very low or it is thought that the peer gradings are suspect 
  11
+	either because of bias (usually on the high side) or for not being reliable.
  12
+	If included the teacher's grade is treated in the same way as a peer grade in 
  13
+	the calculation of the average.
  14
+<LI>A grade for the student's performance in the peer grading phase. This 
  15
+	performance is based by (a) if their grades are,on average, too high or too low
  16
+	(this is called bias), (b) if their grades follow, again on average, the grades given by 
  17
+	the other students (and that of the teacher if included) (this is called reliability)
  18
+	and (c) on the quality of their feedback to the other students, this is graded
  19
+	explicitly by the teacher in the top half of the page. These three are weighted 
  20
+	by the factors 1:2:3 respectively in the calculation of the &quot;grading&quot; 
  21
+	grade. In other words the teacher's grading of the comments is given the 
  22
+	same weight as the Bias and Reliability factors combined.
  23
+</OL>
  24
+
  25
+<P>These three components can be weighted as deemed appropriate for the 
  26
+	assignment. For example the teacher's grade might be weighted strongly
  27
+	if the peer grading part of the assignment is only considered a minor part
  28
+	of the assignment as a whole. Alternatively, if no teacher grading is done
  29
+	at all then the teacher's grades should be given a zero weighting. If the
  30
+	assignment is all about the students as judges and the providing of feedback
  31
+	then first two components may be set to zero (or low) and the students' 
  32
+	grading abilities will dominate the final grades.
  33
+
  34
+<P>Note that this screen is used iteratively and the final grades are not normally
  35
+	made available to the students until all the grades for the comments have been
  36
+	entered AND the component weights (for the teacher's grades, the peer 
  37
+	grades and grading performance) have been finalised. Once these two separate
  38
+	tasks have been done then the final grades can be made available to the 
  39
+	students.
  40
+</P>
32  lang/de/help/pgassignment/elements.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Peer Graded Assignment Elements</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>For ease of grading a Peer Graded Assignment should have a reasonable 
  4
+	number of &quot;Assessment Elements&quot;. Each element should cover
  5
+	a particular aspect of the assignment. Typically an assignment will have
  6
+	something between 5 to 15 elements for comments and grading, the 
  7
+	actual number depending on the size and complexity of the assignment. A peer 
  8
+	assignment with only one element is allowed and has a similar assessment
  9
+	strategy to the standard Moodle Assignment. Elements have 
  10
+	the following three features:
  11
+<OL>
  12
+<LI>The DESCRIPTION of the assessment element. This should clearly state what 
  13
+	aspect of the assignment is being assessed. If the assessment is qualatative
  14
+	it is helpful to give details of what is considered excellent, average 
  15
+	and poor.
  16
+	
  17
+<LI>The SCALE of the assessment element. There are a number of prefined
  18
+	scales. These range from simple Yes/No scales, through multipoint scales to
  19
+	a full percentage scale. Each element has its own scale which should be choosen
  20
+	to fit the number of possible variations for that element. Note that the scale 
  21
+	does NOT determine the element's	importance when calculating the overall 
  22
+	grade, a two point scale has the same &quot;influence&quot; as a 100 point 
  23
+	scale if the respective elements have the same weight...
  24
+
  25
+<LI>The WEIGHT of the assessment element. By default the elements are given the same 
  26
+	importance when calculating the overall grade of the assignment. This can be
  27
+	changed by giving the more importance elements a weight greater than one, and
  28
+	the less important elements a weight below one. Changing the weights does NOT 
  29
+	effect the maximum grade, that value is fixed by the Maximum Grade parameter
  30
+	of the peer graded assignment.
  31
+</OL>
  32
+</P>
21  lang/de/help/pgassignment/finalgrades.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Final Grades</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>The table on this screen lists the final grades and their breakdown as shown to 
  4
+	the students. If an	error is seen in the table then it is possible to &quot;go back&quot;
  5
+	and make a correction in some cases. There are a couple of possibilities.
