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Michael Rash
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fwsnort-1.6.5 (//2014):
    - (Paulo Bruck) Submitted a patch to fix a bug in fwsnort usage of the
      iptables --ulog-prefix option (an invalid quote was being used previous
      to the fix).

fwsnort-1.6.4 (02/02/2014):
    - Bug fix for vulnerability CVE-2014-0039 reported by Murray McAllister of
      the Red Hat Security Team in which an attacker-controlled fwsnort.conf
      file could be read by fwsnort when not running as root. This was caused
      by fwsnort reading './fwsnort.conf' when not running as root and when a
      path to the config file was not explicitly set with -c on the command
      line. This behavior has been changed to require the user to specify a
      path to fwsnort.conf with -c when not running as root.
    - Switch iptables-restore exec() strategy to leverage 'cat'
      against file (fixes CentOS deployments).
    - Updated to bundle the latest Emerging Threats rule set.

fwsnort-1.6.3 (12/21/2012):
    - Bug fix to ensure that !, <, >, and = chars in content strings are
      converted to the appropriate hex equivalents. All content strings with
      characters outside of [A-Za-z0-9] are now converted to hex-string format
      in their entirety. This should also fix an issue that results in the
      following error when running /var/lib/fwsnort/

        Using intrapositioned negation (`--option ! this`) is deprecated in
        favor of extrapositioned (`! --option this`).
        Bad argument `bm'
        Error occurred at line: 64
        Try `iptables-restore -h' or 'iptables-restore --help' for more

    - Bug fix to set default max string length in --no-ipt-test mode where
      iptables capabilities are not tested.
    - (Andrew Merenbach) Bug fix to properly honor --exclude-regex filtering
    - Added fwsnort test suite to the test/ directory. This mimics the test
      suites from the psad and fwknop projects, and it designed to examine
      many of the run time results of fwsnort.
    - Added the ability to easily revert the fwsnort policy back to the
      original iptables policy with "/var/lib/fwsnort/ -r". Note
      that this reverts back to the policy as it was when fwsnort itself was
    - Implemented a single unified function for iptables match parameter
      length testing, and optimized to drastically reduce run time for iptables
      capabilities checks (going from over 20 seconds to less than one second
      in some cases).
    - (Dwight Davis) Contributed patches for several bugs including not
      handling --exclude-regex properly, not ignoring the deleted.rules file,
      not handling --strict mode operations correctly, and more. These issues
      and the corresponding patch were originally reported here:
    - Bug fix for Snort rules with HOME_NET(any) -> EXTERNAL_NET(any) to
      ensure they go into the OUTPUT chain instead of the INPUT chain. This
      bug was reported by Dwight Davis.
    - Updated to bundle the latest Emerging Threats rule set.

fwsnort-1.6.2 (04/28/2012):
    - Switched --no-ipt-sync to default to not syncing with the iptables policy.
      By default fwsnort attempts to match translated Snort rules to the
      running iptables policy, but this is tough to do well because iptables
      policies can be complex. And, before fwsnort switched to the
      iptables-save format for instantiating the policy, a large set of
      translated rules could take a really long time to make active within the
      kernel. Finally, many Snort rules restrict themselves to established TCP
      connections anyway, and if a restrictive policy doesn't allow connections
      to get into the established state for some port let's say, then there is
      little harm in having translated Snort rules for this port. Some kernel
      memory would be wasted (small), but no performance would be lost since
      packets won't be processed against these rules anyway. The end result is
      that the default behavior is now to not sync with the local iptables
      policy in favor of translating and instantiating as many rules as
    - Replaced Net::IPv4Addr with the excellent NetAddr::IP module which has
      comprehensive support for IPv6 address network parsing and comparisons.
    - Moved the script and associated files into the
      /var/lib/fwsnort/ directory. This was suggested by Peter Vrabec.
    - Bug fix for recent versions of iptables (such as 1.4.12) where the icmp
      match requires --icmp-type to be set - some Snort rules look for a string
      to match in icmp traffic, but don't also specify an icmp type.
    - Bug fix for 'qw(...) usage as parenthesis' warnings for perl > 5.14
    - Removed the ExtUtils::MakeMaker RPM build requirement from the
      fwsnort.spec file. This is a compromise which will allow the fwsnort RPM
      to be built even if RPM dosen't or can't see that ExtUtils::MakeMaker is
      installed - most likely it will build anyway. If it doesn't, there are
      bigger problems since fwsnort is written in perl. If you want to build
      the fwsnort RPM with a .spec file that requires ExtUtils::MakeMaker, then
      use the "fwsnort-require-makemaker.spec" file that is bundled in the
      fwsnort sources.

