WebDriver <-> Marionette proxy
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README.md

geckodriver

Proxy for using W3C WebDriver-compatible clients to interact with Gecko-based browsers.

This program provides the HTTP API described by the WebDriver protocol to communicate with Gecko browsers, such as Firefox. It translates calls into the Firefox remote protocol by acting as a proxy between the local- and remote ends.

You can consult the change log for a record of all notable changes to the program. Releases are made available on GitHub on supported platforms.

The canonical source code repository for geckodriver now lives in mozilla-central under testing/geckodriver. You can read more about working with Mozilla source code on MDN. This means we do no longer accept pull requests on GitHub. Patches should be uploaded to a bug in the Testing :: GeckoDriver component.

Supported clients

Selenium users must update to version 3.11 or later to use geckodriver. Other clients that follow the W3C WebDriver specification are also supported.

Supported Firefoxen

geckodriver is not yet feature complete. This means that it does not yet offer full conformance with the WebDriver standard or complete compatibility with Selenium. You can track the implementation status of the latest Firefox Nightly on MDN. We also keep track of known Selenium, remote protocol, and specification problems in our issue tracker.

Support is best in Firefox 57 and greater, although generally the more recent the Firefox version, the better the experience as they have more bug fixes and features. Some features will only be available in the most recent Firefox versions, and we strongly advise using the latest Firefox Nightly with geckodriver. Since Windows XP support in Firefox was dropped with Firefox 53, we do not support this platform.

WebDriver capabilities

geckodriver supports a number of capabilities:

Name Type Default Description
acceptInsecureCerts boolean false Indicates the session will not implicitly trust untrusted or self-signed TLS certificates on navigation.
pageLoadStrategy string `normal` Defines the page load strategy to use for the duration of the session. Setting a page load strategy will cause navigation to be "eager", waiting for the interactive document ready state; "normal" (the default), waiting for the complete ready state; or "none", which will return immediately after starting navigation.
proxy proxy object Sets browser proxy settings.

proxy object

Name Type Description
proxyType string Indicates the type of proxy configuration. This value must be one of pac, direct, autodetect, system, or manual.
proxyAutoconfigUrl string Defines the URL for a proxy auto-config file. This property should only be set when proxyType is pac.
ftpProxy string Defines the proxy hostname with an optional port for FTP traffic. This property should only be set when proxyType is set to manual.
httpProxy string Defines the proxy hostname with an optional port for HTTP traffic. This property should only be set when proxyType is set to manual.
noProxy list Lists the addresses for which the proxy should be bypassed. This property should only be set when proxyType is set to manual.
sslProxy string Defines the proxy hostname with an optional port for encrypted TLS traffic. This property should only be set when proxyType is set to manual.
socksProxy string Defines the hostname with on optional port for a SOCKS proxy. This property should only be set when proxyType is set to manual.
socksVersion number Defines the SOCKS proxy version. This property has only to be set when proxyType is set to manual.

Firefox capabilities

geckodriver has a few capabilities that are specific to Firefox.

moz:firefoxOptions

A dictionary used to define options which control how Firefox gets started and run. It may contain any of the following fields:

Name Type Description
binary string Absolute path of the Firefox binary, e.g. /usr/bin/firefox or /Applications/Firefox.app/Contents/MacOS/firefox, to select which custom browser binary to use. If left undefined geckodriver will attempt to deduce the default location of Firefox on the current system.
args array of strings

Command line arguments to pass to the Firefox binary. These must include the leading dash (-) where required, e.g. ["-devtools"].

To have geckodriver pick up an existing profile on the filesystem, you may pass ["-profile", "/path/to/profile"].

profile string

Base64-encoded ZIP of a profile directory to use for the Firefox instance. This may be used to e.g. install extensions or custom certificates, but for setting custom preferences we recommend using the prefs entry instead of passing a profile.

Profiles are created in the system’s temporary folder. This is also where the encoded profile is extracted when profile is provided. By default, geckodriver will create a new profile in this location.

The effective profile in use by the WebDriver session is returned to the user in the moz:profile capability in the new session response.

To have geckodriver pick up an existing profile on the filesystem, please set the args field to {"args": ["-profile", "/path/to/your/profile"]}.

log log object To increase the logging verbosity of geckodriver and Firefox, you may pass a log object that may look like {"log": {"level": "trace"}} to include all trace-level logs and above.
prefs prefs object Map of preference name to preference value, which can be a string, a boolean or an integer.

moz:useNonSpecCompliantPointerOrigin

A boolean value to indicate how the pointer origin for an action command will be calculated.