  6
+	
  7
+<OL>
  8
+<LI>If a teacher's grade needs to be changed then the piece of work can be 
  9
+	re-graded by going 
  10
+	to the teacher's Management screen for assignment and clicking on the link &quot;View
  11
+	(n) submitted Assignments&quot;. The piece of work can be re-graded. Once this has 
  12
+	been done then the Phase 4 screen &quot;Grade Comments&quot; should be displayed AND the
  13
+	link at the foot of that page clicked so that the new final grade is stored in the
  14
+	database.
  15
+<LI>If it is desired to use a different weighting scheme then the link
  16
+	&quot;Calculate Final Grades&quot; can be clicked and the new weights entered. Clicking 
  17
+	on the button at the foot of the screen will save the adjusted weights and re-calculate
  18
+	the final scores.
  19
+</OL>
  20
+
  21
+</P>
14  lang/de/help/pgassignment/graded.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>A Graded Peer Assignment</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>This shows the grades and comments made on the submitted piece of
  4
+	work. You can if you wish reply to this assessment and choose not to
  5
+	accept it (at this stage). If that is the case, please enter your reply in the
  6
+	box at the foot of the page giving the reason why you are not happy with 
  7
+	the assessment. Then click on the button at the foot of the page and 
  8
+	choose NO when asked whether you are happy with this assessment.
  9
+
  10
+<P>If, on the other hand. you are happy with the	assessment simply 
  11
+	click on the button at the foot of the page and then click on YES when
  12
+	asked whether you are happy with this assessment.
  13
+	
  14
+</P>
28  lang/de/help/pgassignment/grading.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Grading of Peer Assignments</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>For ease of grading a Peer Assignment is divided into a number of  
  4
+	assessment &quot;elements&quot;. Each element covers
  5
+	a particular aspect of the assignment. For each element you should
  6
+<OL>
  7
+<LI>Enter a Grade by clicking in the appropriate button or selecting an appropriate
  8
+	number from the drop down menu.
  9
+	
  10
+<LI>Enter an explaination of why you gave that grade in the Feedback box. If
  11
+	you feel that the reason is obvious then leave the box empty. Note, however,
  12
+	that the person whose work you are asessing has the opportunity to get back 
  13
+	to you and may well query a grade if there is no explaination.
  14
+</OL>
  15
+
  16
+<P>The last box on this form allows you to make a general comment on the 
  17
+	work. This should justify your assessment. It should be polite and as far as
  18
+	possible constructive.
  19
+
  20
+<P>Note that not all the assessment elements may be counted equally. The
  21
+	higher their &QUOT;Weight&quot; the higher they count when calculating 
  22
+	the overall grade. 
  23
+
  24
+<P>You may find that once you have assessed several pieces of work, you want
  25
+	to re-assess one or two of them. This is allowed and, indeed, this is good idea as
  26
+	it will give your asessments a greater consistency.
  27
+
  28
+</P>
25  lang/de/help/pgassignment/gradingcomments.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Grading the Peer Comments</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>This screen is used to enter the teacher's grades for the comments made
  4
+	by the students during the peer grading phase of the assignment. A relatively
  5
+	simple grading is used, the score out of 20. The treacher can decide what is
  6
+	being graded and the relative scores from the instructions given to the students
  7
+	before the peer grading started. For example, at a higher level the students may be
  8
+	required to give critical comments, at an intermediate level the students may be
  9
+	required to point out strengths and weaknesses, and at a lower level the students 
  10
+	may be simply pointing out errors and inaccuracies.
  11
+	
  12
+<P>The comments are grouped together by submission, that is each set of 
  13
+	comments refers to the same piece of work. If available the teacher's own 
  14
+	comments are shown first as a kind of benchmark.
  15
+
  16
+<P>Note that this screen can be used iteratively and there is no need to grade all
  17
+	the comments in one go. Indeed it may be desirable to regrade some of the
  18
+	comments once the &quot;standard&quot; of the comments has been established.