fwsnort-1.6.1 (11/01/2011):
    - (Kim Hagen) submitted a patch for a bug in fwsnort-1.6 where the fwsnort
      policy in iptables-save format could not be loaded whenever iptables-save
      put the nat table output after the filter table output. In this case,
      fwsnort would fail with an error like the following:

        Couldn't load target
        cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

      fwsnort now invokes 'iptables-save -t filter' in order to ensure that
      ordering issues do not affect how fwsnort builds its translated rule set.
    - Bug fix to ensure that fwsnort does not attempt to re-order pattern
      matches for patterns that have a relative match requirement. For non-
      relative matches fwsnort re-orders pattern matches based on the pattern
      length, reasoning that the longest pattern should be processed first for
      better performance. The usage of the fast_pattern keyword give the user
      explicit control over this. Here is a Snort rule that is now properly
      handled by fwsnort (references removed):

       alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET $HTTP_PORTS -> $HOME_NET any (msg:"ET WEB_CLIENT
       Possible Adobe Reader and Acrobat Forms Data Format Remote Security
       Bypass Attempt"; flow:established,to_client; file_data; content:"%FDF-";
       depth:300; content:"/F(JavaScript|3a|"; nocase; distance:0;
       classtype:attempted-user; sid:2010664; rev:8;)

      Before this change, fwsnort translated this rule as:

      $IPTABLES -A FWSNORT_FORWARD_ESTAB -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m string
      --hex-string "/F(JavaScript|3a|" --algo bm --from 69 --icase -m string
      --hex-string "%FDF|2d|" --algo bm --to 364 -m comment --comment
      "sid:2010664; msg:ET WEB_CLIENT Possible Adobe Reader and Acrobat Forms
      Data Format Remote Security Bypass Attempt; classtype:attempted-user;
      rev:8; FWS:1.6;" -j LOG --log-ip-options --log-tcp-options --log-prefix
      "SID2010664 ESTAB "

      Note that in the above rule, the "/F(JavaScript|3a|" pattern was switched
      to be evaluated first even though it is a relative match to the previous
      pattern in the original Snort rule. After this change, fwsnort translates
      this rule as:

      $IPTABLES -A FWSNORT_FORWARD_ESTAB -p tcp -m tcp --sport 80 -m string
      --hex-string "%FDF|2d|" --algo bm --to 364 -m string --hex-string
      "/F(JavaScript|3a|" --algo bm --from 69 --icase -m comment --comment
      "sid:2010664; msg:ET WEB_CLIENT Possible Adobe Reader and Acrobat Forms
      Data Format Remote Security Bypass Attempt; classtype:attempted-user;
      rev:8; FWS:1.6;" -j LOG --log-ip-options --log-tcp-options --log-prefix
      "SID2010664 ESTAB "

    - Updated to the latest Emerging Threats rule set.

fwsnort-1.6 (07/28/2011):
    - Fixed the --ipt-apply functionality - the variable that held the path was not initialized properly prior to this change.
    - Added the --Conntrack-state argument to specify a conntrack state
      in place of the "established" state that commonly accompanies the Snort
      "flow" keyword. By default, fwsnort uses the conntrack state of
      "ESTABLISHED" for this. In certain corner cases, it might be useful to
      use "ESTABLISHED,RELATED" instead to apply application layer inspection
      to things like ICMP port unreachable messages that are responses to real
      attempted communications. (Need to add UDP tracking for the _ESTAB
      chains for this too - coming soon.)
    - Recent releases of iptables and the Linux kernel support matching on
      connection state via the conntrack modules and the --ctstate switch.
      Added a capabilities test for this, and will fall back to using the state
      match if the conntrack module is not available.
    - Bugfix to ensure the iptables log prefixes built by fwsnort are not
      longer than those allowed by the running iptables firewall. This is
      usually a total of 29 characters, but fwsnort now dynamically figures out
      this value.
    - Bugfix for --ipt-list and --ipt-flush to ensure that the proper iptables
      binary path is chosen. These args failed without this because the
      iptables binary was not set.

