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\documentclass[b5paper]{book}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{makeidx}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{color}
\usepackage{alltt}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{layout}
\def\union{\cup}
\def\intersect{\cap}
\def\getsrandom{\stackrel{\rm R}{\gets}}
\def\cross{\times}
\def\cat{\hspace{0.5em} \| \hspace{0.5em}}
\def\catn{$\|$}
\def\divides{\hspace{0.3em} | \hspace{0.3em}}
\def\nequiv{\not\equiv}
\def\approx{\raisebox{0.2ex}{\mbox{\small $\sim$}}}
\def\lcm{{\rm lcm}}
\def\gcd{{\rm gcd}}
\def\log{{\rm log}}
\def\ord{{\rm ord}}
\def\abs{{\mathit abs}}
\def\rep{{\mathit rep}}
\def\mod{{\mathit\ mod\ }}
\renewcommand{\pmod}[1]{\ ({\rm mod\ }{#1})}
\newcommand{\floor}[1]{\left\lfloor{#1}\right\rfloor}
\newcommand{\ceil}[1]{\left\lceil{#1}\right\rceil}
\def\Or{{\rm\ or\ }}
\def\And{{\rm\ and\ }}
\def\iff{\hspace{1em}\Longleftrightarrow\hspace{1em}}
\def\implies{\Rightarrow}
\def\undefined{{\rm ``undefined"}}
\def\Proof{\vspace{1ex}\noindent {\bf Proof:}\hspace{1em}}
\let\oldphi\phi
\def\phi{\varphi}
\def\Pr{{\rm Pr}}
\newcommand{\str}[1]{{\mathbf{#1}}}
\def\F{{\mathbb F}}
\def\N{{\mathbb N}}
\def\Z{{\mathbb Z}}
\def\R{{\mathbb R}}
\def\C{{\mathbb C}}
\def\Q{{\mathbb Q}}
\definecolor{DGray}{gray}{0.5}
\newcommand{\emailaddr}[1]{\mbox{$<${#1}$>$}}
\def\twiddle{\raisebox{0.3ex}{\mbox{\tiny $\sim$}}}
\def\gap{\vspace{0.5ex}}
\makeindex
\begin{document}
\frontmatter
\pagestyle{empty}
\title{LibTomMath User Manual \\ v0.28}
\author{Tom St Denis \\ tomstdenis@iahu.ca}
\maketitle
This text, the library and the accompanying textbook are all hereby placed in the public domain. This book has been
formatted for B5 [176x250] paper using the \LaTeX{} {\em book} macro package.
\vspace{10cm}
\begin{flushright}Open Source. Open Academia. Open Minds.
\mbox{ }
Tom St Denis,
Ontario, Canada
\end{flushright}
\tableofcontents
\listoffigures
\mainmatter
\pagestyle{headings}
\chapter{Introduction}
\section{What is LibTomMath?}
LibTomMath is a library of source code which provides a series of efficient and carefully written functions for manipulating
large integer numbers. It was written in portable ISO C source code so that it will build on any platform with a conforming
C compiler.
In a nutshell the library was written from scratch with verbose comments to help instruct computer science students how
to implement ``bignum'' math. However, the resulting code has proven to be very useful. It has been used by numerous
universities, commercial and open source software developers. It has been used on a variety of platforms ranging from
Linux and Windows based x86 to ARM based Gameboys and PPC based MacOS machines.
\section{License}
As of the v0.25 the library source code has been placed in the public domain with every new release. As of the v0.28
release the textbook ``Implementing Multiple Precision Arithmetic'' has been placed in the public domain with every new
release as well. This textbook is meant to compliment the project by providing a more solid walkthrough of the development
algorithms used in the library.
Since both\footnote{Note that the MPI files under mtest/ are copyrighted by Michael Fromberger.} are in the
public domain everyone is entitled to do with them as they see fit.
\section{Building LibTomMath}
LibTomMath is meant to be very ``GCC friendly'' as it comes with a makefile well suited for GCC. However, the library will
also build in MSVC, Borland C out of the box. For any other ISO C compiler a makefile will have to be made by the end
developer.
To build the library for GCC simply issue the
\begin{alltt}
make
\end{alltt}
command. This will build the library and archive the object files in ``libtommath.a''. Now you simply link against that
and include ``tommath.h'' within your programs.
Alternatively to build with MSVC type
\begin{alltt}
nmake -f makefile.msvc
\end{alltt}
This will build the library and archive the object files in ``tommath.lib''. This has been tested with MSVC version 6.00
with service pack 5.
Tbere is limited support for making a ``DLL'' in windows via the ``makefile.cygwin\_dll'' makefile. It requires Cygwin
to work with since it requires the auto-export/import functionality. The resulting DLL and imprt library ``libtomcrypt.dll.a''
can be used to link LibTomMath dynamically to any Windows program using Cygwin.
