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fwknop-2.0.4 (11/15/2012):
    - [client] Misc fixes and the addition of save_args and last command
      (.fwknop.last) support on the Windows platform.
    - [client] Fixed bug in username determination code where a valid value
      could be overrwritten in certain circumstances.
    - [server] Added upstart config at extras/upstart/fwknop.conf. This
      allows the fwknopd to easily be managed with upstart via commands like
      "service fwknop start" and "service fwknop stop".
    - [server] (Vlad Glagolev) Submitted a patch to fix ndbm/gdbm usage when
      --disable-file-cache is used for the autoconf configure script. This
      functionality was broken in be4193d734850fe60f14a26b547525ea0b9ce1e9
      through improper handling of #define macros from --disable-file-cache.
    - [server] (Vlad Glagolev) Submitted a patch to fix command exec mode
      under SPA message type validity test. Support for command exec mode was
      also added to the test suite.
    - (Vlad Glagolev) Submitted an OpenBSD port for fwknop-2.0.3, and this has
      been checked in under the extras/openbsd/ directory.
    - [server] Bug fix to allow GPG_ALLOW_NO_PW to result in not also having
      to specify a Rijndael key.
    - [Android] Added new .properties files to allow the fwknop client to
      build and function properly on the latest Android release (4.1.2).
    - [client] Added '-P udpraw' to allow the client to send SPA packets over
      UDP with a spoofed source IP address. This is in addition to the
      original 'tcpraw' and 'icmp' protocols that also support a spoofed
      source IP.
    - [libfko] Bug fix to check b64_decode() return value to ensure that
      non-base64 encoded data is never used. Even though other validation
      routines checked decoded results, it is important to discard invalid
      data as early as possible. Note too that such invalid data would only
      be provided to b64_decode() after proper decryption, so the client must
      provide authentic SPA data.
    - [libfko] Added validation of NAT access strings in the various NAT
    - [libfko] Restricted usernames embedded in SPA packets to be
      alpha-numeric along with "-" chars.
    - [client] (Franck Joncourt) Contributed a patch to allow the fwknop
      client to be stopped during the password entry prompt with Ctrl-C before
      any SPA packet is sent on the wire.
    - [client+server] Applied patch from Franck Joncourt to remove unnecessary
      chmod() call when creating client rc file and server replay cache file.
      The permissions are now set appropriately via open(), and at the same
      time this patch fixes a potential race condition since the previous code
      used fopen() followed by chmod().
    - [server] Bug fix to accept SPA packets over ICMP if the fwknop client
      is executed with '-P icmp' and the user has the required privileges.
    - [test suite] Applied patch from Franck Joncourt to have the perl FKO
      module link against libfko in the local directory (if it exists) so that
      it doesn't have to have libfko completely installed in the /usr/lib/
      directory. This allows the test suite to run FKO tests without
      installing libfko.
    - [test suite] Significant update to include a set of fuzzing SPA packets
      that are built using a patched version of libfko. These packets are
      located in the test/fuzzing/bogus_spa_packets file, and are designed to
      ensure proper validation of SPA packet data. This validation is
      performed in --enable-perl-module-checks mode via the perl FKO module.
    - [client] Added --icmp-type and --icmp-code arguments so the user can
      control the icmp type/code combination for spoofed SPA packets ('-P
      icmp') mode.
    - [client] Updated default TTL value to 64 for spoofed SPA packets. This
      is closer to more OS default TTL values than the previous 255.
    - Updated build CFLAGS and LDFLAGS to conform to the Debian
      hardening-includes file for PIE support (e.g. '-fPIE' for CFLAGS and
      '-fPIE -pie' for LDFLAGS).
    - [test suite] For GnuPG tests that require a passphrase associated with
      a gpg key, added a pinentry check to see if the local gpg engine
      requires it. If so, the gpg test that require a key are excluded since.
    - [server] Added a new '--pcap-file <file>' option to allow pcap files to
      be processed directly by fwknopd instead of sniffing an interface. This
      feature is mostly intended for debugging purposes.
    - [server] Added chain_exists() check to SPA rule creation so that if any
      of the fwknop chains are deleted out from under fwknopd they will be
      recreated on the fly. This mitigates scenarios where fwknopd might be
      started before a system level firewall policy is applied due to init
      script ordering, or if an iptables policy is re-applied without
      restarting fwknopd.