fwsnort-1.5 (01/08/2011):
    - Major update to use the iptables-save format instead of the older
      strategy of always just executing iptables commands directly (which was
      very flow for large fwsnort policies). The /etc/fwsnort/
      script now just executes:

        /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/fwsnort/

      All fwsnort rules are now placed in the /etc/fwsnort/ file,
      but the older output (for the individual commands version)
      is still available at /etc/fwsnort/ This
      functionality extends to ip6tables policies as well. The fwsnort man
      page explain this in better detail:

      "As of fwsnort-1.5 all iptables rules built by fwsnort are written out
      to the /etc/fwsnort/ file in iptables-save format. This
      allows a long fwsnort policy (which may contain thousands of iptables
      rules translated from a large Snort signature set) to be quickly
      instantiated via the "iptables-restore" command. A wrapper script
      /etc/fwsnort/ is also written out to make this easy. Hence,
      the typical work flow for fwsnort is to: 1) run fwsnort, 2) note the
      Snort rules that fwsnort was able to successfully translate (the number
      of such rules is printed to stdout), and then 3) execute the
      /etc/fwsnort/ wrapper script to instantiate the policy in the
      running kernel."

    - Added the --rules-url argument so that the URL for updating the
      Emerging Threats rule set can be specified from the command line. The
      default is:

    - Updated to automatically check for the maximum length string that the
      string match supports, and this is used to through out any Snort rules
      with content matches longer than this length.
    - Updated the iptables capabilities testing routines to add and delete
      testing rules to/from the custom chain 'FWS_CAP_TEST'. This maintains a
      a cleaner separation between fwsnort and any existing iptables policy
      even during the capabilities testing phase.
    - Added the --ipt-check-capabilities argument to have fwsnort test the
      capabilities of the local iptables firewall and exit.
    - Added the --string-match-alg argument to allow the string matching
      algorithm used by fwsnort to be specified from the command line. The
      default algorithm is 'bm' for 'Boyer-Moore', but 'kmp' may also be
      specified (short for the 'Knuth–Morris–Pratt' algorithm).
    - Updated to the latest complete rule set from Emerging Threats (see

fwsnort-1.1 (01/05/2010):
    - Added the ability to build an fwsnort policy that utilizes ip6tables
      instead of iptables. This allows fwsnort filtering and altering
      capabilities to apply to IPv6 traffic instead of just IPv4 traffic. To
      enable ip6tables usage, use the "-6" or "--ip6tables" command line
    - Added the --include-perl-triggers command line argument so that
      translated Snort rules can easily be tested. This argument instructs
      fwsnort to include 'perl -e print ... ' commands as comments in the
      /etc/fwsnort/ script, and these commands can be combined
      with netcat to send payloads across the wire that match Snort rules.
    - Updated fwsnort to create logs in the /var/log/fwsnort/ directory
      instead of directly in the /var/log/ directory. The path is controlled
      by a new variable 'LOG_FILE' in the /etc/fwsnort/fwsnort.conf file.
    - Added several variables in /etc/fwsnort/fwsnort.conf to control paths
      to everything from the config file to the snort rules path. Coupled
      with this is the ability to create variables within path components and
      fwsnort will expand them (e.g. 'CONF_DIR /etc/fwsnort;
      CONF_FILE $CONF_DIR/fwsnort.conf').
    - Added --Last-cmd arg so that it is easy to rebuild the script
      with the same command line args as the previous execution.

