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#!/usr/bin/python2.4
#
# Copyright 2007 The Python-Twitter Developers
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
'''A library that provides a Python interface to the Twitter API'''
__author__ = 'python-twitter@googlegroups.com'
__version__ = '0.8.1'
import base64
import calendar
import datetime
import httplib
import os
import rfc822
import sys
import tempfile
import textwrap
import time
import calendar
import urllib
import urllib2
import urlparse
import gzip
import StringIO
try:
# Python >= 2.6
import json as simplejson
except ImportError:
try:
# Python < 2.6
import simplejson
except ImportError:
try:
# Google App Engine
from django.utils import simplejson
except ImportError:
raise ImportError, "Unable to load a json library"
# parse_qsl moved to urlparse module in v2.6
try:
from urlparse import parse_qsl, parse_qs
except ImportError:
from cgi import parse_qsl, parse_qs
try:
from hashlib import md5
except ImportError:
from md5 import md5
import oauth2 as oauth
CHARACTER_LIMIT = 140
# A singleton representing a lazily instantiated FileCache.
DEFAULT_CACHE = object()
REQUEST_TOKEN_URL = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/request_token'
ACCESS_TOKEN_URL = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/access_token'
AUTHORIZATION_URL = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/authorize'
SIGNIN_URL = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/authenticate'
class TwitterError(Exception):
'''Base class for Twitter errors'''
@property
def message(self):
'''Returns the first argument used to construct this error.'''
return self.args[0]
class Status(object):
'''A class representing the Status structure used by the twitter API.
The Status structure exposes the following properties:
status.created_at
status.created_at_in_seconds # read only
status.favorited
status.in_reply_to_screen_name
status.in_reply_to_user_id
status.in_reply_to_status_id
status.truncated
status.source
status.id
status.text
status.location
status.relative_created_at # read only
status.user
status.urls
status.user_mentions
status.hashtags
status.geo
status.place
status.coordinates
status.contributors
'''
def __init__(self,
created_at=None,
favorited=None,
id=None,
text=None,
location=None,
user=None,
in_reply_to_screen_name=None,
in_reply_to_user_id=None,
in_reply_to_status_id=None,
truncated=None,
source=None,
now=None,
urls=None,
user_mentions=None,
hashtags=None,
geo=None,
place=None,
coordinates=None,
contributors=None):
'''An object to hold a Twitter status message.
This class is normally instantiated by the twitter.Api class and
returned in a sequence.
Note: Dates are posted in the form "Sat Jan 27 04:17:38 +0000 2007"
Args:
created_at:
The time this status message was posted. [Optional]
favorited:
Whether this is a favorite of the authenticated user. [Optional]
id:
The unique id of this status message. [Optional]
text:
The text of this status message. [Optional]
location:
the geolocation string associated with this message. [Optional]
relative_created_at:
A human readable string representing the posting time. [Optional]
user:
A twitter.User instance representing the person posting the
message. [Optional]
now:
The current time, if the client choses to set it.
Defaults to the wall clock time. [Optional]
'''
self.created_at = created_at
self.favorited = favorited
self.id = id
self.text = text
self.location = location
self.user = user
self.now = now
self.in_reply_to_screen_name = in_reply_to_screen_name
self.in_reply_to_user_id = in_reply_to_user_id
self.in_reply_to_status_id = in_reply_to_status_id
self.truncated = truncated
self.source = source
self.urls = urls
self.user_mentions = user_mentions
self.hashtags = hashtags
self.geo = geo
self.place = place
self.coordinates = coordinates
self.contributors = contributors
def GetCreatedAt(self):
'''Get the time this status message was posted.
Returns:
The time this status message was posted
'''
return self._created_at
def SetCreatedAt(self, created_at):
'''Set the time this status message was posted.
Args:
created_at:
The time this status message was created
'''
self._created_at = created_at
created_at = property(GetCreatedAt, SetCreatedAt,
doc='The time this status message was posted.')
def GetCreatedAtInSeconds(self):
'''Get the time this status message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
Returns:
The time this status message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
'''
return calendar.timegm(rfc822.parsedate(self.created_at))
created_at_in_seconds = property(GetCreatedAtInSeconds,
doc="The time this status message was "
"posted, in seconds since the epoch")
def GetFavorited(self):
'''Get the favorited setting of this status message.
Returns:
True if this status message is favorited; False otherwise
'''
return self._favorited
def SetFavorited(self, favorited):
'''Set the favorited state of this status message.
Args:
favorited:
boolean True/False favorited state of this status message
'''
self._favorited = favorited
favorited = property(GetFavorited, SetFavorited,
doc='The favorited state of this status message.')
def GetId(self):
'''Get the unique id of this status message.
Returns:
The unique id of this status message
'''
return self._id
def SetId(self, id):
'''Set the unique id of this status message.
Args:
id:
The unique id of this status message
'''
self._id = id
id = property(GetId, SetId,
doc='The unique id of this status message.')
def GetInReplyToScreenName(self):
return self._in_reply_to_screen_name
def SetInReplyToScreenName(self, in_reply_to_screen_name):
self._in_reply_to_screen_name = in_reply_to_screen_name
in_reply_to_screen_name = property(GetInReplyToScreenName, SetInReplyToScreenName,
doc='')
def GetInReplyToUserId(self):
return self._in_reply_to_user_id
def SetInReplyToUserId(self, in_reply_to_user_id):
self._in_reply_to_user_id = in_reply_to_user_id
in_reply_to_user_id = property(GetInReplyToUserId, SetInReplyToUserId,
doc='')
def GetInReplyToStatusId(self):
return self._in_reply_to_status_id
def SetInReplyToStatusId(self, in_reply_to_status_id):
self._in_reply_to_status_id = in_reply_to_status_id
in_reply_to_status_id = property(GetInReplyToStatusId, SetInReplyToStatusId,
doc='')
def GetTruncated(self):
return self._truncated
def SetTruncated(self, truncated):
self._truncated = truncated
truncated = property(GetTruncated, SetTruncated,
doc='')
def GetSource(self):
return self._source
def SetSource(self, source):
self._source = source
source = property(GetSource, SetSource,
doc='')
def GetText(self):
'''Get the text of this status message.
Returns:
The text of this status message.
'''
return self._text
def SetText(self, text):
'''Set the text of this status message.
Args:
text:
The text of this status message
'''
self._text = text
text = property(GetText, SetText,
doc='The text of this status message')
def GetLocation(self):
'''Get the geolocation associated with this status message
Returns:
The geolocation string of this status message.
'''
return self._location
def SetLocation(self, location):
'''Set the geolocation associated with this status message
Args:
location:
The geolocation string of this status message
'''
self._location = location
location = property(GetLocation, SetLocation,
doc='The geolocation string of this status message')
def GetRelativeCreatedAt(self):
'''Get a human redable string representing the posting time
Returns:
A human readable string representing the posting time
'''
fudge = 1.25
delta = long(self.now) - long(self.created_at_in_seconds)
if delta < (1 * fudge):
return 'about a second ago'
elif delta < (60 * (1/fudge)):
return 'about %d seconds ago' % (delta)
elif delta < (60 * fudge):
return 'about a minute ago'
elif delta < (60 * 60 * (1/fudge)):
return 'about %d minutes ago' % (delta / 60)
elif delta < (60 * 60 * fudge) or delta / (60 * 60) == 1:
return 'about an hour ago'
elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * (1/fudge)):
return 'about %d hours ago' % (delta / (60 * 60))
elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * fudge) or delta / (60 * 60 * 24) == 1:
return 'about a day ago'
else:
return 'about %d days ago' % (delta / (60 * 60 * 24))
relative_created_at = property(GetRelativeCreatedAt,
doc='Get a human readable string representing '
'the posting time')
def GetUser(self):
'''Get a twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message.
Returns:
A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message
'''
return self._user
def SetUser(self, user):
'''Set a twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message.
Args:
user:
A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message
'''
self._user = user
user = property(GetUser, SetUser,
doc='A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this '
'status message')
def GetNow(self):
'''Get the wallclock time for this status message.
Used to calculate relative_created_at. Defaults to the time
the object was instantiated.
Returns:
Whatever the status instance believes the current time to be,
in seconds since the epoch.
'''
if self._now is None:
self._now = time.time()
return self._now
def SetNow(self, now):
'''Set the wallclock time for this status message.
Used to calculate relative_created_at. Defaults to the time
the object was instantiated.
Args:
now:
The wallclock time for this instance.
'''
self._now = now
now = property(GetNow, SetNow,
doc='The wallclock time for this status instance.')
def GetGeo(self):
return self._geo
def SetGeo(self, geo):
self._geo = geo
geo = property(GetGeo, SetGeo,
doc='')
def GetPlace(self):
return self._place
def SetPlace(self, place):
self._place = place
place = property(GetPlace, SetPlace,
doc='')
def GetCoordinates(self):
return self._coordinates
def SetCoordinates(self, coordinates):
self._coordinates = coordinates
coordinates = property(GetCoordinates, SetCoordinates,
doc='')
def GetContributors(self):
return self._contributors
def SetContributors(self, contributors):
self._contributors = contributors
contributors = property(GetContributors, SetContributors,
doc='')
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self.__eq__(other)
def __eq__(self, other):
try:
return other and \
self.created_at == other.created_at and \
self.id == other.id and \
self.text == other.text and \
self.location == other.location and \
self.user == other.user and \
self.in_reply_to_screen_name == other.in_reply_to_screen_name and \
self.in_reply_to_user_id == other.in_reply_to_user_id and \
self.in_reply_to_status_id == other.in_reply_to_status_id and \
self.truncated == other.truncated and \
self.favorited == other.favorited and \
self.source == other.source and \
self.geo == other.geo and \
self.place == other.place and \
self.coordinates == other.coordinates and \
self.contributors == other.contributors
except AttributeError:
return False
def __str__(self):
'''A string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
Returns:
A string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
'''
return self.AsJsonString()
def AsJsonString(self):
'''A JSON string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
Returns:
A JSON string representation of this twitter.Status instance
'''
return simplejson.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
def AsDict(self):
'''A dict representation of this twitter.Status instance.
