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Possible solutions to clients auto-discovering a broker:
Zeroconf / Multicast-DNS / DNS-SD
Anycast / a well-known IPv6 address
The following sequence might be reasonable:
Use user supplied values for server name or ip number
Use a server name or ip number received as DHCP option (how can we apply for an official DHCP option assignment for MQTT? A: Application instructions at the end of RFC 2132. List of all current DHCP Options. Recommend Option 7 (Logging Server).
Zeroconf to find the mqtt server
<localdomain>as server name
Try using the ip address of the DHCP server
Use a vendor supplied server name
Some steps may be skipped if not supported by the particular client.