fwsnort-1.0.6 (05/30/2009):
    - (Franck Joncourt) Updated fwsnort to use the "! <option> <arg>" syntax
      instead of the older "<option> ! <arg>" for the iptables command line.
    - (Franck Joncourt) For the --hex-string and --string matches, if the
      argument exceeds 128 bytes (iptables 1.4.2) then iptables fails with an
      error "iptables v1.4.2: STRING too long". Fixes this with a patch that
      adds a new variable in fwsnort.conf "MAX_STRING_LEN", so that the size of
      the content can be limited. If the content (null terminated string) is
      more than MAX_STRING_LEN chars, fwsnort throws the rule away.
    - Bug fix to allow fwsnort to properly translate snort rules that have
      "content" fields with embedded escaped semicolons (e.g. "\;"). This
      allows fwsnort to translate about 58 additional rules from the Emerging
      Threats rule set.
    - Bug fix to allow case insensitive matches to work properly with the
      --include-re-caseless and --exclude-re-caseless arguments.
    - Bug fix to move the 'rawbytes' keyword to the list of keywords that are
      ignored since iptables does a raw match anyway as it doesn't run any
      preprocessors in the Snort sense.
    - Added the --snort-rfile argument so that a specific Snort rules file (or
      list of files separated by commas) is parsed.
    - Added a small hack to choose the first port from a port list until the
      iptables 'multiport' match is supported.
    - Updated to consolidate spaces in hex matches in the script
      since the spaces are not part of patterns to be searched anyway.
    - Updated to the latest complete rule set from Emerging Threats (see
    - Added the "fwsnort-nobuildreqs.spec" file for building fwsnort on
      systems (such as Debian) that do not install/upgrade software via RPM.
      This file omits the "BuildRequires: perl-ExtUtils-MakeMaker" directive,
      and this fixes errors like the following on an Ubuntu system when
      building fwsnort with rpmbuild:

      rpm: To install rpm packages on Debian systems, use alien. See README.Debian.
      error: cannot open Packages index using db3 - No such file or directory (2)
      error: cannot open Packages database in /var/lib/rpm

fwsnort-1.0.5 (08/21/2008):
    - Replaced the bleeding-all.rules file with the emerging-all.rules file.
      This is because Matt Jonkman now releases his rule sets at
    - Restructured perl module paths to make it easy to introduce a "nodeps"
      distribution of fwsnort that does not contain any perl modules. This
      allows better integration with systems that already have all necessary
      modules installed (including the IPTables::ChainMgr and IPTables::Parse
      modules). The main driver for this work is to make all
      projects easily integrated with distributions based on Debian, and
      Franck Joncourt has been instrumental in making this process a reality.
      All perl modules are now placed within the "deps" directory, and the script checks to see if this directory exists - a separate
      fwsnort-nodeps-<ver> tarball will be distributed without this directory.
      The Debian package for fwsnort can then reference the -nodeps tarball,
      and a new "fwsnort-nodeps.spec" file has been added to build an RPM from
      the fwsnort sources that does not install any perl modules.
    - Updated to import perl modules from /usr/lib/fwsnort, but only if this
      path actually exists in the filesystem. This is similar to the strategy
      implemented by psad. A new variable FWSNORT_LIBS_DIR was added to the
      fwsnort.conf to support this.
    - Added support for multiple Snort rule directories as a comma-separated
      list for the argument to --snort-rdir.
    - Moved 'threshold' to the unsupported list since there will be several
      signatures that use this feature to detect the Dan Kaminsky DNS attack,
      and fwsnort does not yet support the usage of the iptables --limit

fwsnort-1.0.4 (01/22/2008):
    - (Grant Ferley) Submitted patch to exclude loopback interfaces from
      iptables allow rules parsing. This behavior can be reversed with the
      existing --no-exclude-loopback command line argument.
    - (Grant Ferley) Submitted patch to IPTables::Parse to take into account
      iptables policy output that contains "0" instead of "all" to represent
      any protocol.
    - (Grant Ferley) Submitted patch to IPTables::Parse to set sport and dport
      to '0:0' if the protocol is 'all'.
    - Bugfix to allow negated networks to be specified within iptables allow
      rules or within the fwsnort.conf file.
    - Updated to set the LC_ALL environmental variable to "C". This
      should fix potential locale problems (this fix was borrowed from the
      fwknop project).