The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
Return:
A dict representing this twitter.Status instance
'''
data = {}
if self.created_at:
data['created_at'] = self.created_at
if self.favorited:
data['favorited'] = self.favorited
if self.id:
data['id'] = self.id
if self.text:
data['text'] = self.text
if self.location:
data['location'] = self.location
if self.user:
data['user'] = self.user.AsDict()
if self.in_reply_to_screen_name:
data['in_reply_to_screen_name'] = self.in_reply_to_screen_name
if self.in_reply_to_user_id:
data['in_reply_to_user_id'] = self.in_reply_to_user_id
if self.in_reply_to_status_id:
data['in_reply_to_status_id'] = self.in_reply_to_status_id
if self.truncated is not None:
data['truncated'] = self.truncated
if self.favorited is not None:
data['favorited'] = self.favorited
if self.source:
data['source'] = self.source
if self.geo:
data['geo'] = self.geo
if self.place:
data['place'] = self.place
if self.coordinates:
data['coordinates'] = self.coordinates
if self.contributors:
data['contributors'] = self.contributors
return data
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data: A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance
'''
if 'user' in data:
user = User.NewFromJsonDict(data['user'])
else:
user = None
urls = None
user_mentions = None
hashtags = None
if 'entities' in data:
if 'urls' in data['entities']:
urls = [Url.NewFromJsonDict(u) for u in data['entities']['urls']]
if 'user_mentions' in data['entities']:
user_mentions = [User.NewFromJsonDict(u) for u in data['entities']['user_mentions']]
if 'hashtags' in data['entities']:
hashtags = [Hashtag.NewFromJsonDict(h) for h in data['entities']['hashtags']]
return Status(created_at=data.get('created_at', None),
favorited=data.get('favorited', None),
id=data.get('id', None),
text=data.get('text', None),
location=data.get('location', None),
in_reply_to_screen_name=data.get('in_reply_to_screen_name', None),
in_reply_to_user_id=data.get('in_reply_to_user_id', None),
in_reply_to_status_id=data.get('in_reply_to_status_id', None),
truncated=data.get('truncated', None),
source=data.get('source', None),
user=user,
urls=urls,
user_mentions=user_mentions,
hashtags=hashtags,
geo=data.get('geo', None),
place=data.get('place', None),
coordinates=data.get('coordinates', None),
contributors=data.get('contributors', None))
class User(object):
'''A class representing the User structure used by the twitter API.
The User structure exposes the following properties:
user.id
user.name
user.screen_name
user.location
user.description
user.profile_image_url
user.profile_background_tile
user.profile_background_image_url
user.profile_sidebar_fill_color
user.profile_background_color
user.profile_link_color
user.profile_text_color
user.protected
user.utc_offset
user.time_zone
user.url
user.status
user.statuses_count
user.followers_count
user.friends_count
user.favourites_count
user.geo_enabled
'''
def __init__(self,
id=None,
name=None,
screen_name=None,
location=None,
description=None,
profile_image_url=None,
profile_background_tile=None,
profile_background_image_url=None,
profile_sidebar_fill_color=None,
profile_background_color=None,
profile_link_color=None,
profile_text_color=None,
protected=None,
utc_offset=None,
time_zone=None,
followers_count=None,
friends_count=None,
statuses_count=None,
favourites_count=None,
url=None,
status=None,
geo_enabled=None):
self.id = id
self.name = name
self.screen_name = screen_name
self.location = location
self.description = description
self.profile_image_url = profile_image_url
self.profile_background_tile = profile_background_tile
self.profile_background_image_url = profile_background_image_url
self.profile_sidebar_fill_color = profile_sidebar_fill_color
self.profile_background_color = profile_background_color
self.profile_link_color = profile_link_color
self.profile_text_color = profile_text_color
self.protected = protected
self.utc_offset = utc_offset
self.time_zone = time_zone
self.followers_count = followers_count
self.friends_count = friends_count
self.statuses_count = statuses_count
self.favourites_count = favourites_count
self.url = url
self.status = status
self.geo_enabled = geo_enabled
def GetId(self):
'''Get the unique id of this user.
Returns:
The unique id of this user
'''
return self._id
def SetId(self, id):
'''Set the unique id of this user.
Args:
id: The unique id of this user.
'''
self._id = id
id = property(GetId, SetId,
doc='The unique id of this user.')
def GetName(self):
'''Get the real name of this user.
Returns:
The real name of this user
'''
return self._name
def SetName(self, name):
'''Set the real name of this user.
Args:
name: The real name of this user
'''
self._name = name
name = property(GetName, SetName,
doc='The real name of this user.')
def GetScreenName(self):
'''Get the short twitter name of this user.
Returns:
The short twitter name of this user
'''
return self._screen_name
def SetScreenName(self, screen_name):
'''Set the short twitter name of this user.
Args:
screen_name: the short twitter name of this user
'''
self._screen_name = screen_name
screen_name = property(GetScreenName, SetScreenName,
doc='The short twitter name of this user.')
def GetLocation(self):
'''Get the geographic location of this user.
Returns:
The geographic location of this user
'''
return self._location
def SetLocation(self, location):
'''Set the geographic location of this user.
Args:
location: The geographic location of this user
'''
self._location = location
location = property(GetLocation, SetLocation,
doc='The geographic location of this user.')
def GetDescription(self):
'''Get the short text description of this user.
Returns:
The short text description of this user
'''
return self._description
def SetDescription(self, description):
'''Set the short text description of this user.
Args:
description: The short text description of this user
'''
self._description = description
description = property(GetDescription, SetDescription,
doc='The short text description of this user.')
def GetUrl(self):
'''Get the homepage url of this user.
Returns:
The homepage url of this user
'''
return self._url
def SetUrl(self, url):
'''Set the homepage url of this user.
Args:
url: The homepage url of this user
'''
self._url = url
url = property(GetUrl, SetUrl,
doc='The homepage url of this user.')
def GetProfileImageUrl(self):
'''Get the url of the thumbnail of this user.
Returns:
The url of the thumbnail of this user
'''
return self._profile_image_url
def SetProfileImageUrl(self, profile_image_url):
'''Set the url of the thumbnail of this user.
Args:
profile_image_url: The url of the thumbnail of this user
'''
self._profile_image_url = profile_image_url
profile_image_url= property(GetProfileImageUrl, SetProfileImageUrl,
doc='The url of the thumbnail of this user.')
def GetProfileBackgroundTile(self):
'''Boolean for whether to tile the profile background image.
Returns:
True if the background is to be tiled, False if not, None if unset.
'''
return self._profile_background_tile
def SetProfileBackgroundTile(self, profile_background_tile):
'''Set the boolean flag for whether to tile the profile background image.
Args:
profile_background_tile: Boolean flag for whether to tile or not.
'''
self._profile_background_tile = profile_background_tile
profile_background_tile = property(GetProfileBackgroundTile, SetProfileBackgroundTile,
doc='Boolean for whether to tile the background image.')
def GetProfileBackgroundImageUrl(self):
return self._profile_background_image_url
def SetProfileBackgroundImageUrl(self, profile_background_image_url):
self._profile_background_image_url = profile_background_image_url
profile_background_image_url = property(GetProfileBackgroundImageUrl, SetProfileBackgroundImageUrl,
doc='The url of the profile background of this user.')
def GetProfileSidebarFillColor(self):
return self._profile_sidebar_fill_color
def SetProfileSidebarFillColor(self, profile_sidebar_fill_color):
self._profile_sidebar_fill_color = profile_sidebar_fill_color
profile_sidebar_fill_color = property(GetProfileSidebarFillColor, SetProfileSidebarFillColor)
def GetProfileBackgroundColor(self):
return self._profile_background_color
def SetProfileBackgroundColor(self, profile_background_color):
self._profile_background_color = profile_background_color
profile_background_color = property(GetProfileBackgroundColor, SetProfileBackgroundColor)
def GetProfileLinkColor(self):
return self._profile_link_color
def SetProfileLinkColor(self, profile_link_color):
self._profile_link_color = profile_link_color
profile_link_color = property(GetProfileLinkColor, SetProfileLinkColor)
def GetProfileTextColor(self):
return self._profile_text_color
def SetProfileTextColor(self, profile_text_color):
self._profile_text_color = profile_text_color
profile_text_color = property(GetProfileTextColor, SetProfileTextColor)
def GetProtected(self):
return self._protected
def SetProtected(self, protected):
self._protected = protected
protected = property(GetProtected, SetProtected)
def GetUtcOffset(self):
return self._utc_offset
def SetUtcOffset(self, utc_offset):
self._utc_offset = utc_offset
utc_offset = property(GetUtcOffset, SetUtcOffset)
def GetTimeZone(self):
'''Returns the current time zone string for the user.
Returns:
The descriptive time zone string for the user.
'''
return self._time_zone
def SetTimeZone(self, time_zone):
'''Sets the user's time zone string.
Args:
time_zone:
The descriptive time zone to assign for the user.
'''
self._time_zone = time_zone
time_zone = property(GetTimeZone, SetTimeZone)
def GetStatus(self):
'''Get the latest twitter.Status of this user.