\subsection{Testing}
To build the library and the test harness type
\begin{alltt}
make test
\end{alltt}
This will build the library, ``test'' and ``mtest/mtest''. The ``test'' program will accept test vectors and verify the
results. ``mtest/mtest'' will generate test vectors using the MPI library by Michael Fromberger\footnote{A copy of MPI
is included in the package}. Simply pipe mtest into test using
\begin{alltt}
mtest/mtest | test
\end{alltt}
If you do not have a ``/dev/urandom'' style RNG source you will have to write your own PRNG and simply pipe that into
mtest. For example, if your PRNG program is called ``myprng'' simply invoke
\begin{alltt}
myprng | mtest/mtest | test
\end{alltt}
This will output a row of numbers that are increasing. Each column is a different test (such as addition, multiplication, etc)
that is being performed. The numbers represent how many times the test was invoked. If an error is detected the program
will exit with a dump of the relevent numbers it was working with.
\section{Purpose of LibTomMath}
Unlike GNU MP (GMP) Library, LIP, OpenSSL or various other commercial kits (Miracl), LibTomMath was not written with
bleeding edge performance in mind. First and foremost LibTomMath was written to be entirely open. Not only is the
source code public domain (unlike various other GPL/etc licensed code), not only is the code freely downloadable but the
source code is also accessible for computer science students attempting to learn ``BigNum'' or multiple precision
arithmetic techniques.
LibTomMath was written to be an instructive collection of source code. This is why there are many comments, only one
function per source file and often I use a ``middle-road'' approach where I don't cut corners for an extra 2\% speed
increase.
Source code alone cannot really teach how the algorithms work which is why I also wrote a textbook that accompanies
the library (beat that!).
So you may be thinking ``should I use LibTomMath?'' and the answer is a definite maybe. Let me tabulate what I think
are the pros and cons of LibTomMath by comparing it to the math routines from GnuPG\footnote{GnuPG v1.2.3 versus LibTomMath v0.28}.
\newpage\begin{figure}[here]
\begin{small}
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|l|}
\hline \textbf{Criteria} & \textbf{Pro} & \textbf{Con} & \textbf{Notes} \\
\hline Few lines of code per file & X & & GnuPG $ = 300.9$, LibTomMath $ = 76.04$ \\
\hline Commented function prototypes & X && GnuPG function names are cryptic. \\
\hline Speed && X & LibTomMath is slower. \\
\hline Totally free & X & & GPL has unfavourable restrictions.\\
\hline Large function base & X & & GnuPG is barebones. \\
\hline Four modular reduction algorithms & X & & Faster modular exponentiation. \\
\hline Portable & X & & GnuPG requires configuration to build. \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\end{small}
\caption{LibTomMath Valuation}
\end{figure}
It may seem odd to compare LibTomMath to GnuPG since the math in GnuPG is only a small portion of the entire application.
However, LibTomMath was written with cryptography in mind. It provides essentially all of the functions a cryptosystem
would require when working with large integers.
So it may feel tempting to just rip the math code out of GnuPG (or GnuMP where it was taken from originally) in your
own application but I think there are reasons not to. While LibTomMath is slower than libraries such as GnuMP it is
not normally significantly slower. On x86 machines the difference is normally a factor of two when performing modular
exponentiations.
Essentially the only time you wouldn't use LibTomMath is when blazing speed is the primary concern.
\chapter{Getting Started with LibTomMath}
\section{Building Programs}
In order to use LibTomMath you must include ``tommath.h'' and link against the appropriate library file (typically
libtommath.a). There is no library initialization required and the entire library is thread safe.
\section{Return Codes}
There are three possible return codes a function may return.
\index{MP\_OKAY}\index{MP\_YES}\index{MP\_NO}\index{MP\_VAL}\index{MP\_MEM}
\begin{figure}[here!]
\begin{center}
\begin{small}
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}
\hline \textbf{Code} & \textbf{Meaning} \\
\hline MP\_OKAY & The function succeeded. \\
\hline MP\_VAL & The function input was invalid. \\
\hline MP\_MEM & Heap memory exhausted. \\
\hline &\\
\hline MP\_YES & Response is yes. \\
\hline MP\_NO & Response is no. \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{small}
\end{center}
\caption{Return Codes}
\end{figure}
The last two codes listed are not actually ``return'ed'' by a function. They are placed in an integer (the caller must
provide the address of an integer it can store to) which the caller can access. To convert one of the three return codes
to a string use the following function.
\index{mp\_error\_to\_string}
\begin{alltt}
char *mp_error_to_string(int code);
\end{alltt}
This will return a pointer to a string which describes the given error code. It will not work for the return codes
MP\_YES and MP\_NO.