fwsnort-1.0.3 (11/22/2007):
    - Added --include-re-caseless and --exclude-re-caseless options to have
      --include-regex and --exclude-regex options match case insensitively.
    - Major signature update from Bleeding Threats. This update includes a
      large number of new signatures with PCRE statements, with an emphasis on
      detecting SQL injection attacks directed at internal webservers from
      external sources.
    - Added the ability to interpret PCRE statements that include simple
      string matches separated by ".*" and ".+" as multiple iptables string
      matches. The only negative consequence in terms of signature detection
      is that ordering is not preserved; that is, the PCRE "/UNION.+SELECT/"
      would only match a packet that contains "UNION" followed by "SELECT",
      whereas an iptables rule that uses a string match for UNION and a
      separate string match for SELECT would match a packet that contains both
      strings but in reverse. Typically this is not a huge concern, and the
      PCRE translation can be disabled with a new option --no-pcre.
    - Added asn1 keyword to unsupported list.

fwsnort-1.0.2 (08/26/2007):
    - Bugfix to make sure to add in header lengths for depth and offset values
      since the string match extension compares bytes from the start of the
      data link header.

fwsnort-1.0.1 (08/26/2007):
    - Bugfix for ipt_rule_test() function name.
    - Added the ability to automatically resolve command paths if any commands
      cannot be found at the locations specified in the fwsnort.conf file.

fwsnort-1.0 (04/19/2007):
    - Major update to include support for the NFQUEUE and QUEUE targets with
      new command line options --NFQUEUE and --QUEUE. This changes the
      default LOG target to the NFQUEUE or QUEUE targets instead, and at the
      same time builds a parallel Snort rule set in the
      /etc/fwsnort/snort_rules_queue directory. Every Snort rule in this
      directory has at least one "content" keyword, which fwsnort uses in the
      resulting iptables policy. This policy only sends those packets to
      snort_inline via the NFQUEUE or QUEUE target that match a content field
      within some Snort rule. The end result is that snort_inline should run
      faster because the vast majority of packets (which are not malicious)
      are processed via the Linux kernel without ever having to be sent to
      userspace for analysis. There is a tradeoff here in terms of attack
      detection; snort_inline does not receive all packets associated with a
      stream, so it cannot detect attacks quite as effectively (snort_inline
      does not have an opportunity to look at reassembled buffers). However,
      this trade off may be acceptable for large sites where performance is
      more important.
    - Bug fix to remove any existing jump rules from the built-in INPUT,
      OUTPUT, and FORWARD chains before creating a new jump rules. This
      allows the script to be executed multiple times without
      creating a new jump rule into the fwsnort chains for each execution.
    - Added the -X command line argument to allow fwsnort to delete all of
      the fwsnort chains; this emulates the iptables command line argument
      of the same name.
    - Minor output enhancements and bugfixes to give more insight into the
      translation process. For example, if fwsnort is run in --snort-sid
      mode but is unable to translate the specified signatures, the user is
      notified. Also, any existing /etc/fwsnort/ script is not
      archived and erased until fwsnort is actually going to write a new one.
    - Added sid values to iptables comment match string.
    - Bugfix for iptables string match --from and --to values to skip past
      packet headers. This is an approximation until a new --payload option
      can be added to the string match extension.
    - Added a single iptables rule testing API internally within fwsnort;
      this adds a measure of consistency and removes some duplicate code.
    - Added fwsnort mailing list at SourceForge.