  19
+	
  20
+<P>The grades of comments that have been scored are
  21
+	saved by clicking on the apprpriate button at the foot of the page. Once the
  22
+	teacher is happy with all the comment grades the next step is to calculate
  23
+	the Final Grades.
  24
+	
  25
+</P>
13  lang/de/help/pgassignment/includeself.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Including Self in the Assignment</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment can optionally include the student's own work
  4
+	in the set of pieces each student is asked to grade. This will mean that if, say, the
  5
+	number of peer assessors is 5, then each student will be asked to grade 6 
  6
+	pieces of work, one of them being their own work.
  7
+	
  8
+<P>If the number of peer assessors is set to zero and the include self option
  9
+	is turned on then the assignment becomes a self-graded assignment. This
  10
+	may or may not include the teacher's grading depending on whether that
  11
+	option is set or not.
  12
+	
  13
+</P>
39  lang/de/help/pgassignment/managing.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Managing a Peer Graded Assignment</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A Peer Graded Assignment is more complex than an ordinary assignment.
  4
+	It involves a number of steps or phases. These are
  5
+<OL>
  6
+<LI>The assessment of a peer assignment should be broken into a number
  7
+	of assessment ELEMENTS. This makes the grading of an assignment less
  8
+	arbitary and gives the students a framework on which to make assessments. 
  9
+	The teacher has the role of setting up the assessment elements thus making a
  10
+	grading page. (See that page for more details.)
  11
+	
  12
+<LI>With the grading page set up the assignment is made available to students.
  13
+	There is a submission deadline for the work done by the students. During this
  14
+	phase the teacher can, if desired, grade some or all of the submissions. The 
  15
+	grading need not be final, the grades are used as a guide in the next phase...
  16
+
  17
+<LI>After the submission deadline has passed, the teacher moves the assignment
  18
+	to the peer grading phase. First each student is allocated a random selection 
  19
+	of the submitted pieces of work. If there is a sufficient number of <b>graded</b> 
  20
+	submissions, the system ensures that each student is allocated at least one 
  21
+	&quot;good&quot; piece of work and at least one &quot;poor&quot; piece of work.
  22
+	Each student now has a number of pieces of work to grade. This must be done
  23
+	within the &quot;Grading&quot; deadline. A student can comment on these
  24
+	assessments (made by other students) of their own peice of work and they 
  25
+	can go back for re-grading if the student is not happy with some aspect. 
  26
+	That loop continues until either the student is happy with the amended 
  27
+	assessment, the deadline for grading is reached or the teacher intervenes 
  28
+	in the process.
  29
+	
  30
+<LI>After the grading deadline has passed the teacher must grade the comments
  31
+	made by the students on submissions. This is a single grade score. Once the
  32
+	comments has be graded the teacher can calculate the final grades of the students.
  33
+	These final grades are normally made up of three components, teacher's grade,
  34
+	mean peer grade and grading performance. The later is mainly the mean score 
  35
+	entered by the teacher against a student's comments. This three components are
  36
+	first weighted before the calculation takes place.
  37
+</OL>
  38
+
  39
+</P>
30  lang/de/help/pgassignment/numberofassessors.html
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Number of Peer Assessors</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment will normally have around 3 to 8 peer
  4
+	assessors. That is, in the peer grading phase, each student will be 
  5
+	asked to grade this number of pieces of work from the other students 
  6
+	in the class. The larger the assignment is, in terms of content, the 
  7
+	smaller this number should be, else the grading burden on the 
  8
+	students becomes onerous. However, each student should see sufficient
  9
+	examples to gain an insight into what constitutes a good piece of work 
  10
+	and a poor piece of work. Further for the grading performance of a
  11
+	student to be assessed meaningfully the greater the number of peer 
  12
+	gradings the better. This performance is unlikely to be valid if only three 
  13
+	or four gradings are done by each student.