\section{Data Types}
The basic ``multiple precision integer'' type is known as the ``mp\_int'' within LibTomMath. This data type is used to
organize all of the data required to manipulate the integer it represents. Within LibTomMath it has been prototyped
as the following.
\index{mp\_int}
\begin{alltt}
typedef struct \{
int used, alloc, sign;
mp_digit *dp;
\} mp_int;
\end{alltt}
Where ``mp\_digit'' is a data type that represents individual digits of the integer. By default, an mp\_digit is the
ISO C ``unsigned long'' data type and each digit is $28-$bits long. The mp\_digit type can be configured to suit other
platforms by defining the appropriate macros.
All LTM functions that use the mp\_int type will expect a pointer to mp\_int structure. You must allocate memory to
hold the structure itself by yourself (whether off stack or heap it doesn't matter). The very first thing that must be
done to use an mp\_int is that it must be initialized.
\section{Function Organization}
The arithmetic functions of the library are all organized to have the same style prototype. That is source operands
are passed on the left and the destination is on the right. For instance,
\begin{alltt}
mp_add(&a, &b, &c); /* c = a + b */
mp_mul(&a, &a, &c); /* c = a * a */
mp_div(&a, &b, &c, &d); /* c = [a/b], d = a mod b */
\end{alltt}
Another feature of the way the functions have been implemented is that source operands can be destination operands as well.
For instance,
\begin{alltt}
mp_add(&a, &b, &b); /* b = a + b */
mp_div(&a, &b, &a, &c); /* a = [a/b], c = a mod b */
\end{alltt}
This allows operands to be re-used which can make programming simpler.
\section{Initialization}
\subsection{Single Initialization}
A single mp\_int can be initialized with the ``mp\_init'' function.
\index{mp\_init}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_init (mp_int * a);
\end{alltt}
This function expects a pointer to an mp\_int structure and will initialize the members of the structure so the mp\_int
represents the default integer which is zero. If the functions returns MP\_OKAY then the mp\_int is ready to be used
by the other LibTomMath functions.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number */
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\subsection{Single Free}
When you are finished with an mp\_int it is ideal to return the heap it used back to the system. The following function
provides this functionality.
\index{mp\_clear}
\begin{alltt}
void mp_clear (mp_int * a);
\end{alltt}
The function expects a pointer to a previously initialized mp\_int structure and frees the heap it uses. It sets the
pointer\footnote{The ``dp'' member.} within the mp\_int to \textbf{NULL} which is used to prevent double free situations.
Is is legal to call mp\_clear() twice on the same mp\_int in a row.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number */
/* We're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\subsection{Multiple Initializations}
Certain algorithms require more than one large integer. In these instances it is ideal to initialize all of the mp\_int
variables in an ``all or nothing'' fashion. That is, they are either all initialized successfully or they are all
not initialized.
The mp\_init\_multi() function provides this functionality.
\index{mp\_init\_multi} \index{mp\_clear\_multi}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_init_multi(mp_int *mp, ...);
\end{alltt}
It accepts a \textbf{NULL} terminated list of pointers to mp\_int structures. It will attempt to initialize them all
at once. If the function returns MP\_OKAY then all of the mp\_int variables are ready to use, otherwise none of them
are available for use. A complementary mp\_clear\_multi() function allows multiple mp\_int variables to be free'd
from the heap at the same time.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int num1, num2, num3;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init_multi(&num1,
&num2,
&num3, NULL)) != MP\_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the numbers. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the numbers */
/* We're done with them. */
mp_clear_multi(&num1, &num2, &num3, NULL);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\subsection{Other Initializers}
To initialized and make a copy of an mp\_int the mp\_init\_copy() function has been provided.
\index{mp\_init\_copy}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_init_copy (mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
This function will initialize ``a'' and make it a copy of ``b'' if all goes well.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int num1, num2;
int result;
/* initialize and do work on num1 ... */
/* We want a copy of num1 in num2 now */
if ((result = mp_init_copy(&num2, &num1)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the copy. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* now num2 is ready and contains a copy of num1 */
/* We're done with them. */
mp_clear_multi(&num1, &num2, NULL);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
Another less common initializer is mp\_init\_size() which allows the user to initialize an mp\_int with a given
default number of digits. By default, all initializers allocate \textbf{MP\_PREC} digits. This function lets
you override this behaviour.
\index{mp\_init\_size}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_init_size (mp_int * a, int size);
\end{alltt}
The ``size'' parameter must be greater than zero. If the function succeeds the mp\_int ``a'' will be initialized
to have ``size'' digits (which are all initially zero).
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
/* we need a 60-digit number */
if ((result = mp_init_size(&number, 60)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number */
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\section{Maintenance Functions}
\subsection{Reducing Memory Usage}
When an mp\_int is in a state where it won't be changed again\footnote{A Diffie-Hellman modulus for instance.} excess
digits can be removed to return memory to the heap with the mp\_shrink() function.
