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MRISC32-A1

This is a VHDL implementation of a single issue, in-order CPU that implements the MRISC32 ISA. The working name for the CPU is MRISC32-A1.

Overview

MRISC32-A1 pipleine

Progress

The CPU is nearing completion but still under development. The following components have been implemented:

  • A 9-stage pipeline.
    • PC and branching logic.
    • Instruction fetch.
    • Decode.
    • Register fetch.
    • Execute.
    • Data read/write logic (scalar and vector).
    • Register write-back.
    • Operand forwarding.
  • The integer ALU.
    • Supports all packed and unpacked integer ALU operations.
    • All ALU operations finish in one cycle.
  • A pipelined (three-cycle) integer multiply unit.
    • Supports all packed and unpacked integer multiplication operations.
  • A semi-pipelined integer and floating point division unit.
    • The integer division pipeline is 3 stages long, while the floating point division pipeline is 4 stages long.
    • 32-bit division: 15/12 cycles stall (integer/float).
    • 2 x 16-bit division: 7/5 cycles stall (integer/float).
    • 4 x 8-bit division: 3/2 cycles stall (integer/float).
  • A pipelined (two-cycle) Saturating Arithmetic Unit (SAU).
    • Supports all packed and unpacked saturating and halving arithmetic instructions.
  • An IEEE 754 compliant(ish) FPU.
    • The following single-cycle FPU instructions are implemented:
      • FMIN, FMAX
      • FSEQ, FSNE, FSLT, FSLE, FSUNORD, FSORD
    • The following three-cycle FPU instructions are implemented:
      • ITOF, UTOF, FTOI, FTOU, FTOIR, FTOUR
    • The following four-cycle FPU instructions are implemented:
      • FADD, FSUB, FMUL
    • Both packed and unpacked FPU operations are implemented.
  • The scalar register file.
    • There are three read ports and one write port.
  • The vector register file.
    • There are two read ports and one write port.
    • Each vector register has 16 elements (configurable).
  • An address generation unit (AGU).
    • The AGU supports all addressing modes.
  • A single 32-bit Wishbone (B4 pipelined) interface to the memory.
    • Instruction and data requests are arbitrated (data has precedence).
    • One memory request can be completed every cycle.
  • Branch prediction and correction.
    • A simple 1-bit dynamic branch predictor.
    • The branch misprediction penalty is 3 cycles (a correctly predicted branch incurs no penalty).

TODO: Caches, interrupt logic.

Configurability

The aim is for the MRISC32-A1 to implement the complete MRISC32 ISA, which means that it is a fairly large design (including an FPU, hardware multiplication and division, packed operations, etc).

If the design is too large or complex for a certain target chip (FPGA), it is possible to disable many features via T_CORE_CONFIG (see config.vhd). E.g. setting HAS_MUL to false will disable support for hardware multiplication.

It is also possible to change the vector register size by chaging the value of C_LOG2_VEC_REG_ELEMENTS (4 means 16 elements, 5 means 32 elements, 8 means 256 elements, and so on).

Performance

The MRISC32-A1 can issue one operation per clock cycle.

When synthesized against an Intel Cyclone V FPGA, the maximum running frequency is close to 100 MHz.

About

A pipelined, in-order, scalar VHDL implementation of the MRISC32 ISA

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