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README.md

CellTag Workflow

This repository contains our CellTag workflow.

The article can be found here

Here is the link to the GEO DataSet which contains all of the sequencing data we generated.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE99915

The CellTag libraries are available from AddGene here. This link also contains whitelists for each CellTag library as well as sequence information for each library.

The CellTag libraries available at AddGene are labeled CellTag-V1, CellTag-V2, and CellTag-V3. These labels correspond to CellTagMEF, CellTagD3, and CellTagD13 respectively.

From our GEO DataSet we will select one timepoint to use as an example of our CellTag processing and analysis.

We will use data collected from Timecourse 1 at Day 15. The link to the SRA for this sample is here.

In general this workflow is broken up into three sections.

  1. CellTag Extraction and Quantification
  2. The Identification of Clones
  3. Lineage Visualization

We are using the data from Day 15 because we should be able to call clones using each of the CellTag versions (CellTagMEF, CellTagDay3, and CellTagDay13)

You can follow along with this workflow by cloning or downloading this repository and executing the commands, using the appropriate paths for the data you are processing.

The workflow is a combination of bash and r commands, which will be identified with using comments in the code.

1. CellTag Extraction and Quantification

First we will download the BAM file generated by the 10x CellRanger pipeline for this sample.

The link for this BAM file is:

https://sra-download.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/traces/sra65/SRZ/007347/SRR7347033/hf1.d15.possorted_genome_bam.bam

This BAM file contains all of the reads from the Day 15 timepoint.

This command will download the BAM file into your current working directory. This BAM file is nearly 40 GBs so the download could take some time to complete.

#bash
wget https://sra-download.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/traces/sra65/SRZ/007347/SRR7347033/hf1.d15.possorted_genome_bam.bam

Now that we have downloaded the BAM file we can search for any read containing a CellTag motif. First, because the BAM file is binary we need to view the file using a tool such as samtools. We do this by using the samtools view command. The output from this command is then piped into grep. We use grep and a regular expression to search for CellTag containing reads. The reads which contain CellTags are then written to an output file. The CellTag motifs for CellTagMEF, CellTagD3, and CellTagD13 are unique. This allows us to distinguish between CellTags originating from different libraries. The commands below will identify the CellTags for each CellTag version.

We use the *.possorted_genome_bam.bam output file from the 10x CellRanger pipeline, because each read has been tagged with its associated Cell Barcode, UMI, and aligned genes.

#bash
#MEF
samtools view hf1.d15.possorted_genome_bam.bam | grep -P 'GGT[ACTG]{8}GAATTC' > v1.celltag.reads.out

#D3
samtools view hf1.d15.possorted_genome_bam.bam | grep -P 'GTGATG[ACTG]{8}GAATTC' > v2.celltag.reads.out

#D13
samtools view hf1.d15.possorted_genome_bam.bam | grep -P 'TGTACG[ACTG]{8}GAATTC' > v3.celltag.reads.out

With the CellTag reads extracted we use a custom gawk script to parse the file and retain only the information we need. This scripts identifies and extracts the CellTag, Cell Barcode, and UMI sequences associated with each CellTag read. Furthermore, the read ID, read sequence, and any genes the read aligned to are extracted as well. This allows us to accurately quantify each CellTag and associate the CellTags with the correct cells. The output of this script is a tab delimited file with the following collumns: Read.ID, Read.Seq, Cell.BC, UMI, Cell.Tag, Gene. We will use this file to quantify and filter the CellTag data. Note that the regular expression identifying CellTagMEF has two bases added to the beginning. This is a "stricter" CellTag motif which helps filter out some erroneous CellTag reads.

This command calls the script celltag.parse.reads.10x.sh from the script directory and passes two arguments to the script.

  1. The variable tagregex is set using the -v tagregex= option.
  • The tagregex variable is the regular expression which defines the CellTag motif of interest.
  • It is important to surround the [ACTG]{8} with parentheses, as this defines the CellTag sequence as a capture group in the regular expression.
  1. The input file v1.celltag.reads.out.
  • This is the output file from the grep command above.

Finally, the output from this script is written to the file v1.celltag.parsed.tsv

#bash
#MEF
./scripts/celltag.parse.reads.10x.sh -v tagregex="CCGGT([ACTG]{8})GAATTC" v1.celltag.reads.out > v1.celltag.parsed.tsv

#D3
./scripts/celltag.parse.reads.10x.sh -v tagregex="GTGATG([ACTG]{8})GAATTC" v2.celltag.reads.out > v2.celltag.parsed.tsv

#D13
./scripts/celltag.parse.reads.10x.sh -v tagregex="TGTACG([ACTG]{8})GAATTC" v3.celltag.reads.out > v3.celltag.parsed.tsv

Now that the reads have been parsed we can quantify the CellTag for each cell and create a Cell Barcode x CellTag matrix. We accomplish this using a custom R script that can be found in the /scripts/ directory. This script groups CellTags by Cell Barcodes and then counts the number of unique UMIs for each Cell Barcode x CellTag pair. Any Cell Barcodes not present in the filtered 10x CellRanger results are filtered out. This creates a CellTag UMI count matrix which is then used to identify clones.