\index{mp\_shrink}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_shrink (mp_int * a);
\end{alltt}
This will remove excess digits of the mp\_int ``a''. If the operation fails the mp\_int should be intact without the
excess digits being removed. Note that you can use a shrunk mp\_int in further computations, however, such operations
will require heap operations which can be slow. It is not ideal to shrink mp\_int variables that you will further
modify in the system (unless you are seriously low on memory).
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number [e.g. pre-computation] */
/* We're done with it for now. */
if ((result = mp_shrink(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error shrinking the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use it .... */
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\subsection{Adding additional digits}
Within the mp\_int structure are two parameters which control the limitations of the array of digits that represent
the integer the mp\_int is meant to equal. The \textit{used} parameter dictates how many digits are significant, that is,
contribute to the value of the mp\_int. The \textit{alloc} parameter dictates how many digits are currently available in
the array. If you need to perform an operation that requires more digits you will have to mp\_grow() the mp\_int to
your desired size.
\index{mp\_grow}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_grow (mp_int * a, int size);
\end{alltt}
This will grow the array of digits of ``a'' to ``size''. If the \textit{alloc} parameter is already bigger than
``size'' the function will not do anything.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number */
/* We need to add 20 digits to the number */
if ((result = mp_grow(&number, number.alloc + 20)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error growing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* use the number */
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\chapter{Basic Operations}
\section{Small Constants}
Setting mp\_ints to small constants is a relatively common operation. To accomodate these instances there are two
small constant assignment functions. The first function is used to set a single digit constant while the second sets
an ISO C style ``unsigned long'' constant. The reason for both functions is efficiency. Setting a single digit is quick but the
domain of a digit can change (it's always at least $0 \ldots 127$).
\subsection{Single Digit}
Setting a single digit can be accomplished with the following function.
\index{mp\_set}
\begin{alltt}
void mp_set (mp_int * a, mp_digit b);
\end{alltt}
This will zero the contents of ``a'' and make it represent an integer equal to the value of ``b''. Note that this
function has a return type of \textbf{void}. It cannot cause an error so it is safe to assume the function
succeeded.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number to 5 */
mp_set(&number, 5);
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\subsection{Long Constant}
When you want to set a constant that is the size of an ISO C ``unsigned long'' and larger than a single
digit the following function is provided.
\index{mp\_set\_int}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_set_int (mp_int * a, unsigned long b);
\end{alltt}
This will assign the value of the 32-bit variable ``b'' to the mp\_int ``a''. Unlike mp\_set() this function will always
accept a 32-bit input regardless of the size of a single digit. However, since the value may span several digits
this function can fail if it runs out of heap memory.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number to 654321 (note this is bigger than 127) */
if ((result = mp_set_int(&number, 654321)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error setting the value of the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
\section{Comparisons}
Comparisons in LibTomMath are always performed in a ``left to right'' fashion. There are three possible return codes
for any comparison.
\index{MP\_GT} \index{MP\_EQ} \index{MP\_LT}
\begin{figure}[here]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|}
\hline \textbf{Result Code} & \textbf{Meaning} \\
\hline MP\_GT & $a > b$ \\
\hline MP\_EQ & $a = b$ \\
\hline MP\_LT & $a < b$ \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\caption{Comparison Codes for $a, b$}
\label{fig:CMP}
\end{figure}
In figure \ref{fig:CMP} two integers $a$ and $b$ are being compared. In this case $a$ is said to be ``to the left'' of
$b$.
\subsection{Unsigned comparison}
An unsigned comparison considers only the digits themselves and not the associated \textit{sign} flag of the
mp\_int structures. This is analogous to an absolute comparison. The function mp\_cmp\_mag() will compare two
mp\_int variables based on their digits only.
\index{mp\_cmp\_mag}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_cmp(mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
This will compare ``a'' to ``b'' placing ``a'' to the left of ``b''. This function cannot fail and will return one of the
three compare codes listed in figure \ref{fig:CMP}.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number1, number2;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init_multi(&number1, &number2, NULL)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the numbers. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number1 to 5 */
mp_set(&number1, 5);
/* set the number2 to -6 */
mp_set(&number2, 6);
if ((result = mp_neg(&number2, &number2)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error negating number2. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
switch(mp_cmp_mag(&number1, &number2)) \{
case MP_GT: printf("|number1| > |number2|"); break;
case MP_EQ: printf("|number1| = |number2|"); break;
case MP_LT: printf("|number1| < |number2|"); break;
\}
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear_multi(&number1, &number2, NULL);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
If this program\footnote{This function uses the mp\_neg() function which is discussed in section \ref{sec:NEG}.} completes
successfully it should print the following.
\begin{alltt}
|number1| < |number2|
\end{alltt}
This is because $\vert -6 \vert = 6$ and obviously $5 < 6$.