Returns:
The latest twitter.Status of this user
'''
return self._status
def SetStatus(self, status):
'''Set the latest twitter.Status of this user.
Args:
status:
The latest twitter.Status of this user
'''
self._status = status
status = property(GetStatus, SetStatus,
doc='The latest twitter.Status of this user.')
def GetFriendsCount(self):
'''Get the friend count for this user.
Returns:
The number of users this user has befriended.
'''
return self._friends_count
def SetFriendsCount(self, count):
'''Set the friend count for this user.
Args:
count:
The number of users this user has befriended.
'''
self._friends_count = count
friends_count = property(GetFriendsCount, SetFriendsCount,
doc='The number of friends for this user.')
def GetFollowersCount(self):
'''Get the follower count for this user.
Returns:
The number of users following this user.
'''
return self._followers_count
def SetFollowersCount(self, count):
'''Set the follower count for this user.
Args:
count:
The number of users following this user.
'''
self._followers_count = count
followers_count = property(GetFollowersCount, SetFollowersCount,
doc='The number of users following this user.')
def GetStatusesCount(self):
'''Get the number of status updates for this user.
Returns:
The number of status updates for this user.
'''
return self._statuses_count
def SetStatusesCount(self, count):
'''Set the status update count for this user.
Args:
count:
The number of updates for this user.
'''
self._statuses_count = count
statuses_count = property(GetStatusesCount, SetStatusesCount,
doc='The number of updates for this user.')
def GetFavouritesCount(self):
'''Get the number of favourites for this user.
Returns:
The number of favourites for this user.
'''
return self._favourites_count
def SetFavouritesCount(self, count):
'''Set the favourite count for this user.
Args:
count:
The number of favourites for this user.
'''
self._favourites_count = count
favourites_count = property(GetFavouritesCount, SetFavouritesCount,
doc='The number of favourites for this user.')
def GetGeoEnabled(self):
'''Get the setting of geo_enabled for this user.
Returns:
True/False if Geo tagging is enabled
'''
return self._geo_enabled
def SetGeoEnabled(self, geo_enabled):
'''Set the latest twitter.geo_enabled of this user.
Args:
geo_enabled:
True/False if Geo tagging is to be enabled
'''
self._geo_enabled = geo_enabled
geo_enabled = property(GetGeoEnabled, SetGeoEnabled,
doc='The value of twitter.geo_enabled for this user.')
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self.__eq__(other)
def __eq__(self, other):
try:
return other and \
self.id == other.id and \
self.name == other.name and \
self.screen_name == other.screen_name and \
self.location == other.location and \
self.description == other.description and \
self.profile_image_url == other.profile_image_url and \
self.profile_background_tile == other.profile_background_tile and \
self.profile_background_image_url == other.profile_background_image_url and \
self.profile_sidebar_fill_color == other.profile_sidebar_fill_color and \
self.profile_background_color == other.profile_background_color and \
self.profile_link_color == other.profile_link_color and \
self.profile_text_color == other.profile_text_color and \
self.protected == other.protected and \
self.utc_offset == other.utc_offset and \
self.time_zone == other.time_zone and \
self.url == other.url and \
self.statuses_count == other.statuses_count and \
self.followers_count == other.followers_count and \
self.favourites_count == other.favourites_count and \
self.friends_count == other.friends_count and \
self.status == other.status and \
self.geo_enabled == other.geo_enabled
except AttributeError:
return False
def __str__(self):
'''A string representation of this twitter.User instance.
The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
Returns:
A string representation of this twitter.User instance.
'''
return self.AsJsonString()
def AsJsonString(self):
'''A JSON string representation of this twitter.User instance.
Returns:
A JSON string representation of this twitter.User instance
'''
return simplejson.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
def AsDict(self):
'''A dict representation of this twitter.User instance.
The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
Return:
A dict representing this twitter.User instance
'''
data = {}
if self.id:
data['id'] = self.id
if self.name:
data['name'] = self.name
if self.screen_name:
data['screen_name'] = self.screen_name
if self.location:
data['location'] = self.location
if self.description:
data['description'] = self.description
if self.profile_image_url:
data['profile_image_url'] = self.profile_image_url
if self.profile_background_tile is not None:
data['profile_background_tile'] = self.profile_background_tile
if self.profile_background_image_url:
data['profile_sidebar_fill_color'] = self.profile_background_image_url
if self.profile_background_color:
data['profile_background_color'] = self.profile_background_color
if self.profile_link_color:
data['profile_link_color'] = self.profile_link_color
if self.profile_text_color:
data['profile_text_color'] = self.profile_text_color
if self.protected is not None:
data['protected'] = self.protected
if self.utc_offset:
data['utc_offset'] = self.utc_offset
if self.time_zone:
data['time_zone'] = self.time_zone
if self.url:
data['url'] = self.url
if self.status:
data['status'] = self.status.AsDict()
if self.friends_count:
data['friends_count'] = self.friends_count
if self.followers_count:
data['followers_count'] = self.followers_count
if self.statuses_count:
data['statuses_count'] = self.statuses_count
if self.favourites_count:
data['favourites_count'] = self.favourites_count
if self.geo_enabled:
data['geo_enabled'] = self.geo_enabled
return data
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data:
A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.User instance
'''
if 'status' in data:
status = Status.NewFromJsonDict(data['status'])
else:
status = None
return User(id=data.get('id', None),
name=data.get('name', None),
screen_name=data.get('screen_name', None),
location=data.get('location', None),
description=data.get('description', None),
statuses_count=data.get('statuses_count', None),
followers_count=data.get('followers_count', None),
favourites_count=data.get('favourites_count', None),
friends_count=data.get('friends_count', None),
profile_image_url=data.get('profile_image_url', None),
profile_background_tile = data.get('profile_background_tile', None),
profile_background_image_url = data.get('profile_background_image_url', None),
profile_sidebar_fill_color = data.get('profile_sidebar_fill_color', None),
profile_background_color = data.get('profile_background_color', None),
profile_link_color = data.get('profile_link_color', None),
profile_text_color = data.get('profile_text_color', None),
protected = data.get('protected', None),
utc_offset = data.get('utc_offset', None),
time_zone = data.get('time_zone', None),
url=data.get('url', None),
status=status,
geo_enabled=data.get('geo_enabled', None))
class List(object):
'''A class representing the List structure used by the twitter API.
The List structure exposes the following properties:
list.id
list.name
list.slug
list.description
list.full_name
list.mode
list.uri
list.member_count
list.subscriber_count
list.following
'''
def __init__(self,
id=None,
name=None,
slug=None,
description=None,
full_name=None,
mode=None,
uri=None,
member_count=None,
subscriber_count=None,
following=None,
user=None):
self.id = id
self.name = name
self.slug = slug
self.description = description
self.full_name = full_name
self.mode = mode
self.uri = uri
self.member_count = member_count
self.subscriber_count = subscriber_count
self.following = following
self.user = user
def GetId(self):
'''Get the unique id of this list.
Returns:
The unique id of this list
'''
return self._id
def SetId(self, id):
'''Set the unique id of this list.
Args:
id:
The unique id of this list.
'''
self._id = id
id = property(GetId, SetId,
doc='The unique id of this list.')
def GetName(self):
'''Get the real name of this list.
Returns:
The real name of this list
'''
return self._name
def SetName(self, name):
'''Set the real name of this list.
Args:
name:
The real name of this list
'''
self._name = name
name = property(GetName, SetName,
doc='The real name of this list.')
def GetSlug(self):
'''Get the slug of this list.
Returns:
The slug of this list
'''
return self._slug
def SetSlug(self, slug):
'''Set the slug of this list.
Args:
slug:
The slug of this list.
'''
self._slug = slug
slug = property(GetSlug, SetSlug,
doc='The slug of this list.')
def GetDescription(self):
'''Get the description of this list.
Returns:
The description of this list
'''
return self._description
def SetDescription(self, description):
'''Set the description of this list.
Args:
description:
The description of this list.
'''
self._description = description
description = property(GetDescription, SetDescription,
doc='The description of this list.')
def GetFull_name(self):
'''Get the full_name of this list.
Returns:
The full_name of this list
'''
return self._full_name
def SetFull_name(self, full_name):
'''Set the full_name of this list.
Args:
full_name:
The full_name of this list.
'''
self._full_name = full_name
full_name = property(GetFull_name, SetFull_name,
doc='The full_name of this list.')
def GetMode(self):
'''Get the mode of this list.
Returns:
The mode of this list
'''
return self._mode
def SetMode(self, mode):
'''Set the mode of this list.
Args:
mode:
The mode of this list.
'''
self._mode = mode
mode = property(GetMode, SetMode,
doc='The mode of this list.')
def GetUri(self):
'''Get the uri of this list.
Returns:
The uri of this list
'''
return self._uri
def SetUri(self, uri):
'''Set the uri of this list.
Args:
uri:
The uri of this list.
'''
self._uri = uri
uri = property(GetUri, SetUri,
doc='The uri of this list.')
def GetMember_count(self):
'''Get the member_count of this list.
Returns:
The member_count of this list
'''
return self._member_count
def SetMember_count(self, member_count):
'''Set the member_count of this list.
Args:
member_count:
The member_count of this list.
'''
self._member_count = member_count
member_count = property(GetMember_count, SetMember_count,
doc='The member_count of this list.')
def GetSubscriber_count(self):
'''Get the subscriber_count of this list.
Returns:
The subscriber_count of this list
'''
return self._subscriber_count
def SetSubscriber_count(self, subscriber_count):
'''Set the subscriber_count of this list.