With Firefox 59 the calculation will be based on the requirements by the WebDriver specification. This means that the pointer origin is no longer computed based on the top and left position of the referenced element, but on the in-view center point.

To temporarily disable the WebDriver conformant behavior use false as value for this capability.

Please note that this capability exists only temporarily, and that it will be removed once all Selenium bindings can handle the new behavior.

moz:webdriverClick

A boolean value to indicate which kind of interactability checks to run when performing a click or sending keys to an elements. For Firefoxen prior to version 58.0 some legacy code as imported from an older version of FirefoxDriver was in use.

With Firefox 58 the interactability checks as required by the WebDriver specification are enabled by default. This means geckodriver will additionally check if an element is obscured by another when clicking, and if an element is focusable for sending keys.

Because of this change in behaviour, we are aware that some extra errors could be returned. In most cases the test in question might have to be updated so it's conform with the new checks. But if the problem is located in geckodriver, then please raise an issue in the issue tracker.

To temporarily disable the WebDriver conformant checks use false as value for this capability.

Please note that this capability exists only temporarily, and that it will be removed once the interactability checks have been stabilized.

log object

Name Type Description
level string Set the level of verbosity of geckodriver and Firefox. Available levels are trace, debug, config, info, warn, error, and fatal. If left undefined the default is info. The value is treated case-insensitively.

prefs object

Name Type Description
preference name string, number, boolean One entry per preference to override.

Capabilities example

The following example selects a specific Firefox binary to run with a prepared profile from the filesystem in headless mode (available on certain systems and recent Firefoxen). It also increases the number of IPC processes through a preference and enables more verbose logging.

{
	"capabilities": {
		"alwaysMatch": {
			"moz:firefoxOptions": {
				"binary": "/usr/local/firefox/bin/firefox",
				"args": ["-headless", "-profile", "/path/to/my/profile"],
				"prefs": {
					"dom.ipc.processCount": 8
				},
				"log": {
					"level": "trace"
				}
			}
		}
	}
}

Usage

geckodriver is an implementation of WebDriver, and WebDriver can be used for widely different purposes. How you invoke geckodriver largely depends on your use case.

Selenium

If you are using geckodriver through Selenium, you must ensure that you have version 3.11 or greater. Because geckodriver implements the W3C WebDriver standard and not the same Selenium wire protocol older drivers are using, you may experience incompatibilities and migration problems when making the switch from FirefoxDriver to geckodriver.

Generally speaking, Selenium 3 enabled geckodriver as the default WebDriver implementation for Firefox. With the release of Firefox 47, FirefoxDriver had to be discontinued for its lack of support for the new multi-processing architecture in Gecko.

Selenium client bindings will pick up the geckodriver binary executable from your system’s PATH environmental variable unless you override it by setting the webdriver.gecko.driver Java VM system property:

System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver", "/home/user/bin");

Or by passing it as a flag to the java(1) launcher:

% java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=/home/user/bin YourApplication

Your milage with this approach may vary based on which programming language bindings you are using. It is in any case generally the case that geckodriver will be picked up if it is available on the system path. In a bash compatible shell, you can make other programs aware of its location by exporting or setting the PATH variable:

% export PATH=$PATH:/home/user/bin
% whereis geckodriver
geckodriver: /home/user/bin/geckodriver

On Window systems you can change the system path by right-clicking My Computer and choosing Properties. In the dialogue that appears, navigate AdvancedEnvironmental VariablesPath.

Or in the Windows console window:

$ set PATH=%PATH%;C:\bin\geckodriver

Standalone

Since geckodriver is a separate HTTP server that is a complete remote end implementation of WebDriver, it is possible to avoid using the Selenium remote server if you have no requirements to distribute processes across a matrix of systems.

Given a W3C WebDriver conforming client library (or local end) you may interact with the geckodriver HTTP server as if you were speaking to any Selenium server.