\subsection{Signed comparison}
To compare two mp\_int variables based on their signed value the mp\_cmp() function is provided.
\index{mp\_cmp}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_cmp(mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
This will compare ``a'' to the left of ``b''. It will first compare the signs of the two mp\_int variables. If they
differ it will return immediately based on their signs. If the signs are equal then it will compare the digits
individually. This function will return one of the compare conditions codes listed in figure \ref{fig:CMP}.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number1, number2;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init_multi(&number1, &number2, NULL)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the numbers. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number1 to 5 */
mp_set(&number1, 5);
/* set the number2 to -6 */
mp_set(&number2, 6);
if ((result = mp_neg(&number2, &number2)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error negating number2. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
switch(mp_cmp(&number1, &number2)) \{
case MP_GT: printf("number1 > number2"); break;
case MP_EQ: printf("number1 = number2"); break;
case MP_LT: printf("number1 < number2"); break;
\}
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear_multi(&number1, &number2, NULL);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
If this program\footnote{This function uses the mp\_neg() function which is discussed in section \ref{sec:NEG}.} completes
successfully it should print the following.
\begin{alltt}
number1 > number2
\end{alltt}
\subsection{Single Digit}
To compare a single digit against an mp\_int the following function has been provided.
\index{mp\_cmp\_d}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_cmp_d(mp_int * a, mp_digit b);
\end{alltt}
This will compare ``a'' to the left of ``b'' using a signed comparison. Note that it will always treat ``b'' as
positive. This function is rather handy when you have to compare against small values such as $1$ (which often
comes up in cryptography). The function cannot fail and will return one of the tree compare condition codes
listed in figure \ref{fig:CMP}.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number to 5 */
mp_set(&number, 5);
switch(mp_cmp_d(&number, 7)) \{
case MP_GT: printf("number > 7"); break;
case MP_EQ: printf("number = 7"); break;
case MP_LT: printf("number < 7"); break;
\}
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
If this program functions properly it will print out the following.
\begin{alltt}
number < 7
\end{alltt}
\section{Logical Operations}
Logical operations are operations that can be performed either with simple shifts or boolean operators such as
AND, XOR and OR directly. These operations are very quick.
\subsection{Multiplication by two}
Multiplications and divisions by any power of two can be performed with quick logical shifts either left or
right depending on the operation.
When multiplying or dividing by two a special case routine can be used which are as follows.
\index{mp\_mul\_2} \index{mp\_div\_2}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_mul_2(mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
int mp_div_2(mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
The former will assign twice ``a'' to ``b'' while the latter will assign half ``a'' to ``b''. These functions are fast
since the shift counts and maskes are hardcoded into the routines.
\begin{small} \begin{alltt}
int main(void)
\{
mp_int number;
int result;
if ((result = mp_init(&number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error initializing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
/* set the number to 5 */
mp_set(&number, 5);
/* multiply by two */
if ((result = mp\_mul\_2(&number, &number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error multiplying the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
switch(mp_cmp_d(&number, 7)) \{
case MP_GT: printf("2*number > 7"); break;
case MP_EQ: printf("2*number = 7"); break;
case MP_LT: printf("2*number < 7"); break;
\}
/* now divide by two */
if ((result = mp\_div\_2(&number, &number)) != MP_OKAY) \{
printf("Error dividing the number. \%s",
mp_error_to_string(result));
return EXIT_FAILURE;
\}
switch(mp_cmp_d(&number, 7)) \{
case MP_GT: printf("2*number/2 > 7"); break;
case MP_EQ: printf("2*number/2 = 7"); break;
case MP_LT: printf("2*number/2 < 7"); break;
\}
/* we're done with it. */
mp_clear(&number);
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
\}
\end{alltt} \end{small}
If this program is successful it will print out the following text.
\begin{alltt}
2*number > 7
2*number/2 < 7
\end{alltt}
Since $10 > 7$ and $5 < 7$. To multiply by a power of two the following function can be used.
\index{mp\_mul\_2d}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_mul_2d(mp_int * a, int b, mp_int * c);
\end{alltt}
This will multiply ``a'' by $2^b$ and store the result in ``c''. If the value of $b$ is less than or equal to
zero the function will copy ``a'' to ``c'' without performing any further actions.
To divide by a power of two use the following.
\index{mp\_div\_2d}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_div_2d (mp_int * a, int b, mp_int * c, mp_int * d);
\end{alltt}
Which will divide ``a'' by $2^b$, store the quotient in ``c'' and the remainder in ``d'. If $b \le 0$ then the
function simply copies ``a'' over to ``c'' and zeroes ``d''. The variable ``d'' may be passed as a \textbf{NULL}
value to signal that the remainder is not desired.