fwsnort-0.9.0 (03/22/2007):
    - Added support for multiple content matches since this is supported by
      iptables. This made a 10% increase in the fwsnort translation rate -
      about 60% of all Snort-2.3.3 rules can be translated now.
    - Added emulation for distance and within from previous content match
      based on --from and --to (string match extension) and the length of
      the previous pattern.
    - Added the ability to include the Snort "msg", "classtype", "reference",
      "priority", and "rev" fields in each iptables rule with the comment
      match. This can be disabled with a new command line argument
      --no-ipt-comments. The fwsnort version is also included within this
    - Added the ability to include the iptables rule number for each rule in
      the fwsnort chains. This is useful to easily know which iptables rule
      is being triggered by network traffic (so it can be disabled if
      necessary). This can be disabled with --no-ipt-rule-nums.
    - Added the --include-regex and --exclude-regex command line arguments.
      These arguments allow rules to be included/excluded based on a regular
      expression supplied on the command line.
    - Updated to include the original Snort rule as a comment within the script without having to use --verbose.
    - Bugfix to force install of IPTables::Parse since it had been updated in
      the fwsnort-0.8.2 release.
    - Changed the IGNORE_ADDR variable to WHITELIST since this name better
      describes the actual function of this var. Updated to allow multiple
      WHITELIST lines.
    - Added the BLACKLIST variable to allow a true blacklist to be
      instantiated with either the DROP or REJECT targets. The syntax for the
      BLACKLIST variable is "BLACKLIST <ip or network> <target>", where
      "target" is either "DROP" or "REJECT".
    - Added -F and -L command line arguments to flush and list iptables rules.
      This is similar to the iptables command line args of the same names.
    - Bugfix to ensure that traffic directed into the INPUT or coming from the
      OUTPUT chains is treated as going toward or originating from the
      HOME_NET. After all the HOME_NET variable may contain an internal
      network but omit the IP assigned to an external interface on the
    - Added "--log-ip-options" and "--log-tcp-options" to fwsnort LOG rules by
      default (in the generated script). This can be disabled with
      --no-log-ip-opts and --no-log-tcp-opts arguments on the fwsnort command
    - Added the ability to include --log-tcp-sequence to LOG rules in with a new argument --ipt-log-tcp-seq on the fwsnort command
    - Updated to handle negative string matches with "--string ! <string>".
    - Updated to output all unsupported options of the /var/log/fwsnort.log
      file to assist in the development of addition keyword emulation.

fwsnort-0.8.2 (02/17/2007):
    - Updated to newer IPTables::Parse module that uses the array of hash
      references method of returning iptables policy data.
    - Added --Dump-ipt and --Dump-snort rules to allow iptables policy and
      Snort rules to be dumped to STDOUT.
    - Added bleeding-all.rules file from
    - Added patches/bm_goodshift_fix.patch patch file that fixes an
      initialization bug in the Boyer-Moore text search implementation in the
      kernel (linux-2.6.x/lib/ts_bm.c) which caused slightly repetitive
      patterns to only match at specific offsets with the string match
    - Bugfix to ensure that a depth cannot be less that an offset (these
      translate to the --to and --from command line arguments to iptables).
    - Bugfix to escape '$' chars in iptables search strings.
    - Added cd_rpmbuilder to make it easy to automatically build RPM files of
    - Added support for the iptables OUTPUT chain.
    - Added the ChangeLog.svn file so that all of the changed files and
      corresponding svn commit messages can be viewed (this file is built from
      release to release).

fwsnort-0.8.1 (11/11/2005):
    - Updated to use the string match extension "--algo bm" argument if
      fwsnort is being run on a 2.6.14 (or greater) kernel.
    - Updated to handle the Snort "offset" and "depth" keywords via the
      --from and --to options to the string match extension in the 2.6.14
    - Created RPM package of fwsnort.
    - Minor man page updates.