fwknop-2.0.3 (09/03/2012):
    - [server] Fernando Arnaboldi from IOActive found several DoS/code
      execution vulnerabilities for malicious fwknop clients that manage to
      get past the authentication stage (so a such a client must be in
      possession of a valid access.conf encryption key). These vulnerabilities
      manifested themselves in the handling of malformed access requests, and
      both the fwknopd server code along with libfko now perform stronger input
      validation of access request data. These vulnerabilities affect
      pre-2.0.3 fwknop releases.
    - [server] Fernando Arnaboldi from IOActive found a condition in which
      the server did not properly validate allow IP addresses from malicious
      authenticated clients. This has been fixed with stronger allow IP
    - [client+server] Fernando Arnaboldi from IOActive found that strict
      filesystem permissions for various fwknop files are not verified. Added
      warnings whenever permissions are not strict enough, and ensured that
      files created by the fwknop client and server are only set to user
    - [client] Fernando Arnaboldi from IOActive found a local buffer overflow
      in --last processing with a maliciously constructed ~/ file.
      This has been fixed with proper validation of arguments.
    - [server] Fernando Arnaboldi from IOActive found several conditions in
      which the server did not properly throw out maliciously constructed
      variables in the access.conf file. This has been fixed along with new
      fuzzing tests in the test suite.
    - [test suite] Added a new fuzzing capability to ensure proper server-side
      input validation. Fuzzing data is constructed with modified fwknop
      client code that is designed to emulate malicious behavior.
    - Fixed RPM builds by including the $(DESTDIR) prefix for uninstall-local
      and install-exec-hook stages in

fwknop-2.0.2 (08/18/2012):
    - [server] For GPG mode, added a new access.conf variable
      "GPG_ALLOW_NO_PW" to make it possible to leverage a server-side GPG key
      pair that has no associated password. This comes in handy when a system
      requires the user to leverage gpg-agent / pinentry which can present a
      problem in automated environments as required by the fwknopd server.
      Now, it might seem like a problem to remove the passphrase from a GPG
      key pair, but it's important to note that simply doing this is little
      worse than storing the passphrase in the clear on disk anyway in the
      access.conf file. Further, this link helps provide additional detail:

    - [client] In IP resolution mode (-R) changed HTTP connection type to
      'close' since there is no need for connection persistence, and indeed the
      client expects to just get the IP and the connection to be closed.
      Jonathan Schulz submitted a patch for this.
    - [client] Bug fix to ensure that all data is read via recv() from a
      remote webserver IP resolution mode (-R). Previously IP resolution
      could fail if HTTP headers were transferred separately from the data
      (for whatever reason). Jonathan Schulz submitted a patch for this.
    - [client] Added backup check against a 'myip' cgi instance
      in -R mode if the normal check against fails.
    - [server] Bug fix to implement FLUSH_IPT_AT_INIT and FLUSH_IPT_AT_EXIT
      functionality. These are enabled by default, and now iptables rules
      added by fwknopd can be made persistent by setting these variables to
      "N" in the fwknopd.conf file (this is not a recommended setting
      [server] Added FLUSH_IPFW_AT_INIT and FLUSH_IPFW_AT_EXIT for ipfw
      firewalls to emulate the corresponding functionality that is implemented
      for iptables firewalls. This was suggested by Jonathan Schulz.
    - [server] Replay attack bug fix to ensure that an attacker cannot force a
      replay attack by intercepting an SPA packet and the replaying it with the
      base64 version of "Salted__" (for Rijndael) or the "hQ" prefix (for
      GnuPG). This is an important fix. The following comment was added into
      the fwknopd code:

      /* Ignore any SPA packets that contain the Rijndael or GnuPG prefixes
       * since an attacker might have tacked them on to a previously seen
       * SPA packet in an attempt to get past the replay check. And, we're
       * no worse off since a legitimate SPA packet that happens to include
       * a prefix after the outer one is stripped off won't decrypt properly
       * anyway because libfko would not add a new one.