\subsection{Polynomial Basis Operations}
Strictly speaking the organization of the integers within the mp\_int structures is what is known as a
``polynomial basis''. This simply means a field element is stored by divisions of a radix. For example, if
$f(x) = \sum_{i=0}^{k} y_ix^k$ for any vector $\vec y$ then the array of digits in $\vec y$ are said to be
the polynomial basis representation of $z$ if $f(\beta) = z$ for a given radix $\beta$.
To multiply by the polynomial $g(x) = x$ all you have todo is shift the digits of the basis left one place. The
following function provides this operation.
\index{mp\_lshd}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_lshd (mp_int * a, int b);
\end{alltt}
This will multiply ``a'' in place by $x^b$ which is equivalent to shifting the digits left $b$ places and inserting zeroes
in the least significant digits. Similarly to divide by a power of $x$ the following function is provided.
\index{mp\_rshd}
\begin{alltt}
void mp_rshd (mp_int * a, int b)
\end{alltt}
This will divide ``a'' in place by $x^b$ and discard the remainder. This function cannot fail as it performs the operations
in place and no new digits are required to complete it.
\subsection{AND, OR and XOR Operations}
While AND, OR and XOR operations are not typical ``bignum functions'' they can be useful in several instances. The
three functions are prototyped as follows.
\index{mp\_or} \index{mp\_and} \index{mp\_xor}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_or (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c);
int mp_and (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c);
int mp_xor (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c);
\end{alltt}
Which compute $c = a \odot b$ where $\odot$ is one of OR, AND or XOR.
\section{Addition and Subtraction}
To compute an addition or subtraction the following two functions can be used.
\index{mp\_add} \index{mp\_sub}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_add (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c);
int mp_sub (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
Which perform $c = a \odot b$ where $\odot$ is one of signed addition or subtraction. The operations are fully sign
aware.
\section{Sign Manipulation}
\subsection{Negation}
\label{sec:NEG}
Simple integer negation can be performed with the following.
\index{mp\_neg}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_neg (mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
Which assigns $-b$ to $a$.
\subsection{Absolute}
Simple integer absolutes can be performed with the following.
\index{mp\_neg}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_abs (mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
Which assigns $\vert b \vert$ to $a$.
\chapter{Multiplication and Squaring}
\section{Multiplication}
A full signed integer multiplication can be performed with the following.
\index{mp\_mul}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_mul (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c);
\end{alltt}
Which assigns the full signed product $ab$ to $c$. This function actually breaks into one of four cases which are
specific multiplication routines optimized for given parameters. First there are the Toom-Cook multiplications which
should only be used with very large inputs. This is followed by the Karatsuba multiplications which are for moderate
sized inputs. Then followed by the Comba and baseline multipliers.
Fortunately for the developer you don't really need to know this unless you really want to fine tune the system. mp\_mul()
will determine on its own\footnote{Some tweaking may be required.} what routine to use automatically when it is called.
\section{Squaring}
Since squaring can be performed faster than multiplication it is performed it's own function instead of just using
mp\_mul().
\index{mp\_sqr}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_sqr (mp_int * a, mp_int * b);
\end{alltt}
Will square ``a'' and store it in ``b''. Like the case of multiplication there are four different squaring
algorithms all which can be called from mp\_sqr().
\section{Tuning Polynomial Basis Routines}
Both Toom-Cook and Karatsuba multiplication algorithms are faster than the traditional $O(n^2)$ approach that
the Comba and baseline algorithms use. At $O(n^{1.464973})$ and $O(n^{1.584962})$ running times respectfully they require
considerably less work. For example, a 10000-digit multiplication would take roughly 724,000 single precision
multiplications with Toom-Cook or 100,000,000 single precision multiplications with the standard Comba (a factor
of 138).
So why not always use Karatsuba or Toom-Cook? The simple answer is that they have so much overhead that they're not
actually faster than Comba until you hit distinct ``cutoff'' points. For Karatsuba with the default configuration,
GCC 3.3.1 and an Athlon XP processor the cutoff point is roughly 110 digits (about 70 for the Intel P4). That is, at
110 digits Karatsuba and Comba multiplications just about break even and for 110+ digits Karatsuba is faster.
Toom-Cook has incredible overhead and is probably only useful for very large inputs. So far no known cutoff points
exist and for the most part I just set the cutoff points very high to make sure they're not called.