fwsnort-0.8.0 (07/11/2005):
    - Completely re-structured fwsnort w.r.t. how it creates Netfilter
      chains. There are no longer any per-interface chains (this
      greatly simplifies the Netfilter chains).
    - Added three new chains "FWSNORT_INPUT_ESTAB", "FWSNORT_OUTPUT_ESTAB"
      and "FWSNORT_FORWARD_ESTAB" to which tcp connections in the
      ESTABLISHED state are jumped. This allows fwsnort to use the
      Netfilter tcp connection tracking mechanism to ignore Stick and Snot
      style attacks (similar to the flow:established Snort rule option).
    - Added true variable resolution (i.e. HTTP_SERVERS -> HOME_NET -> any)
      for the Snort rule header. This directly emulates the behavior of
      the Snort IDS.
    - Added IP protocol support in the translation of the Snort rule
      header. The Snort rule translation rate is now at about 53% for
    - Bugfix for ipopts Snort option (several arguments are not supported
      by the ipv4options extension).
    - Better tests for Netfiler TTL, TOS, and ipv4options matches.
    - Replaced IGNORE_IP and IGNORE_NET keywords with single IGNORE_ADDR
      keywork in fwsnort.conf.
    - Updated to correctly handle ICMP type and code rules (itype and
      icode Snort options) via the "--icmp-types type/code" convention.
    - Added support for emulating the dsize Snort option through the use
      of the Netfilter length match.
    - Changed --type argument to --include-types and added list support
      so it accepts things like "chat,ddos". Also added --exclude-types
      command line argument.
    - Added support for multiple sid's (as a comma separated list) in
      --snort-sids argument. Also added --exclude-sids argument to remove
      a list of sids from translation.
    - Added support for the replace Snort option (originally from the
      Snort_inline project). The requires the replace string patch.
    - Added support for restricting jump rules to a list of interfaces
      via the --restrict-intf argument.
    - Added kernel patch to extend the maximum packet length that the
      string match extension will attempt to search from 1024 bytes to
      2048 bytes (requires a kernel re-compile of course).
    - Added DRP and REJ strings to logging prefix if --ipt-drop or
      --ipt-reject is specified.
    - Added, which is a simple perl script that emulates
      the Stick and Snot tools.

fwsnort-0.7.0 (06/05/2005):
    - Added support for the Snort pass action by using the ACCEPT target.
    - Added support for the Snort log action by using the ULOG target
      (which can then log the packet via the pcap writer).
    - Added support for all fwsnort alerts to be logged via the ULOG
      target instead of the LOG target.
    - Added support for the "resp" keyword to allow it to drive the
      Netfilter argument to the REJECT target.
    - Added "pcre" to the unsupported list... this knocks the fwsnort
      translation rate down to about 50% for Snort-2.3 rules (pcre is
      heavily utilized).
    - Added "priority" and "rev" to comment lines.

fwsnort-0.6.5 (03/20/2005):
    - Updated to not attempt to download Snort rules from
      because the rules are no longer available for automatic downloads
    - Changed the script and the --update-rules mode for
      fwsnort to download the latest signature set from
      ( is now offering pay-service around their rule sets).
    - Added signature test for the "flowbits" keyword.

fwsnort-0.6.4 (12/18/2004):
    - Updated to Snort-2.3 rules. FWSnort can convert a total of 1710
      out of 2559 total Snort-2.3 rules.
    - Updated to new Snort rules download link for --update-rules mode:
    - Updated to standard [+], [-], and [*] prefixes for info, warning
      and die logging messages.
    - Added --replace-string patches.

fwsnort-0.6.3 (04/04/2004):
    - Added ignore functionality for both IPs and networks
    - Split --ipt-block into --ipt-drop and --ipt-reject to add DROP
      or REJECT rules respectively.
    - Added --add-deleted option to allow rules in the "deleted.rules"
      file to be added.

fwsnort-0.6.2 (03/19/2004):
    - Added --internal-net and --dmz-net options so that internal and
      dmz networks can be manually specified without having to parse
      the output of ifconfig. This is most useful for running fwsnort
      on a linux system that is acting as a bridge where no ip addresses
      are assigned to the interfaces.
    - Bugfix for missing icmp-port-unreachable rejects for UDP packets.

fwsnort-0.6.1 (02/01/2004):
    - Bugfix for not adding dmz interface rules to INPUT chain.
    - Bugfix for not getting the DMZ interface network.

fwsnort-0.6 (01/04/2004):
    - Speed increase and disk access decrease by writing iptables
      commands to the iptables script only after all lines have been
    - Bugfix for DMZ interface.
    - Bugfix for multiple ip_proto fields.
    - Removed the ip protocol as an allowed protocol for translation.
    - Bugfix for negated port numbers.
    - Removed "<-" rule direction since not even snort supports this.
    - Fixed snort rule updates from

fwsnort-0.5 (12/21/2003):
    - Added "-j REJECT --reject-with tcp-reset" for tcp sessions
      if the --ipt-block option is specified.
    - Added ability to download latest snort rules from
    - Added --no-ipt-jumps.
    - Added better checking for iptables build characteristics such
      as the LOG target and wether or not the ipv4options extension
      is compiled in.
    - Added config preservation code from psad in
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