Args:
subscriber_count:
The subscriber_count of this list.
'''
self._subscriber_count = subscriber_count
subscriber_count = property(GetSubscriber_count, SetSubscriber_count,
doc='The subscriber_count of this list.')
def GetFollowing(self):
'''Get the following status of this list.
Returns:
The following status of this list
'''
return self._following
def SetFollowing(self, following):
'''Set the following status of this list.
Args:
following:
The following of this list.
'''
self._following = following
following = property(GetFollowing, SetFollowing,
doc='The following status of this list.')
def GetUser(self):
'''Get the user of this list.
Returns:
The owner of this list
'''
return self._user
def SetUser(self, user):
'''Set the user of this list.
Args:
user:
The owner of this list.
'''
self._user = user
user = property(GetUser, SetUser,
doc='The owner of this list.')
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self.__eq__(other)
def __eq__(self, other):
try:
return other and \
self.id == other.id and \
self.name == other.name and \
self.slug == other.slug and \
self.description == other.description and \
self.full_name == other.full_name and \
self.mode == other.mode and \
self.uri == other.uri and \
self.member_count == other.member_count and \
self.subscriber_count == other.subscriber_count and \
self.following == other.following and \
self.user == other.user
except AttributeError:
return False
def __str__(self):
'''A string representation of this twitter.List instance.
The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
Returns:
A string representation of this twitter.List instance.
'''
return self.AsJsonString()
def AsJsonString(self):
'''A JSON string representation of this twitter.List instance.
Returns:
A JSON string representation of this twitter.List instance
'''
return simplejson.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
def AsDict(self):
'''A dict representation of this twitter.List instance.
The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
Return:
A dict representing this twitter.List instance
'''
data = {}
if self.id:
data['id'] = self.id
if self.name:
data['name'] = self.name
if self.slug:
data['slug'] = self.slug
if self.description:
data['description'] = self.description
if self.full_name:
data['full_name'] = self.full_name
if self.mode:
data['mode'] = self.mode
if self.uri:
data['uri'] = self.uri
if self.member_count is not None:
data['member_count'] = self.member_count
if self.subscriber_count is not None:
data['subscriber_count'] = self.subscriber_count
if self.following is not None:
data['following'] = self.following
if self.user is not None:
data['user'] = self.user
return data
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data:
A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.List instance
'''
if 'user' in data:
user = User.NewFromJsonDict(data['user'])
else:
user = None
return List(id=data.get('id', None),
name=data.get('name', None),
slug=data.get('slug', None),
description=data.get('description', None),
full_name=data.get('full_name', None),
mode=data.get('mode', None),
uri=data.get('uri', None),
member_count=data.get('member_count', None),
subscriber_count=data.get('subscriber_count', None),
following=data.get('following', None),
user=user)
class DirectMessage(object):
'''A class representing the DirectMessage structure used by the twitter API.
The DirectMessage structure exposes the following properties:
direct_message.id
direct_message.created_at
direct_message.created_at_in_seconds # read only
direct_message.sender_id
direct_message.sender_screen_name
direct_message.recipient_id
direct_message.recipient_screen_name
direct_message.text
'''
def __init__(self,
id=None,
created_at=None,
sender_id=None,
sender_screen_name=None,
recipient_id=None,
recipient_screen_name=None,
text=None):
'''An object to hold a Twitter direct message.
This class is normally instantiated by the twitter.Api class and
returned in a sequence.
Note: Dates are posted in the form "Sat Jan 27 04:17:38 +0000 2007"
Args:
id:
The unique id of this direct message. [Optional]
created_at:
The time this direct message was posted. [Optional]
sender_id:
The id of the twitter user that sent this message. [Optional]
sender_screen_name:
The name of the twitter user that sent this message. [Optional]
recipient_id:
The id of the twitter that received this message. [Optional]
recipient_screen_name:
The name of the twitter that received this message. [Optional]
text:
The text of this direct message. [Optional]
'''
self.id = id
self.created_at = created_at
self.sender_id = sender_id
self.sender_screen_name = sender_screen_name
self.recipient_id = recipient_id
self.recipient_screen_name = recipient_screen_name
self.text = text
def GetId(self):
'''Get the unique id of this direct message.
Returns:
The unique id of this direct message
'''
return self._id
def SetId(self, id):
'''Set the unique id of this direct message.
Args:
id:
The unique id of this direct message
'''
self._id = id
id = property(GetId, SetId,
doc='The unique id of this direct message.')
def GetCreatedAt(self):
'''Get the time this direct message was posted.
Returns:
The time this direct message was posted
'''
return self._created_at
def SetCreatedAt(self, created_at):
'''Set the time this direct message was posted.
Args:
created_at:
The time this direct message was created
'''
self._created_at = created_at
created_at = property(GetCreatedAt, SetCreatedAt,
doc='The time this direct message was posted.')
def GetCreatedAtInSeconds(self):
'''Get the time this direct message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
Returns:
The time this direct message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
'''
return calendar.timegm(rfc822.parsedate(self.created_at))
created_at_in_seconds = property(GetCreatedAtInSeconds,
doc="The time this direct message was "
"posted, in seconds since the epoch")
def GetSenderId(self):
'''Get the unique sender id of this direct message.
Returns:
The unique sender id of this direct message
'''
return self._sender_id
def SetSenderId(self, sender_id):
'''Set the unique sender id of this direct message.
Args:
sender_id:
The unique sender id of this direct message
'''
self._sender_id = sender_id
sender_id = property(GetSenderId, SetSenderId,
doc='The unique sender id of this direct message.')
def GetSenderScreenName(self):
'''Get the unique sender screen name of this direct message.
Returns:
The unique sender screen name of this direct message
'''
return self._sender_screen_name
def SetSenderScreenName(self, sender_screen_name):
'''Set the unique sender screen name of this direct message.
Args:
sender_screen_name:
The unique sender screen name of this direct message
'''
self._sender_screen_name = sender_screen_name
sender_screen_name = property(GetSenderScreenName, SetSenderScreenName,
doc='The unique sender screen name of this direct message.')
def GetRecipientId(self):
'''Get the unique recipient id of this direct message.
Returns:
The unique recipient id of this direct message
'''
return self._recipient_id
def SetRecipientId(self, recipient_id):
'''Set the unique recipient id of this direct message.
Args:
recipient_id:
The unique recipient id of this direct message
'''
self._recipient_id = recipient_id
recipient_id = property(GetRecipientId, SetRecipientId,
doc='The unique recipient id of this direct message.')
def GetRecipientScreenName(self):
'''Get the unique recipient screen name of this direct message.
Returns:
The unique recipient screen name of this direct message
'''
return self._recipient_screen_name
def SetRecipientScreenName(self, recipient_screen_name):
'''Set the unique recipient screen name of this direct message.
Args:
recipient_screen_name:
The unique recipient screen name of this direct message
'''
self._recipient_screen_name = recipient_screen_name
recipient_screen_name = property(GetRecipientScreenName, SetRecipientScreenName,
doc='The unique recipient screen name of this direct message.')
def GetText(self):
'''Get the text of this direct message.
Returns:
The text of this direct message.
'''
return self._text
def SetText(self, text):
'''Set the text of this direct message.
Args:
text:
The text of this direct message
'''
self._text = text
text = property(GetText, SetText,
doc='The text of this direct message')
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self.__eq__(other)
def __eq__(self, other):
try:
return other and \
self.id == other.id and \
self.created_at == other.created_at and \
self.sender_id == other.sender_id and \
self.sender_screen_name == other.sender_screen_name and \
self.recipient_id == other.recipient_id and \
self.recipient_screen_name == other.recipient_screen_name and \
self.text == other.text
except AttributeError:
return False
def __str__(self):
'''A string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
Returns:
A string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
'''
return self.AsJsonString()
def AsJsonString(self):
'''A JSON string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
Returns:
A JSON string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance
'''
return simplejson.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
def AsDict(self):
'''A dict representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
Return:
A dict representing this twitter.DirectMessage instance
'''
data = {}
if self.id:
data['id'] = self.id
if self.created_at:
data['created_at'] = self.created_at
if self.sender_id:
data['sender_id'] = self.sender_id
if self.sender_screen_name:
data['sender_screen_name'] = self.sender_screen_name
if self.recipient_id:
data['recipient_id'] = self.recipient_id
if self.recipient_screen_name:
data['recipient_screen_name'] = self.recipient_screen_name
if self.text:
data['text'] = self.text
return data
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data:
A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.DirectMessage instance
'''
return DirectMessage(created_at=data.get('created_at', None),
recipient_id=data.get('recipient_id', None),
sender_id=data.get('sender_id', None),
text=data.get('text', None),
sender_screen_name=data.get('sender_screen_name', None),
id=data.get('id', None),
recipient_screen_name=data.get('recipient_screen_name', None))
class Hashtag(object):
''' A class represeinting a twitter hashtag
'''
def __init__(self,
text=None):
self.text = text
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data:
A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.Hashtag instance
'''
return Hashtag(text = data.get('text', None))
class Trend(object):
''' A class representing a trending topic
'''
def __init__(self, name=None, query=None, timestamp=None):
self.name = name
self.query = query
self.timestamp = timestamp
def __str__(self):
return 'Name: %s\nQuery: %s\nTimestamp: %s\n' % (self.name, self.query, self.timestamp)
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data, timestamp = None):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict
Args:
data:
A JSON dict
timestamp:
Gets set as the timestamp property of the new object
Returns:
A twitter.Trend object
'''
return Trend(name=data.get('name', None),
query=data.get('query', None),
timestamp=timestamp)
class Url(object):
'''A class representing an URL contained in a tweet'''
def __init__(self,
url=None,
expanded_url=None):
self.url = url
self.expanded_url = expanded_url
@staticmethod
def NewFromJsonDict(data):
'''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
Args:
data:
A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
Returns:
A twitter.Url instance
'''
return Url(url=data.get('url', None),
expanded_url=data.get('expanded_url', None))
class Api(object):
'''A python interface into the Twitter API
By default, the Api caches results for 1 minute.