A demo program in the ``etc/'' directory of the project called ``tune.c'' can be used to find the cutoff points. This
can be built with GCC as follows
\begin{alltt}
make XXX
\end{alltt}
Where ``XXX'' is one of the following entries from the table \ref{fig:tuning}.
\begin{figure}[here]
\begin{center}
\begin{small}
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}
\hline \textbf{Value of XXX} & \textbf{Meaning} \\
\hline tune & Builds portable tuning application \\
\hline tune86 & Builds x86 (pentium and up) program for COFF \\
\hline tune86c & Builds x86 program for Cygwin \\
\hline tune86l & Builds x86 program for Linux (ELF format) \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{small}
\end{center}
\caption{Build Names for Tuning Programs}
\label{fig:tuning}
\end{figure}
When the program is running it will output a series of measurements for different cutoff points. It will first find
good Karatsuba squaring and multiplication points. Then it proceeds to find Toom-Cook points. Note that the Toom-Cook
tuning takes a very long time as the cutoff points are likely to be very high.
\chapter{Modular Reduction}
\section{Integer Division and Remainder}
To perform a complete and general integer division with remainder use the following function.
\index{mp\_div}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_div (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c, mp_int * d);
\end{alltt}
This divides ``a'' by ``b'' and stores the quotient in ``c'' and ``d''. The signed quotient is computed such that
$bc + d = a$. Note that either of ``c'' or ``d'' can be set to \textbf{NULL} if their value is not required.
\section{Barrett Reduction}
\section{Montgomery Reduction}
\section{Restricted Dimminished Radix}
\section{Unrestricted Dimminshed Radix}
\chapter{Exponentiation}
\section{Single Digit Exponentiation}
\index{mp\_expt\_d}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_expt_d (mp_int * a, mp_digit b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
This computes $c = a^b$ using a simple binary left-to-write algorithm. It is faster than repeated multiplications for
all values of $b$ greater than three.
\section{Modular Exponentiation}
\index{mp\_exptmod}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_exptmod (mp_int * G, mp_int * X, mp_int * P, mp_int * Y)
\end{alltt}
This computes $Y \equiv G^X \mbox{ (mod }P\mbox{)}$ using a variable width sliding window algorithm. This function
will automatically detect the fastest modular reduction technique to use during the operation. For negative values of
$X$ the operation is performed as $Y \equiv (G^{-1} \mbox{ mod }P)^{\vert X \vert} \mbox{ (mod }P\mbox{)}$ provided that
$gcd(G, P) = 1$.
\section{Root Finding}
\index{mp\_n\_root}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_n_root (mp_int * a, mp_digit b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
This computes $c = a^{1/b}$ such that $c^b \le a$ and $(c+1)^b > a$. The implementation of this function is not
ideal for values of $b$ greater than three. It will work but become very slow. So unless you are working with very small
numbers (less than 1000 bits) I'd avoid $b > 3$ situations. Will return a positive root only for even roots and return
a root with the sign of the input for odd roots. For example, performing $4^{1/2}$ will return $2$ whereas $(-8)^{1/3}$
will return $-2$.
\chapter{Prime Numbers}
\section{Trial Division}
\index{mp\_prime\_is\_divisible}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_is_divisible (mp_int * a, int *result)
\end{alltt}
This will attempt to evenly divide $a$ by a list of primes\footnote{Default is the first 256 primes.} and store the
outcome in ``result''. That is if $result = 0$ then $a$ is not divisible by the primes, otherwise it is. Note that
if the function does not return \textbf{MP\_OKAY} the value in ``result'' should be considered undefined\footnote{Currently
the default is to set it to zero first.}.
\section{Fermat Test}
\index{mp\_prime\_fermat}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_fermat (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, int *result)
\end{alltt}
Performs a Fermat primality test to the base $b$. That is it computes $b^a \mbox{ mod }a$ and tests whether the value is
equal to $b$ or not. If the values are equal then $a$ is probably prime and $result$ is set to one. Otherwise $result$
is set to zero.
\section{Miller-Rabin Test}
\index{mp\_prime\_miller\_rabin}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_miller_rabin (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, int *result)
\end{alltt}
Performs a Miller-Rabin test to the base $b$ of $a$. This test is much stronger than the Fermat test and is very hard to
fool (besides with Carmichael numbers). If $a$ passes the test (therefore is probably prime) $result$ is set to one.
Otherwise $result$ is set to zero.
Note that is suggested that you use the Miller-Rabin test instead of the Fermat test since all of the failures of
Miller-Rabin are a subset of the failures of the Fermat test.
\subsection{Required Number of Tests}
Generally to ensure a number is very likely to be prime you have to perform the Miller-Rabin with at least a half-dozen
or so unique bases. However, it has been proven that the probability of failure goes down as the size of the input goes up.
This is why a simple function has been provided to help out.
\index{mp\_prime\_rabin\_miller\_trials}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_rabin_miller_trials(int size)
\end{alltt}
This returns the number of trials required for a $2^{-96}$ (or lower) probability of failure for a given ``size'' expressed
in bits. This comes in handy specially since larger numbers are slower to test. For example, a 512-bit number would
require ten tests whereas a 1024-bit number would only require four tests.