Using curl(1):

% geckodriver &
[1] 16010
% 1491834109194   geckodriver     INFO    Listening on 127.0.0.1:4444
% curl -d '{"capabilities": {"alwaysMatch": {"acceptInsecureCerts": true}}}' http://localhost:4444/session
{"sessionId":"d4605710-5a4e-4d64-a52a-778bb0c31e00","value":{"XULappId":"{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384}","acceptSslCerts":false,"appBuildId":"20160913030425","browserName":"firefox","browserVersion":"51.0a1","command_id":1,"platform":"LINUX","platformName":"linux","platformVersion":"4.9.0-1-amd64","processId":17474,"proxy":{},"raisesAccessibilityExceptions":false,"rotatable":false,"specificationLevel":0,"takesElementScreenshot":true,"takesScreenshot":true,"version":"51.0a1"}}
% curl -d '{"url": "https://mozilla.org"}' http://localhost:4444/session/d4605710-5a4e-4d64-a52a-778bb0c31e00/url
{}
% curl http://localhost:4444/session/d4605710-5a4e-4d64-a52a-778bb0c31e00/url
{"value":"https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/"
% curl -X DELETE http://localhost:4444/session/d4605710-5a4e-4d64-a52a-778bb0c31e00
{}
% fg
geckodriver
^C
%

Using the Python wdclient library:

import webdriver

with webdriver.Session("127.0.0.1", 4444) as session:
    session.url = "https://mozilla.org"
    print "The current URL is %s" % session.url

And to run:

% geckodriver &
[1] 16054
% python example.py
1491835308354   geckodriver     INFO    Listening on 127.0.0.1:4444
The current URL is https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/
% fg
geckodriver
^C
%

Flags

-b BINARY/--binary BINARY

Path to the Firefox binary to use. By default geckodriver tries to find and use the system installation of Firefox, but that behaviour can be changed by using this option. Note that the binary capability of the moz:firefoxOptions object that is passed when creating a new session will override this option.

On Linux systems it will use the first firefox binary found by searching the PATH environmental variable, which is roughly equivalent to calling whereis(1) and extracting the second column:

% whereis firefox
firefox: /usr/bin/firefox /usr/local/firefox

On macOS, the binary is found by looking for the first firefox-bin binary in the same fashion as on Linux systems. This means it is possible to also use PATH to control where geckodriver should find Firefox on macOS. It will then look for /Applications/Firefox.app.

On Windows systems, geckodriver looks for the system Firefox by scanning the Windows registry.

--connect-existing

Connect geckodriver to an existing Firefox instance. This means geckodriver will abstain from the default of starting a new Firefox session.

The existing Firefox instance must have Marionette enabled. To enable the remote protocol in Firefox, you can pass the -marionette flag. Unless the marionette.port preference has been user-set, Marionette will listen on port 2828. So when using --connect-existing it is likely you will also have to use --marionette-port to set the correct port.

--host HOST

Host to use for the WebDriver server. Defaults to 127.0.0.1.

--log LEVEL

Set the Gecko and geckodriver log level. Possible values are fatal, error, warn, info, config, debug, and trace.

--marionette-port PORT

Selects the port for geckodriver’s connection to the Marionette remote protocol.

In the default mode where geckodriver starts and manages the Firefox process, it will pick a free port assigned by the system and set the marionette.port preference in the profile.

When --connect-existing is used and the Firefox process is not under geckodriver’s control, it will simply connect to PORT.

-p PORT/--port PORT

Port to use for the WebDriver server. Defaults to 4444.

A helpful trick is that it is possible to bind to 0 to get the system to atomically assign a free port.

--jsdebugger

Attach browser toolbox debugger when Firefox starts. This is useful for debugging Marionette internals.

-v[v]

Increases the logging verbosity by to debug level when passing a single -v, or to trace level if -vv is passed. This is analogous to passing --log debug and --log trace, respectively.

Building

geckodriver is written in Rust, a systems programming language from Mozilla. Crucially, it relies on the webdriver crate to provide the HTTPD and do most of the heavy lifting of marshalling the WebDriver protocol. geckodriver translates WebDriver commands, responses, and errors to the Marionette protocol, and acts as a proxy between WebDriver and Marionette.

geckodriver is built in the Firefox CI by default but not if you build Firefox locally. To enable building of geckodriver locally, ensure you put this in your mozconfig:

ac_add_options --enable-geckodriver

You build geckodriver with the ./mach build testing/geckodriver command, run tests with ./mach test testing/geckodriver, and run the built executable with ./mach geckodriver -- --other --flags.

Contact

The mailing list for geckodriver discussion is tools-marionette@lists.mozilla.org (subscribe, archive).

There is also an IRC channel to talk about using and developing geckodriver in #ateam on irc.mozilla.org.