Example usage:
To create an instance of the twitter.Api class, with no authentication:
>>> import twitter
>>> api = twitter.Api()
To fetch the most recently posted public twitter status messages:
>>> statuses = api.GetPublicTimeline()
>>> print [s.user.name for s in statuses]
[u'DeWitt', u'Kesuke Miyagi', u'ev', u'Buzz Andersen', u'Biz Stone'] #...
To fetch a single user's public status messages, where "user" is either
a Twitter "short name" or their user id.
>>> statuses = api.GetUserTimeline(user)
>>> print [s.text for s in statuses]
To use authentication, instantiate the twitter.Api class with a
consumer key and secret; and the oAuth key and secret:
>>> api = twitter.Api(consumer_key='twitter consumer key',
consumer_secret='twitter consumer secret',
access_token_key='the_key_given',
access_token_secret='the_key_secret')
To fetch your friends (after being authenticated):
>>> users = api.GetFriends()
>>> print [u.name for u in users]
To post a twitter status message (after being authenticated):
>>> status = api.PostUpdate('I love python-twitter!')
>>> print status.text
I love python-twitter!
There are many other methods, including:
>>> api.PostUpdates(status)
>>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text)
>>> api.GetUser(user)
>>> api.GetReplies()
>>> api.GetUserTimeline(user)
>>> api.GetStatus(id)
>>> api.DestroyStatus(id)
>>> api.GetFriendsTimeline(user)
>>> api.GetFriends(user)
>>> api.GetFollowers()
>>> api.GetFeatured()
>>> api.GetDirectMessages()
>>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text)
>>> api.DestroyDirectMessage(id)
>>> api.DestroyFriendship(user)
>>> api.CreateFriendship(user)
>>> api.GetUserByEmail(email)
>>> api.VerifyCredentials()
'''
DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT = 60 # cache for 1 minute
_API_REALM = 'Twitter API'
def __init__(self,
consumer_key=None,
consumer_secret=None,
access_token_key=None,
access_token_secret=None,
input_encoding=None,
request_headers=None,
cache=DEFAULT_CACHE,
shortner=None,
base_url=None,
use_gzip_compression=False,
debugHTTP=False):
'''Instantiate a new twitter.Api object.
Args:
consumer_key:
Your Twitter user's consumer_key.
consumer_secret:
Your Twitter user's consumer_secret.
access_token_key:
The oAuth access token key value you retrieved
from running get_access_token.py.
access_token_secret:
The oAuth access token's secret, also retrieved
from the get_access_token.py run.
input_encoding:
The encoding used to encode input strings. [Optional]
request_header:
A dictionary of additional HTTP request headers. [Optional]
cache:
The cache instance to use. Defaults to DEFAULT_CACHE.
Use None to disable caching. [Optional]
shortner:
The shortner instance to use. Defaults to None.
See shorten_url.py for an example shortner. [Optional]
base_url:
The base URL to use to contact the Twitter API.
Defaults to https://twitter.com. [Optional]
use_gzip_compression:
Set to True to tell enable gzip compression for any call
made to Twitter. Defaults to False. [Optional]
debugHTTP:
Set to True to enable debug output from urllib2 when performing
any HTTP requests. Defaults to False. [Optional]
'''
self.SetCache(cache)
self._urllib = urllib2
self._cache_timeout = Api.DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT
self._input_encoding = input_encoding
self._use_gzip = use_gzip_compression
self._debugHTTP = debugHTTP
self._oauth_consumer = None
self._InitializeRequestHeaders(request_headers)
self._InitializeUserAgent()
self._InitializeDefaultParameters()
if base_url is None:
self.base_url = 'https://api.twitter.com/1'
else:
self.base_url = base_url
if consumer_key is not None and (access_token_key is None or
access_token_secret is None):
print >> sys.stderr, 'Twitter now requires an oAuth Access Token for API calls.'
print >> sys.stderr, 'If your using this library from a command line utility, please'
print >> sys.stderr, 'run the the included get_access_token.py tool to generate one.'
raise TwitterError('Twitter requires oAuth Access Token for all API access')
self.SetCredentials(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token_key, access_token_secret)
def SetCredentials(self,
consumer_key,
consumer_secret,
access_token_key=None,
access_token_secret=None):
'''Set the consumer_key and consumer_secret for this instance
Args:
consumer_key:
The consumer_key of the twitter account.
consumer_secret:
The consumer_secret for the twitter account.
access_token_key:
The oAuth access token key value you retrieved
from running get_access_token.py.
access_token_secret:
The oAuth access token's secret, also retrieved
from the get_access_token.py run.
'''
self._consumer_key = consumer_key
self._consumer_secret = consumer_secret
self._access_token_key = access_token_key
self._access_token_secret = access_token_secret
self._oauth_consumer = None
if consumer_key is not None and consumer_secret is not None and \
access_token_key is not None and access_token_secret is not None:
self._signature_method_plaintext = oauth.SignatureMethod_PLAINTEXT()
self._signature_method_hmac_sha1 = oauth.SignatureMethod_HMAC_SHA1()
self._oauth_token = oauth.Token(key=access_token_key, secret=access_token_secret)
self._oauth_consumer = oauth.Consumer(key=consumer_key, secret=consumer_secret)
def ClearCredentials(self):
'''Clear the any credentials for this instance
'''
self._consumer_key = None
self._consumer_secret = None
self._access_token_key = None
self._access_token_secret = None
self._oauth_consumer = None
def GetPublicTimeline(self,
since_id=None,
include_rts=None,
include_entities=None):
'''Fetch the sequence of public twitter.Status message for all users.
Args:
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
include_rts:
If True, the timeline will contain native retweets (if they
exist) in addition to the standard stream of tweets. [Optional]
include_entities:
If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities,".
This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a
discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and
hashtags. [Optional]
Returns:
An sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
'''
parameters = {}
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if include_rts:
parameters['include_rts'] = 1
if include_entities:
parameters['include_entities'] = 1
url = '%s/statuses/public_timeline.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def FilterPublicTimeline(self,
term,
since_id=None):
'''Filter the public twitter timeline by a given search term on
the local machine.
Args:
term:
term to search by.
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
containing the term
'''
statuses = self.GetPublicTimeline(since_id)
results = []
for s in statuses:
if s.text.lower().find(term.lower()) != -1:
results.append(s)
return results
def GetSearch(self,
term=None,
geocode=None,
since_id=None,
per_page=15,
page=1,
lang="en",
show_user="true",
query_users=False):
'''Return twitter search results for a given term.
Args:
term:
term to search by. Optional if you include geocode.
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
geocode:
geolocation information in the form (latitude, longitude, radius)
[Optional]
per_page:
number of results to return. Default is 15 [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
lang:
language for results. Default is English [Optional]
show_user:
prefixes screen name in status
query_users:
If set to False, then all users only have screen_name and
profile_image_url available.
If set to True, all information of users are available,
but it uses lots of request quota, one per status.
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message containing
the term
'''
# Build request parameters
parameters = {}
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if term is None and geocode is None:
return []
if term is not None:
parameters['q'] = term
if geocode is not None:
parameters['geocode'] = ','.join(map(str, geocode))
parameters['show_user'] = show_user
parameters['lang'] = lang
parameters['rpp'] = per_page
parameters['page'] = page
# Make and send requests
url = 'http://search.twitter.com/search.json'
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
results = []
for x in data['results']:
temp = Status.NewFromJsonDict(x)
if query_users:
# Build user object with new request
temp.user = self.GetUser(urllib.quote(x['from_user']))
else:
temp.user = User(screen_name=x['from_user'], profile_image_url=x['profile_image_url'])
results.append(temp)
# Return built list of statuses
return results # [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['results']]
def GetTrendsCurrent(self, exclude=None):
'''Get the current top trending topics
Args:
exclude:
Appends the exclude parameter as a request parameter.
Currently only exclude=hashtags is supported. [Optional]
Returns:
A list with 10 entries. Each entry contains the twitter.
'''
parameters = {}
if exclude:
parameters['exclude'] = exclude
url = '%s/trends/current.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
trends = []
for t in data['trends']:
for item in data['trends'][t]:
trends.append(Trend.NewFromJsonDict(item, timestamp = t))
return trends
def GetTrendsDaily(self, exclude=None, startdate=None):
'''Get the current top trending topics for each hour in a given day
Args:
startdate:
The start date for the report.
Should be in the format YYYY-MM-DD. [Optional]
exclude:
Appends the exclude parameter as a request parameter.
Currently only exclude=hashtags is supported. [Optional]
Returns:
A list with 24 entries. Each entry contains the twitter.
Trend elements that were trending at the corresponding hour of the day.
'''
parameters = {}
if exclude:
parameters['exclude'] = exclude
if not startdate:
startdate = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d', time.gmtime())
parameters['date'] = startdate
url = '%s/trends/daily.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
trends = []
for i in xrange(24):
trends.append(None)
for t in data['trends']:
idx = int(time.strftime('%H', time.strptime(t, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M')))
trends[idx] = [Trend.NewFromJsonDict(x, timestamp = t)
for x in data['trends'][t]]
return trends
def GetTrendsWeekly(self, exclude=None, startdate=None):
'''Get the top 30 trending topics for each day in a given week.