The command Rscript allows you to run the custom R script matrix.count.celltags.R from the command line. This script requires three arguments:

  1. hf1.d15.barcodes.tsv
  • This is the output for this timepoint from the 10x CellRanger pipeline. The file contains a list of all cell barcodes identified in the filtered dataset.
  1. v1.celltag.parsed.tsv
  • This is the output file from the previous command. It contains the parsed CellTag read data.
  1. hf1.d15.v1
  • This argument is a prefix that will be used to uniquely identify output files from the script.

This step should be run for each CellTag version independently.

#bash

#MEF
Rscript ./scripts/matrix.count.celltags.R ./cell.barcodes/hf1.d15.barcodes.tsv v1.celltag.parsed.tsv hf1.d15.v1

#D3
Rscript ./scripts/matrix.count.celltags.R ./cell.barcodes/hf1.d15.barcodes.tsv v2.celltag.parsed.tsv hf1.d15.v2

#D13
Rscript ./scripts/matrix.count.celltags.R ./cell.barcodes/hf1.d15.barcodes.tsv v3.celltag.parsed.tsv hf1.d15.v3

This process of identifying, extracting, and quantifying CellTag information is very similar to the processing necessary for REAP-Seq, CITE-Seq, and Feature Barcoding data. We are currently working on a more general CellTag processing workflow utilizing the tools available for processing these similar data types.

2. Clone Calling

The remaining analysis, Clone Calling and Lineage Visualiztion, will be performed in R. It is necesarry to perform the clone calling independently for each of the CellTag versions being analyzed.

First, we must load the required R packages and functions used to perform this analysis. The packages are all available through CRAN.

#R
library(igraph)
library(proxy)
library(corrplot)
library(data.table)

source("./scripts/CellTagCloneCalling_Function.R")

Now that the necessary packages are loaded we will load the CellTag matrices for each CellTag version. This is accomplished by reading the .Rds file which is output by the matrix.count.celltags.R script. Once the CellTag matrices are loaded we set the rownames for each matrix to the Cell Barcodes present in the matrix, and then remove the column containing the Cell Barcodes. Now that the data has been formatted correctly we use the SingleCellDataBinarization function to convert the CellTag UMI count matrices into binary matrices.

The SingleCellDataBinarization function take the following arguments:

  1. celltag.dat
  • This is the object containing the CellTag UMI matrix
  1. tag.cutoff
  • This argument filters the CellTags based on their UMI counts. Any Cell Barcode/CellTag pair with a UMI count less than this cutoff will be disregarded.
#R
mef.mat <- as.data.frame(readRDS("./hf1.d15.v1.celltag.matrix.Rds"))

d3.mat <- as.data.frame(readRDS("./hf1.d15.v2.celltag.matrix.Rds"))

d13.mat <- as.data.frame(readRDS("./hf1.d15.v3.celltag.matrix.Rds"))

rownames(mef.mat) <- mef.mat$Cell.BC

rownames(d3.mat) <- d3.mat$Cell.BC

rownames(d13.mat) <- d13.mat$Cell.BC

mef.mat <- mef.mat[,-1]

d3.mat <- d3.mat[,-1]

d13.mat <- d13.mat[,-1]

mef.bin <- SingleCellDataBinarization(celltag.dat = mef.mat, 2)

d3.bin <- SingleCellDataBinarization(celltag.dat = d3.mat, 2)

d13.bin <- SingleCellDataBinarization(celltag.dat = d13.mat, 2)

Now we have a binary CellTag matrix for each CellTag version. We will perform a few filtering steps before we identify clones. First, each CellTag matrix will be filtered based on the CellTag Whitelist for the respective CellTag version. This is done using the SingleCEllDataWhitelist function with the following arguments:

  1. celltag.dat
  • This is the object containing the binary CellTag matrix.
  1. whitels.cell.tag.file
  • This is the csv file which contains the CellTag whitelist for the correct CellTag version.

This filters the CellTag matrix and removes any CellTags which are not present in the CellTag whitelist. The CellTag whitelists were created by sequencing each CellTag library version. Then CellTags which were in the ninetieth percentile of read counts were included in the whitelist. This allows us to determine which CellTags are truly present in the CellTag library. It is then possible to identify CellTag sequences which are the result of PCR and sequencing errors, allowing us to filter or correct the CellTag sequence.

We next filter cells based on their number of expressed CellTags. This is done using the function MetricBasedFilering.