  14
+	
  15
+<P>Provided there is enough pieces of work submitted (actually 10 or 
  16
+	more), the system will allocate each student at least one &quot;good&quot; and
  17
+	at least one &quot;poor&quot; piece of work. However, this can only be done if the
  18
+	teacher has graded the pieces of work BEORE the allocation of (peer) grading
  19
+	work is done. The teacher does NOT, however, have to grade all the 
  20
+	pieces of work, a sample is sufficient. Further, the teacher's gradings need 
  21
+	NOT be the final gradings, a preliminary grading is good enough. Note,
  22
+	however, that if the option to show teacher's gradings is turned on,
  23
+	these gradings will be shown to the students at the end of the submission
  24
+	phase.
  25
+	
  26
+<P>The number of peer assesors can be zero. In which case the assignment 
  27
+	becomes either a self-graded assignment if that option is turned on, or
  28
+	a normal teacher-graded assignment.
  29
+	
  30
+</P>
15  lang/de/help/pgassignment/resubmit.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Resubmitting assignments</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>By default, students cannot resubmit assignments once the teacher has graded them</P>
  4
+
  5
+<P>If you turn this option on, then students will be allowed to resubmit assignments
  6
+   after they have been graded (for you to re-grade).  This may be useful if the 
  7
+   teacher wants to encourage students to do better work in an iterative process.</P>
  8
+
  9
+<P>Obviously, this option is only relevant during the submission phase of a peer graded
  10
+	assignment. During the peer grading phase the grading is always done iteratively, the student
  11
+	whose work is being graded has the opportunity to disagree with the set of 
  12
+	comments (and possibly grades) on their work and send a reply back to the student 
  13
+	doing the grading. This process continues until agreement is reached...
  14
+	
  15
+</P>
22  lang/de/help/pgassignment/showinggrades.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>When to display Grades</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment can have either of these characteristics:
  4
+
  5
+<OL>
  6
+<LI>In the peer grading phase the students see the feedback on the
  7
+	assessment elements, the general comment and the grades given 
  8
+	by the other students. The students are shown both the individual
  9
+	assessment element grades and their overall grade. This may lead 
  10
+	into more disputes than the second type of peer graded assignment...
  11
+	
  12
+<LI>In the peer grading phase the students see only the feadback on the
  13
+	assessment elements and the general comment made by
  14
+	the other students. The grades for the individual assessment elements are
  15
+	not revealed (although they are held in the system). Further, the students 
  16
+	do not see their overall grades as given by their peers. Only when the 
  17
+	comments have been agreed are the grades (and the overall grade) 
  18
+	shown. This type of peer graded assignment is likely to be less 
  19
+	contentious than the first type.
  20
+</OL>
  21
+
  22
+</P>
14  lang/de/help/pgassignment/specimen.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Specimen Grading Form</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>This page shows shows the details of the actual form used to grade
  4
+	your assignment. It will be used by the teacher to grade your work. Further,
  5
+	in a peer graded asignment, the same form will be used by yourself and
  6
+	your fellow students to grade the submitted pieces of work.
  7
+
  8
+<P>Please note that although you can change the grades and add text on 
  9
+	this form these changes are NOT saved. This is simply a specimen form, 
  10
+	but a very similar form will be used by the teacher and by you during this 
  11
+	assignment. 	
  12
+
  13
+	
  14
+</P>
13  lang/de/help/pgassignment/teachersgradings.html
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  1
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Display of Teacher's Grades</B></P>
  2
+
  3
+<P>A peer graded assignment can optionally make the teacher's comments 
  4
+	and grades available to the student's. If desired, these are shown after the
  5
+	submission deadline, or later if the grades are not available then. The teacher's
  6
+	comments and grades may well help the students when making their own
  7
+	(peer) assessments on other student's work.
  8
+	
  9
+<P>Note that even when the peer grading is done anonymously,  the 
  10
+	teacher's grades are always shown to the students with the teacher's 
  11
+	name and, if available, their photo.
  12
+	
  13
+</P>

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