Args:
startdate:
The start date for the report.
Should be in the format YYYY-MM-DD. [Optional]
exclude:
Appends the exclude parameter as a request parameter.
Currently only exclude=hashtags is supported. [Optional]
Returns:
A list with each entry contains the twitter.
Trend elements of trending topics for the corrsponding day of the week
'''
parameters = {}
if exclude:
parameters['exclude'] = exclude
if not startdate:
startdate = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d', time.gmtime())
parameters['date'] = startdate
url = '%s/trends/weekly.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
trends = []
for i in xrange(7):
trends.append(None)
# use the epochs of the dates as keys for a dictionary
times = dict([(calendar.timegm(time.strptime(t, '%Y-%m-%d')),t)
for t in data['trends']])
cnt = 0
# create the resulting structure ordered by the epochs of the dates
for e in sorted(times.keys()):
trends[cnt] = [Trend.NewFromJsonDict(x, timestamp = times[e])
for x in data['trends'][times[e]]]
cnt +=1
return trends
def GetFriendsTimeline(self,
user=None,
count=None,
page=None,
since_id=None,
retweets=None,
include_entities=None):
'''Fetch the sequence of twitter.Status messages for a user's friends
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the user is private.
Args:
user:
Specifies the ID or screen name of the user for whom to return
the friends_timeline. If not specified then the authenticated
user set in the twitter.Api instance will be used. [Optional]
count:
Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be
greater than 100. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
retweets:
If True, the timeline will contain native retweets. [Optional]
include_entities:
If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities,".
This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a
discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and
hashtags. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
'''
if not user and not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
url = '%s/statuses/friends_timeline' % self.base_url
if user:
url = '%s/%s.json' % (url, user)
else:
url = '%s.json' % url
parameters = {}
if count is not None:
try:
if int(count) > 100:
raise TwitterError("'count' may not be greater than 100")
except ValueError:
raise TwitterError("'count' must be an integer")
parameters['count'] = count
if page is not None:
try:
parameters['page'] = int(page)
except ValueError:
raise TwitterError("'page' must be an integer")
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if retweets:
parameters['include_rts'] = True
if include_entities:
parameters['include_entities'] = True
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetUserTimeline(self,
id=None,
user_id=None,
screen_name=None,
since_id=None,
max_id=None,
count=None,
page=None,
include_rts=None,
include_entities=None):
'''Fetch the sequence of public Status messages for a single user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the user is private.
Args:
id:
Specifies the ID or screen name of the user for whom to return
the user_timeline. [Optional]
user_id:
Specfies the ID of the user for whom to return the
user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid user ID
is also a valid screen name. [Optional]
screen_name:
Specfies the screen name of the user for whom to return the
user_timeline. Helpful for disambiguating when a valid screen
name is also a user ID. [Optional]
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
max_id:
Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older
than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional]
count:
Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be
greater than 200. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
include_rts:
If True, the timeline will contain native retweets (if they
exist) in addition to the standard stream of tweets. [Optional]
include_entities:
If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities,".
This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a
discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and
hashtags. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of Status instances, one for each message up to count
'''
parameters = {}
if id:
url = '%s/statuses/user_timeline/%s.json' % (self.base_url, id)
elif user_id:
url = '%s/statuses/user_timeline.json?user_id=%d' % (self.base_url, user_id)
elif screen_name:
url = ('%s/statuses/user_timeline.json?screen_name=%s' % (self.base_url,
screen_name))
elif not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
else:
url = '%s/statuses/user_timeline.json' % self.base_url
if since_id:
try:
parameters['since_id'] = long(since_id)
except:
raise TwitterError("since_id must be an integer")
if max_id:
try:
parameters['max_id'] = long(max_id)
except:
raise TwitterError("max_id must be an integer")
if count:
try:
parameters['count'] = int(count)
except:
raise TwitterError("count must be an integer")
if page:
try:
parameters['page'] = int(page)
except:
raise TwitterError("page must be an integer")
if include_rts:
parameters['include_rts'] = 1
if include_entities:
parameters['include_entities'] = 1
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetStatus(self, id):
'''Returns a single status message.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the
status message is private.
Args:
id:
The numeric ID of the status you are trying to retrieve.
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance representing that status message
'''
try:
if id:
long(id)
except:
raise TwitterError("id must be an long integer")
url = '%s/statuses/show/%s.json' % (self.base_url, id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroyStatus(self, id):
'''Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated and the
authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.
Args:
id:
The numerical ID of the status you're trying to destroy.
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance representing the destroyed status message
'''
try:
if id:
long(id)
except:
raise TwitterError("id must be an integer")
url = '%s/statuses/destroy/%s.json' % (self.base_url, id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'id': id})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def PostUpdate(self, status, in_reply_to_status_id=None):
'''Post a twitter status message from the authenticated user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
status:
The message text to be posted.
Must be less than or equal to 140 characters.
in_reply_to_status_id:
The ID of an existing status that the status to be posted is
in reply to. This implicitly sets the in_reply_to_user_id
attribute of the resulting status to the user ID of the
message being replied to. Invalid/missing status IDs will be
ignored. [Optional]
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance representing the message posted.
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
url = '%s/statuses/update.json' % self.base_url
if isinstance(status, unicode) or self._input_encoding is None:
u_status = status
else:
u_status = unicode(status, self._input_encoding)
if len(u_status) > CHARACTER_LIMIT:
raise TwitterError("Text must be less than or equal to %d characters. "
"Consider using PostUpdates." % CHARACTER_LIMIT)
data = {'status': status}
if in_reply_to_status_id:
data['in_reply_to_status_id'] = in_reply_to_status_id
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data=data)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def PostUpdates(self, status, continuation=None, **kwargs):
'''Post one or more twitter status messages from the authenticated user.
Unlike api.PostUpdate, this method will post multiple status updates
if the message is longer than 140 characters.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
status:
The message text to be posted.
May be longer than 140 characters.
continuation:
The character string, if any, to be appended to all but the
last message. Note that Twitter strips trailing '...' strings
from messages. Consider using the unicode \u2026 character
(horizontal ellipsis) instead. [Defaults to None]
**kwargs:
See api.PostUpdate for a list of accepted parameters.
Returns:
A of list twitter.Status instance representing the messages posted.
'''
results = list()
if continuation is None:
continuation = ''
line_length = CHARACTER_LIMIT - len(continuation)
lines = textwrap.wrap(status, line_length)
for line in lines[0:-1]:
results.append(self.PostUpdate(line + continuation, **kwargs))
results.append(self.PostUpdate(lines[-1], **kwargs))
return results
def GetUserRetweets(self, count=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, include_entities=False):
'''Fetch the sequence of retweets made by a single user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
count:
The number of status messages to retrieve. [Optional]
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
max_id:
Returns results with an ID less than (that is, older than) or
equal to the specified ID. [Optional]
include_entities:
If True, each tweet will include a node called "entities,".
This node offers a variety of metadata about the tweet in a
discreet structure, including: user_mentions, urls, and
hashtags. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message up to count
'''
url = '%s/statuses/retweeted_by_me.json' % self.base_url
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
parameters = {}
if count is not None:
try:
if int(count) > 100:
raise TwitterError("'count' may not be greater than 100")
except ValueError:
raise TwitterError("'count' must be an integer")
if count:
parameters['count'] = count
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if include_entities:
parameters['include_entities'] = True
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetReplies(self, since=None, since_id=None, page=None):
'''Get a sequence of status messages representing the 20 most
recent replies (status updates prefixed with @twitterID) to the
authenticating user.
Args:
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
since:
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each reply to the user.
'''
url = '%s/statuses/replies.json' % self.base_url
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
parameters = {}
if since:
parameters['since'] = since
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if page:
parameters['page'] = page
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetRetweets(self, statusid):
'''Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of the tweet identified
by statusid
Args:
statusid:
The ID of the tweet for which retweets should be searched for
Returns:
A list of twitter.Status instances, which are retweets of statusid
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instsance must be authenticated.")
url = '%s/statuses/retweets/%s.json?include_entities=true&include_rts=true' % (self.base_url, statusid)
parameters = {}
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(s) for s in data]
def GetFriends(self, user=None, cursor=-1):
'''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user:
The twitter name or id of the user whose friends you are fetching.
If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend
'''
if not user and not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
if user:
url = '%s/statuses/friends/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
else:
url = '%s/statuses/friends.json' % self.base_url
parameters = {}
parameters['cursor'] = cursor
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [User.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['users']]
def GetFriendIDs(self, user=None, cursor=-1):
'''Returns a list of twitter user id's for every person
the specified user is following.
Args:
user:
The id or screen_name of the user to retrieve the id list for
[Optional]
Returns:
A list of integers, one for each user id.
'''
if not user and not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
if user:
url = '%s/friends/ids/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
else:
url = '%s/friends/ids.json' % self.base_url
parameters = {}
parameters['cursor'] = cursor
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return data
def GetFollowerIDs(self, userid=None, cursor=-1):
'''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
'''
url = 'http://twitter.com/followers/ids.json'
parameters = {}
parameters['cursor'] = cursor
if userid:
parameters['user_id'] = userid
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return data
def GetFollowers(self, page=None):
'''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
url = '%s/statuses/followers.json' % self.base_url
parameters = {}
if page:
parameters['page'] = page
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [User.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetFeatured(self):
'''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances featured on twitter.com
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.User instances
'''
url = '%s/statuses/featured.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [User.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def UsersLookup(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None, users=None):
'''Fetch extended information for the specified users.