  1. whitelisted.celltag.data
  • This argument is the object which contains the whitelist filtered binary CellTag matrix.
  1. cutoff
  • This is an argument defining the cutoff for the number of CellTags per cell.
  1. comparison
  • This argument determines whether cells with a number of CellTags greater than or less than the cutoff are filtered from the dataset.

These filtering steps are performed individually for each CellTag version dataset.

#R
mef.filt <- SingleCellDataWhitelist(celltag.dat = mef.bin, whitels.cell.tag.file = "whitelist/V1.CellTag.Whitelist.csv")

d3.filt <- SingleCellDataWhitelist(celltag.dat = d3.bin, whitels.cell.tag.file = "whitelist/V2.CellTag.Whitelist.csv")

d13.filt <- SingleCellDataWhitelist(celltag.dat = d13.bin, whitels.cell.tag.file = "whitelist/V3.CellTag.Whitelist.csv")


mef.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = mef.filt, cutoff = 20, comparison = "less")

d3.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = d3.filt, cutoff = 20, comparison = "less")

d13.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = d13.filt, cutoff = 20, comparison = "less")


mef.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = mef.filt, cutoff = 2, comparison = "greater")

d3.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = d3.filt, cutoff = 2, comparison = "greater")

d13.filt <- MetricBasedFiltering(whitelisted.celltag.data = d13.filt, cutoff = 2, comparison = "greater")

Now that the CellTag matrices have been filtered we can call clones! Clones are identified based on the Jaccard similarity of each cells CellTag signature. First, we calculate the Jaccard similarity between each cell, using the JaccardAnalysis function.

  1. whitelisted.celltag.data
  • This is the object containing the filtered binary CellTag matrix.
  1. plot.corr
  • This is an option to plot the pairwise correlation between each cell.
  • This plot assists in visualizing clones.
  • The plot is saved as a pdf in the current working directory.

With the Jaccard similarities between each cell calculated we can now identify clonally related cells and define clones present in the dataset. The clone calling is performed using the function CloneCalling.

  1. Jaccard.Matrix
  • Object containing Jaccard similarities between each cell.
  1. outp.dir
  • Directory to save output files in.
  1. output.filename
  • Filename to use for output file.
  1. correlation.cutoff
  • The minimum Jaccard similarity between clonally related cells.

This function takes the Jaccard similarities and identifies clones of cells with a similarity greater than or equal to the cutoff. The function returns a list of two data frames. One with a list of Cell Barcodes and the clone it belongs to, and the other with a table of the number of cells in each clone.

#R
mef.sim <- JaccardAnalysis(whitelisted.celltag.data = mef.filt, plot.corr = FALSE, id = "mef")

d3.sim <- JaccardAnalysis(whitelisted.celltag.data = d3.filt, plot.corr = FALSE, id = "d3")

d13.sim <- JaccardAnalysis(whitelisted.celltag.data = d13.filt, plot.corr = FALSE, id = "d13")


mef.clones <- CloneCalling(Jaccard.Matrix = mef.sim, output.dir = "./", output.filename = "hf1.d15.v1.clones.csv", correlation.cutoff = 0.7)

d3.clones <- CloneCalling(Jaccard.Matrix = d3.sim, output.dir = "./", output.filename = "hf1.d15.v2.clones.csv", correlation.cutoff = 0.7)

d13.clones <- CloneCalling(Jaccard.Matrix = d13.sim, output.dir = "./", output.filename = "hf1.d15.v3.clones.csv", correlation.cutoff = 0.7)

3. Lineage and Network Visualization

Now that we have identified clonally related cells we can start to visualize the clones. We will first create a network visualization of each individual clone and its descendents. We will also generate stacked bar charts which can be useful to visualize the clonal dynamics over many timepoints.

We have written some functions to facilitate the network visualizations of the clones. First, we need to load the necessary R packages and the functions which facilitate the construction of the clone networks.

#R

library(tidyverse)
library(foreach)
library(networkD3)

source("./scripts/function_source_for_network_visualization.R")
source("./scripts/function_source_for_network_construction.R")

Now that we have loaded the correct packages and functions we will load the clone data. The CloneCalling function we previously used outputs the list of identified clones and the cells which make up the clones. This file is just a csv with a list of every cell and the clone it belongs to. Once the data has been loaded we must make sure it is in the correct format in order to work with the network construction functions. We need to create a data frame with N x 3 dimensions. The columns of the data frame should be named CellTagV1, CellTagV2, and CellTagV3 while the row names should be cell barcodes. The values which fill the data frame are the clones which each cell belongs to based on each CellTag version.