    - [server] Fixed a memory leak bug in the replay attack detection code.
      The leak was found with the test suite in --enable-valgrind mode, and
      here is the valgrind trace that exposed it:

      44 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 2 of 2
         at 0x482BE68: malloc (in
         by 0x490EA50: strdup (strdup.c:43)
         by 0x10CD69: incoming_spa (incoming_spa.c:162)
         by 0x10E000: process_packet (process_packet.c:200)
         by 0x4862E63: ??? (in /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/
         by 0x4865667: pcap_dispatch (in /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/
         by 0x10DABF: pcap_capture (pcap_capture.c:226)
         by 0x10A798: main (fwknopd.c:299)

    - [test suite] Added GPG tests for keyrings that have no associated
    - [server] Implemented a new check to ensure that the iptables 'comment'
      match exists to ensure the proper environment for fwknopd operations.
      This check is controlled by the new ENABLE_IPT_COMMENT_CHECK variable,
      and was suggested by Hank Leininger.
    - [server] 'make install' fix to ensure restrictive permissions on the
      /etc/fwknop/ directory and /etc/fwknop/* files. Also updated the 'make
      install' step to not overwrite any existing config files in /etc/fwknop/
      and instead install new copies from the source tree at
      /etc/fwknop/fwknopd.conf.inst and /etc/fwknop/access.conf.inst

fwknop-2.0.1 (07/23/2012):
    - [server] Bug fix where the same encryption key used for two stanzas in
      the access.conf file would result in access requests that matched the
      second stanza to always be treated as a replay attack. This has been
      fixed for the fwknop-2.0.1 release, and was reported by Andy Rowland. Now
      the fwknopd server computes the SHA256 digest of raw incoming payload
      data before decryption, and compares this against all previous hashes.
      Previous to this commit, fwknopd would add a new hash to the replay
      digest list right after the first access.conf stanza match, so when SPA
      packet data matched the second access.conf stanza a matching replay
      digest would already be there.
    - [server] Updated PCAP_LOOP_SLEEP default to 1/10th of a second (in
      microseconds). This was supposed to be the default anyway, but C
      Anthony Risinger reported a bug where fwknopd was consuming more
      resources than necessary, and the cause was PCAP_LOOP_SLEEP set by
      default to 1/100th of a second - this has been fixed.
    - [libfko] Added SPA message validation calls to fko decoding routines to
      help ensure that SPA messages conform to expected values.
    - Bug fix for PF firewalls: updated the PF anchor check to not rely on
      listing the PF policy - fwknopd now uses 'pfctl -s Anchor' instead.
    - [test suite] Added parsing of valgrind output to produce a listing of
      functions that have been flagged - this assists in the development
      process to ensure that fwknop is not leaking memory.
    - [test suite] Bug fix on Mac OS X systems to account for libfko.dylib path
      instead of This fixes the existence check for libfko.
    - [test suite] Added tests for --nat-local mode.
    - [client] Fixed several minor memory leaks caught by valgrind.
    - [libfko] Minor gcc warning fix: fko_decode.c:43:17: warning: variable
      'edata_size' set but not used [-Wunused-but-set-variable].
    - Updated fwknopd init script for Debian systems (contributed by Franck

fwknop-2.0 (01/02/2012):
    - This is the first production release that has been completely re-written
      in C. This brings Single Packet Authorization functionality to all sorts
      of machines from embedded devices to large systems. iptables, ipfw, and
      pf firewalls are supported by the fwknopd daemon, and the fwknop client
      is known to work on most major *NIX environments, the iPhone and Android
      operating systems, and Cygwin under Windows.
    - Added FORCE_NAT mode to the access.conf file so that for any valid SPA
      packet, force the requested connection to be NAT'd through to the
      specified (usually internal) IP and port value. This is useful if there
      are multiple internal systems running a service such as SSHD, and you
      want to give transparent access to only one internal system for each
      stanza in the access.conf file. This way, multiple external users can
      each directly access only one internal system per SPA key.
    - Added two new access.conf variables are added "ACCESS_EXPIRE" and
      "ACCESS_EXPIRE_EPOCH" to allow access stanzas to be expired without
      having to modify the access.conf file and restart fwknopd.
    - Added a new feature to allow an access stanza that matches the SPA source
      address to not automatically short circuit other stanzas if there is an
      error (such as when there are multiple encryption keys involved and an
      incoming SPA packet is meant for, say, the second stanza and the first
      therefore doesn't allow proper decryption).
    - Bug fix to exclude SPA packets with timestamps in the future that are too
      great (old packets were properly excluded already).
    - Bug fix to honor the fwknop client --time-offset-plus and
      --time-offset-minus options
    - Added DNAT mode tests, minor memory leak fix in NAT mode, added fwknopd
      check for ENABLE_IPT_FORWARDING variable before attempting NAT access.
    - [test suite] Added --diff mode to compare results from one execution to
      the next.
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