Users may be specified either as lists of either user_ids,
screen_names, or twitter.User objects. The list of users that
are queried is the union of all specified parameters.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user_id:
A list of user_ids to retrieve extended information.
[Optional]
screen_name:
A list of screen_names to retrieve extended information.
[Optional]
users:
A list of twitter.User objects to retrieve extended information.
[Optional]
Returns:
A list of twitter.User objects for the requested users
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
if not user_id and not screen_name and not users:
raise TwitterError("Specify at least on of user_id, screen_name, or users.")
url = '%s/users/lookup.json' % self.base_url
parameters = {}
uids = list()
if user_id:
uids.extend(user_id)
if users:
uids.extend([u.id for u in users])
if len(uids):
parameters['user_id'] = ','.join(["%s" % u for u in uids])
if screen_name:
parameters['screen_name'] = ','.join(screen_name)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [User.NewFromJsonDict(u) for u in data]
def GetUser(self, user):
'''Returns a single user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user: The twitter name or id of the user to retrieve.
Returns:
A twitter.User instance representing that user
'''
url = '%s/users/show/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
json = self._FetchUrl(url)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def GetDirectMessages(self, since=None, since_id=None, page=None):
'''Returns a list of the direct messages sent to the authenticating user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
since:
Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created
after the specified HTTP-formatted date. [Optional]
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.DirectMessage instances
'''
url = '%s/direct_messages.json' % self.base_url
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
parameters = {}
if since:
parameters['since'] = since
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if page:
parameters['page'] = page
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def PostDirectMessage(self, user, text):
'''Post a twitter direct message from the authenticated user
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user: The ID or screen name of the recipient user.
text: The message text to be posted. Must be less than 140 characters.
Returns:
A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message posted
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
url = '%s/direct_messages/new.json' % self.base_url
data = {'text': text, 'user': user}
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data=data)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroyDirectMessage(self, id):
'''Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated, and the
authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct
message.
Args:
id: The id of the direct message to be destroyed
Returns:
A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message destroyed
'''
url = '%s/direct_messages/destroy/%s.json' % (self.base_url, id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'id': id})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def CreateFriendship(self, user):
'''Befriends the user specified in the user parameter as the authenticating user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
The ID or screen name of the user to befriend.
Returns:
A twitter.User instance representing the befriended user.
'''
url = '%s/friendships/create/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'user': user})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroyFriendship(self, user):
'''Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the user parameter.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
The ID or screen name of the user with whom to discontinue friendship.
Returns:
A twitter.User instance representing the discontinued friend.
'''
url = '%s/friendships/destroy/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'user': user})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def CreateFavorite(self, status):
'''Favorites the status specified in the status parameter as the authenticating user.
Returns the favorite status when successful.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
The twitter.Status instance to mark as a favorite.
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-marked favorite.
'''
url = '%s/favorites/create/%s.json' % (self.base_url, status.id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'id': status.id})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroyFavorite(self, status):
'''Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user.
Returns the un-favorited status in the requested format when successful.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
The twitter.Status to unmark as a favorite.
Returns:
A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-unmarked favorite.
'''
url = '%s/favorites/destroy/%s.json' % (self.base_url, status.id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'id': status.id})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return Status.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def GetFavorites(self,
user=None,
page=None):
'''Return a list of Status objects representing favorited tweets.
By default, returns the (up to) 20 most recent tweets for the
authenticated user.
Args:
user:
The twitter name or id of the user whose favorites you are fetching.
If not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
'''
parameters = {}
if page:
parameters['page'] = page
if user:
url = '%s/favorites/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user)
elif not user and not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
else:
url = '%s/favorites.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def GetMentions(self,
since_id=None,
max_id=None,
page=None):
'''Returns the 20 most recent mentions (status containing @twitterID)
for the authenticating user.
Args:
since_id:
Returns results with an ID greater than (that is, more recent
than) the specified ID. There are limits to the number of
Tweets which can be accessed through the API. If the limit of
Tweets has occured since the since_id, the since_id will be
forced to the oldest ID available. [Optional]
max_id:
Returns only statuses with an ID less than
(that is, older than) the specified ID. [Optional]
page:
Specifies the page of results to retrieve.
Note: there are pagination limits. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each mention of the user.
'''
url = '%s/statuses/mentions.json' % self.base_url
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
parameters = {}
if since_id:
parameters['since_id'] = since_id
if max_id:
parameters['max_id'] = max_id
if page:
parameters['page'] = page
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data]
def CreateList(self, user, name, mode=None, description=None):
'''Creates a new list with the give name
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user:
Twitter name to create the list for
name:
New name for the list
mode:
'public' or 'private'.
Defaults to 'public'. [Optional]
description:
Description of the list. [Optional]
Returns:
A twitter.List instance representing the new list
'''
url = '%s/%s/lists.json' % (self.base_url, user)
parameters = {'name': name}
if mode is not None:
parameters['mode'] = mode
if description is not None:
parameters['description'] = description
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroyList(self, user, id):
'''Destroys the list from the given user
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user:
The user to remove the list from.
id:
The slug or id of the list to remove.
Returns:
A twitter.List instance representing the removed list.
'''
url = '%s/%s/lists/%s.json' % (self.base_url, user, id)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'_method': 'DELETE'})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def CreateSubscription(self, owner, list):
'''Creates a subscription to a list by the authenticated user
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
owner:
User name or id of the owner of the list being subscribed to.
list:
The slug or list id to subscribe the user to
Returns:
A twitter.List instance representing the list subscribed to
'''
url = '%s/%s/%s/subscribers.json' % (self.base_url, owner, list)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'list_id': list})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def DestroySubscription(self, owner, list):
'''Destroys the subscription to a list for the authenticated user
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
owner:
The user id or screen name of the user that owns the
list that is to be unsubscribed from
list:
The slug or list id of the list to unsubscribe from
Returns:
A twitter.List instance representing the removed list.
'''
url = '%s/%s/%s/subscribers.json' % (self.base_url, owner, list)
json = self._FetchUrl(url, post_data={'_method': 'DELETE', 'list_id': list})
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return List.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def GetSubscriptions(self, user, cursor=-1):
'''Fetch the sequence of Lists that the given user is subscribed to
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user:
The twitter name or id of the user
cursor:
"page" value that Twitter will use to start building the
list sequence from. -1 to start at the beginning.
Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor
and previous_cursor. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.List instances, one for each list
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
url = '%s/%s/lists/subscriptions.json' % (self.base_url, user)
parameters = {}
parameters['cursor'] = cursor
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
print data
return [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['lists']]
def GetLists(self, user, cursor=-1):
'''Fetch the sequence of lists for a user.
The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
Args:
user:
The twitter name or id of the user whose friends you are fetching.
If the passed in user is the same as the authenticated user
then you will also receive private list data.
cursor:
"page" value that Twitter will use to start building the
list sequence from. -1 to start at the beginning.
Twitter will return in the result the values for next_cursor
and previous_cursor. [Optional]
Returns:
A sequence of twitter.List instances, one for each list
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
url = '%s/%s/lists.json' % (self.base_url, user)
parameters = {}
parameters['cursor'] = cursor
json = self._FetchUrl(url, parameters=parameters)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return [List.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in data['lists']]
def GetUserByEmail(self, email):
'''Returns a single user by email address.
Args:
email:
The email of the user to retrieve.
Returns:
A twitter.User instance representing that user
'''
url = '%s/users/show.json?email=%s' % (self.base_url, email)
json = self._FetchUrl(url)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def VerifyCredentials(self):
'''Returns a twitter.User instance if the authenticating user is valid.
Returns:
A twitter.User instance representing that user if the
credentials are valid, None otherwise.
'''
if not self._oauth_consumer:
raise TwitterError("Api instance must first be given user credentials.")
url = '%s/account/verify_credentials.json' % self.base_url
try:
json = self._FetchUrl(url, no_cache=True)
except urllib2.HTTPError, http_error:
if http_error.code == httplib.UNAUTHORIZED:
return None
else:
raise http_error
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return User.NewFromJsonDict(data)
def SetCache(self, cache):
'''Override the default cache. Set to None to prevent caching.
Args:
cache:
An instance that supports the same API as the twitter._FileCache
'''
if cache == DEFAULT_CACHE:
self._cache = _FileCache()
else:
self._cache = cache
def SetUrllib(self, urllib):
'''Override the default urllib implementation.
Args:
urllib:
An instance that supports the same API as the urllib2 module
'''
self._urllib = urllib
def SetCacheTimeout(self, cache_timeout):
'''Override the default cache timeout.
Args:
cache_timeout:
Time, in seconds, that responses should be reused.
'''
self._cache_timeout = cache_timeout
def SetUserAgent(self, user_agent):
'''Override the default user agent
Args:
user_agent:
A string that should be send to the server as the User-agent
'''
self._request_headers['User-Agent'] = user_agent
def SetXTwitterHeaders(self, client, url, version):
'''Set the X-Twitter HTTP headers that will be sent to the server.
Args:
client:
The client name as a string. Will be sent to the server as
the 'X-Twitter-Client' header.
url:
The URL of the meta.xml as a string. Will be sent to the server
as the 'X-Twitter-Client-URL' header.
version:
The client version as a string. Will be sent to the server
as the 'X-Twitter-Client-Version' header.
'''
self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client'] = client
self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-URL'] = url
self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-Version'] = version
def SetSource(self, source):
'''Suggest the "from source" value to be displayed on the Twitter web site.
The value of the 'source' parameter must be first recognized by
the Twitter server. New source values are authorized on a case by
case basis by the Twitter development team.