# The called CellTag V1, V2 and V3 will be used to construct Lineage network graph.
# Input Celltag data should be Nx3 matrix. Each row represents cell name (cell barcode) and each column represents Celltag name.
# See the example (./input_data_for_network_construction/)

# load celltag table

mef.clones <- read_csv(file = "hf1.d15.v1.clones.csv")

d3.clones <- read_csv(file = "hf1.d15.v2.clones.csv")
  
d13.clones <- read_csv(file = "hf1.d15.v3.clones.csv")


colnames(mef.clones)[1] <- "CellTagV1"

colnames(d3.clones)[1] <- "CellTagV2"

colnames(d13.clones)[1] <- "CellTagV3"

clone.cells <- unique(c(mef.clones$cell.barcode, d3.clones$cell.barcode, d13.clones$cell.barcode))

celltag_data <- data.frame(clone.cells, row.names = clone.cells)

celltag_data$CellTagV1 <- NA

celltag_data$CellTagV2 <- NA

celltag_data$CellTagV3 <- NA

celltag_data[mef.clones$cell.barcode, "CellTagV1"] <- mef.clones$CellTagV1

celltag_data[d3.clones$cell.barcode, "CellTagV2"] <- d3.clones$CellTagV2

celltag_data[d13.clones$cell.barcode, "CellTagV3"] <- d13.clones$CellTagV3

celltag_data <- celltag_data[, -1]

row.names(celltag_data) <- paste0(rownames(celltag_data), "-1")

Now that we have the data in the correct format we can begin constructing the lineage networks. We will use the function converCellTagMatrix2LinkList

This function takes one argument celltag_data and returns a linked list necessary to create the lineage networks. The input for the function is the CellTag data frame we just created. In order to create the linked list first cells which are in the same clone are combined to construct a subnetwork. These subnetworks are then combined if they originated from the same clone.

colnames(celltag_data) <- c("CellTagV1", "CellTagV2", "CellTagV3")

linkList <- convertCellTagMatrix2LinkList(celltag_data)

Now that we have created a linked list from the CellTag data, we will identify the nodes of the network. To accomplish this we will use the function getNodesfromLinkList this function takes the linkList we just created and returns the nodes for the network. The nodes of this network represent cells.

Nodes <- getNodesfromLinkList(linkList)

We can add additional information about each node in the data set. This could be any meta data about the cells in the data set, such as the cluster a cell belongs to or its stage in the cell cycle. We have a function to facilitate adding this meta data to the lineage network, but the data must be formatted correctly. First, the data frame containing the extra data must include the node or cell the meta data describes as the row names. In order to obtain an accurate list of nodes or cells you can use the row names from the existing celltag_data data frame. The function addData2Nodes can be used to add additional meta data about the nodes, and takes two arguments.

  1. Nodes
  • This argument takes in the Nodes data frame generated by the getNOdesfromLinkList function.
  1. additional_data
  • This argument takes the data frame containing meta data about each node.
additional_data <- data.frame(sample(1:10, size = length(row.names(celltag_data)), replace = TRUE), row.names = row.names(celltag_data))
Nodes <- addData2Nodes(Nodes, additional_data)
colnames(Nodes)[4] <- "Cluster"
head(Nodes)

Now that we have the necessary data frames constructed we can visualize the lineages as network graphs. Typically, there are too many lineages to visualize at once using this method, but it is possible to visualize clones and their descendents on a clone by clone basis. The function drawSubnet creates interactive visualizations of clonal lineage networks on a clone by clone basis. drawSubnet takes the following arguments:

  1. tag
  • This argument takes a string with the name of the Clone you wish to visualize.
  1. overlay
  • This argument takes a string which denotes a column name of the additional meta data added to the Nodes data frame.
  1. linkList
  • This is the data frame containing the linkList generated with the converCellTagMatrix2LinkList function.
  1. Nodes
  • This is the Nodes data frame that is returned by either the getNodesfromLinkList or addData2Nodes functions.
drawSubnet(tag = "CellTagV1_2", overlay = "Cluster", linkList = linkList, Nodes = Nodes )

We can also generate stacked bar charts to visualize the clonal dynamics of the population of cells. These bar charts represent the proportion of all cells which are members of specific clones. First, we need to tidy the CellTag data into a ggplot2 friendly format.

bar.data <- celltag_data

bar.data$Cell.BC <- row.names(bar.data)

bar.data <- gather(bar.data, key = "CellTag", value = "Clone", 1:3, na.rm = FALSE)

Now that the data has been tidy'd up some we can visualize the clones from each CellTag library. This can be done using the following command:

ggplot(data = bar.data) + geom_bar(mapping = aes(x = CellTag, fill = factor(Clone)), position = "fill", show.legend = FALSE) + scale_y_continuous(labels = scales::percent_format())

This visualiztion is particulary interesting when inspecting the clones of a single CellTag library (CellTag-V1, CellTag-V2, CellTag-V3) across multiple timepoints.

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