You should always still perform a trial division before a Miller-Rabin test though.
\section{Primality Testing}
\index{mp\_prime\_is\_prime}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_is_prime (mp_int * a, int t, int *result)
\end{alltt}
This will perform a trial division followed by $t$ rounds of Miller-Rabin tests on $a$ and store the result in $result$.
If $a$ passes all of the tests $result$ is set to one, otherwise it is set to zero. Note that $t$ is bounded by
$1 \le t < PRIME\_SIZE$ where $PRIME\_SIZE$ is the number of primes in the prime number table (by default this is $256$).
\section{Next Prime}
\index{mp\_prime\_next\_prime}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_next_prime(mp_int *a, int t, int bbs_style)
\end{alltt}
This finds the next prime after $a$ that passes mp\_prime\_is\_prime() with $t$ tests. Set $bbs\_style$ to one if you
want only the next prime congruent to $3 \mbox{ mod } 4$, otherwise set it to zero to find any next prime.
\section{Random Primes}
\index{mp\_prime\_random}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_prime_random(mp_int *a, int t, int size, int bbs,
ltm_prime_callback cb, void *dat)
\end{alltt}
This will find a prime greater than $256^{size}$ which can be ``bbs\_style'' or not depending on $bbs$ and must pass
$t$ rounds of tests. The ``ltm\_prime\_callback'' is a typedef for
\begin{alltt}
typedef int ltm_prime_callback(unsigned char *dst, int len, void *dat);
\end{alltt}
Which is a function that must read $len$ bytes (and return the amount stored) into $dst$. The $dat$ variable is simply
copied from the original input. It can be used to pass RNG context data to the callback.
The function mp\_prime\_random() is more suitable for generating primes which must be secret (as in the case of RSA) since
there is no skew on the least significant bits.
\chapter{Input and Output}
\section{ASCII Conversions}
\subsection{To ASCII}
\index{mp\_toradix}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_toradix (mp_int * a, char *str, int radix);
\end{alltt}
This still store ``a'' in ``str'' as a base-``radix'' string of ASCII chars. This function appends a NUL character
to terminate the string. Valid values of ``radix'' line in the range $[2, 64]$. To determine the size (exact) required
by the conversion before storing any data use the following function.
\index{mp\_radix\_size}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_radix_size (mp_int * a, int radix, int *size)
\end{alltt}
This stores in ``size'' the number of characters (including space for the NUL terminator) required. Upon error this
function returns an error code and ``size'' will be zero.
\subsection{From ASCII}
\index{mp\_read\_radix}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_read_radix (mp_int * a, char *str, int radix);
\end{alltt}
This will read the base-``radix'' NUL terminated string from ``str'' into ``a''. It will stop reading when it reads a
character it does not recognize (which happens to include th NUL char... imagine that...). A single leading $-$ sign
can be used to denote a negative number.
\section{Binary Conversions}
\section{Stream Functions}
\chapter{Algebraic Functions}
\section{Extended Euclidean Algorithm}
\index{mp\_exteuclid}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_exteuclid(mp_int *a, mp_int *b,
mp_int *U1, mp_int *U2, mp_int *U3);
\end{alltt}
This finds the triple U1/U2/U3 using the Extended Euclidean algorithm such that the following equation holds.
\begin{equation}
a \cdot U1 + b \cdot U2 = U3
\end{equation}
\section{Greatest Common Divisor}
\index{mp\_gcd}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_gcd (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
This will compute the greatest common divisor of $a$ and $b$ and store it in $c$.
\section{Least Common Multiple}
\index{mp\_lcm}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_lcm (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
This will compute the least common multiple of $a$ and $b$ and store it in $c$.
\section{Jacobi Symbol}
\index{mp\_jacobi}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_jacobi (mp_int * a, mp_int * p, int *c)
\end{alltt}
This will compute the Jacobi symbol for $a$ with respect to $p$. If $p$ is prime this essentially computes the Legendre
symbol. The result is stored in $c$ and can take on one of three values $\lbrace -1, 0, 1 \rbrace$. If $p$ is prime
then the result will be $-1$ when $a$ is not a quadratic residue modulo $p$. The result will be $0$ if $a$ divides $p$
and the result will be $1$ if $a$ is a quadratic residue modulo $p$.
\section{Modular Inverse}
\index{mp\_invmod}
\begin{alltt}
int mp_invmod (mp_int * a, mp_int * b, mp_int * c)
\end{alltt}
Computes the multiplicative inverse of $a$ modulo $b$ and stores the result in $c$ such that $ac \equiv 1 \mbox{ (mod }b\mbox{)}$.
\section{Single Digit Functions}
\input{bn.ind}
\end{document}
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