Args:
source:
The source name as a string. Will be sent to the server as
the 'source' parameter.
'''
self._default_params['source'] = source
def GetRateLimitStatus(self):
'''Fetch the rate limit status for the currently authorized user.
Returns:
A dictionary containing the time the limit will reset (reset_time),
the number of remaining hits allowed before the reset (remaining_hits),
the number of hits allowed in a 60-minute period (hourly_limit), and
the time of the reset in seconds since The Epoch (reset_time_in_seconds).
'''
url = '%s/account/rate_limit_status.json' % self.base_url
json = self._FetchUrl(url, no_cache=True)
data = simplejson.loads(json)
self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
return data
def MaximumHitFrequency(self):
'''Determines the minimum number of seconds that a program must wait
before hitting the server again without exceeding the rate_limit
imposed for the currently authenticated user.
Returns:
The minimum second interval that a program must use so as to not
exceed the rate_limit imposed for the user.
'''
rate_status = self.GetRateLimitStatus()
reset_time = rate_status.get('reset_time', None)
limit = rate_status.get('remaining_hits', None)
if reset_time and limit:
# put the reset time into a datetime object
reset = datetime.datetime(*rfc822.parsedate(reset_time)[:7])
# find the difference in time between now and the reset time + 1 hour
delta = reset + datetime.timedelta(hours=1) - datetime.datetime.utcnow()
# determine the minimum number of seconds allowed as a regular interval
max_frequency = int(delta.seconds / limit)
# return the number of seconds
return max_frequency
return 0
def _BuildUrl(self, url, path_elements=None, extra_params=None):
# Break url into consituent parts
(scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment) = urlparse.urlparse(url)
# Add any additional path elements to the path
if path_elements:
# Filter out the path elements that have a value of None
p = [i for i in path_elements if i]
if not path.endswith('/'):
path += '/'
path += '/'.join(p)
# Add any additional query parameters to the query string
if extra_params and len(extra_params) > 0:
extra_query = self._EncodeParameters(extra_params)
# Add it to the existing query
if query:
query += '&' + extra_query
else:
query = extra_query
# Return the rebuilt URL
return urlparse.urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment))
def _InitializeRequestHeaders(self, request_headers):
if request_headers:
self._request_headers = request_headers
else:
self._request_headers = {}
def _InitializeUserAgent(self):
user_agent = 'Python-urllib/%s (python-twitter/%s)' % \
(self._urllib.__version__, __version__)
self.SetUserAgent(user_agent)
def _InitializeDefaultParameters(self):
self._default_params = {}
def _DecompressGzippedResponse(self, response):
raw_data = response.read()
if response.headers.get('content-encoding', None) == 'gzip':
url_data = gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=StringIO.StringIO(raw_data)).read()
else:
url_data = raw_data
return url_data
def _Encode(self, s):
if self._input_encoding:
return unicode(s, self._input_encoding).encode('utf-8')
else:
return unicode(s).encode('utf-8')
def _EncodeParameters(self, parameters):
'''Return a string in key=value&key=value form
Values of None are not included in the output string.
Args:
parameters:
A dict of (key, value) tuples, where value is encoded as
specified by self._encoding
Returns:
A URL-encoded string in "key=value&key=value" form
'''
if parameters is None:
return None
else:
return urllib.urlencode(dict([(k, self._Encode(v)) for k, v in parameters.items() if v is not None]))
def _EncodePostData(self, post_data):
'''Return a string in key=value&key=value form
Values are assumed to be encoded in the format specified by self._encoding,
and are subsequently URL encoded.
Args:
post_data:
A dict of (key, value) tuples, where value is encoded as
specified by self._encoding
Returns:
A URL-encoded string in "key=value&key=value" form
'''
if post_data is None:
return None
else:
return urllib.urlencode(dict([(k, self._Encode(v)) for k, v in post_data.items()]))
def _CheckForTwitterError(self, data):
"""Raises a TwitterError if twitter returns an error message.
Args:
data:
A python dict created from the Twitter json response
Raises:
TwitterError wrapping the twitter error message if one exists.
"""
# Twitter errors are relatively unlikely, so it is faster
# to check first, rather than try and catch the exception
if 'error' in data:
raise TwitterError(data['error'])
def _FetchUrl(self,
url,
post_data=None,
parameters=None,
no_cache=None,
use_gzip_compression=None):
'''Fetch a URL, optionally caching for a specified time.
Args:
url:
The URL to retrieve
post_data:
A dict of (str, unicode) key/value pairs.
If set, POST will be used.
parameters:
A dict whose key/value pairs should encoded and added
to the query string. [Optional]
no_cache:
If true, overrides the cache on the current request
use_gzip_compression:
If True, tells the server to gzip-compress the response.
It does not apply to POST requests.
Defaults to None, which will get the value to use from
the instance variable self._use_gzip [Optional]
Returns:
A string containing the body of the response.
'''
# Build the extra parameters dict
extra_params = {}
if self._default_params:
extra_params.update(self._default_params)
if parameters:
extra_params.update(parameters)
if post_data:
http_method = "POST"
else:
http_method = "GET"
if self._debugHTTP:
_debug = 1
else:
_debug = 0
http_handler = self._urllib.HTTPHandler(debuglevel=_debug)
https_handler = self._urllib.HTTPSHandler(debuglevel=_debug)
opener = self._urllib.OpenerDirector()
opener.add_handler(http_handler)
opener.add_handler(https_handler)
if use_gzip_compression is None:
use_gzip = self._use_gzip
else:
use_gzip = use_gzip_compression
# Set up compression
if use_gzip and not post_data:
opener.addheaders.append(('Accept-Encoding', 'gzip'))
if self._oauth_consumer is not None:
if post_data and http_method == "POST":
parameters = post_data.copy()
req = oauth.Request.from_consumer_and_token(self._oauth_consumer,
token=self._oauth_token,
http_method=http_method,
http_url=url, parameters=parameters)
req.sign_request(self._signature_method_hmac_sha1, self._oauth_consumer, self._oauth_token)
headers = req.to_header()
if http_method == "POST":
encoded_post_data = req.to_postdata()
else:
encoded_post_data = None
url = req.to_url()
else:
url = self._BuildUrl(url, extra_params=extra_params)
encoded_post_data = self._EncodePostData(post_data)
# Open and return the URL immediately if we're not going to cache
if encoded_post_data or no_cache or not self._cache or not self._cache_timeout:
response = opener.open(url, encoded_post_data)
url_data = self._DecompressGzippedResponse(response)
opener.close()
else:
# Unique keys are a combination of the url and the oAuth Consumer Key
if self._consumer_key:
key = self._consumer_key + ':' + url
else:
key = url
# See if it has been cached before
last_cached = self._cache.GetCachedTime(key)
# If the cached version is outdated then fetch another and store it
if not last_cached or time.time() >= last_cached + self._cache_timeout:
try:
response = opener.open(url, encoded_post_data)
url_data = self._DecompressGzippedResponse(response)
self._cache.Set(key, url_data)
except urllib2.HTTPError, e:
print e
opener.close()
else:
url_data = self._cache.Get(key)
# Always return the latest version
return url_data
class _FileCacheError(Exception):
'''Base exception class for FileCache related errors'''
class _FileCache(object):
DEPTH = 3
def __init__(self,root_directory=None):
self._InitializeRootDirectory(root_directory)
def Get(self,key):
path = self._GetPath(key)
if os.path.exists(path):
return open(path).read()
else:
return None
def Set(self,key,data):
path = self._GetPath(key)
directory = os.path.dirname(path)
if not os.path.exists(directory):
os.makedirs(directory)
if not os.path.isdir(directory):
raise _FileCacheError('%s exists but is not a directory' % directory)
temp_fd, temp_path = tempfile.mkstemp()
temp_fp = os.fdopen(temp_fd, 'w')
temp_fp.write(data)
temp_fp.close()
if not path.startswith(self._root_directory):
raise _FileCacheError('%s does not appear to live under %s' %
(path, self._root_directory))
if os.path.exists(path):
os.remove(path)
os.rename(temp_path, path)
def Remove(self,key):
path = self._GetPath(key)
if not path.startswith(self._root_directory):
raise _FileCacheError('%s does not appear to live under %s' %
(path, self._root_directory ))
if os.path.exists(path):
os.remove(path)
def GetCachedTime(self,key):
path = self._GetPath(key)
if os.path.exists(path):
return os.path.getmtime(path)
else:
return None
def _GetUsername(self):
'''Attempt to find the username in a cross-platform fashion.'''
try:
return os.getenv('USER') or \
os.getenv('LOGNAME') or \
os.getenv('USERNAME') or \
os.getlogin() or \
'nobody'
except (IOError, OSError), e:
return 'nobody'
def _GetTmpCachePath(self):
username = self._GetUsername()
cache_directory = 'python.cache_' + username
return os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), cache_directory)
def _InitializeRootDirectory(self, root_directory):
if not root_directory:
root_directory = self._GetTmpCachePath()
root_directory = os.path.abspath(root_directory)
if not os.path.exists(root_directory):
os.mkdir(root_directory)
if not os.path.isdir(root_directory):
raise _FileCacheError('%s exists but is not a directory' %
root_directory)
self._root_directory = root_directory
def _GetPath(self,key):
try:
hashed_key = md5(key).hexdigest()
except TypeError:
hashed_key = md5.new(key).hexdigest()
return os.path.join(self._root_directory,
self._GetPrefix(hashed_key),
hashed_key)
def _GetPrefix(self,hashed_key):
return os.path.sep.join(hashed_key[0:_FileCache.DEPTH])
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