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README.md

An Erlang network protocol library.

Originally part of epcap: http://github.com/msantos/epcap

EXPORTS

pkt:decapsulate(Data) -> Packet
pkt:decapsulate(Proto, Data) -> Packet

    Types   Data = binary()
            Proto = atom() | integer()
            Packet = [ Header | Payload ]
            Header = #ether{} | #arp{} | #null{} | #linux_cooked{} |
                #ipv4{} | #ipv6{} | #tcp{} | #udp{} | #sctp{} | #icmp{} |
                #icmp6{} | #igmp{} | #gre{} | #llc{} | #vrrp{}
            Payload = binary()

    Convert network protocols from binary data to a list of Erlang
    records followed by the payload.

    decapsulate/1,2 works on valid packets. If the packet is malformed
    or unsupported, decapsulate/1 will crash.

    decapsulate/1 parses the data as an ethernet frame.

    decapsulate/2 allows specifying the protocol for decoding the
    packet. If the protocol is specified as an integer, the integer
    is treated as a datalink type.

pkt:decode(Data) -> {ok, Packet} | {error, SoFar, {FailedProto, binary()}}
pkt:decode(Proto, Data) -> {ok, Packet} | {error, SoFar, {FailedProto, binary()}}

    Types   Data = binary()
            Proto = FailedProto = atom()
            Packet = {Headers, Payload}
            Headers = [Header]
            Header = #ether{} | #arp{} | #null{} | #linux_cooked{} |
                #ipv4{} | #ipv6{} | #tcp{} | #udp{} | #sctp{} | #icmp{} |
                #icmp6{} | #igmp{} | #gre{} | #llc{} | #vrrp{}
            SoFar = Headers | []
            Payload = binary()

    Similar to decapsulate/1 but, on error, returns any part of the
    packet that has been successfully converted to Erlang term format.

The following functions create the protocol headers, converting between records and binaries. See include/pkt.hrl for definition of the record types.

ether(Packet) -> {#ether{}, Payload} | binary()
llc(Packet) -> {#llc{}, Payload} | binary()
vrrp(Packet) -> {#vrrp{}, Payload} | binary()
null(Packet) -> {#null{}, Payload} | binary()
linux_cooked(Packet) -> {#linux_cooked{}, Payload} | binary()
gre(Packet) -> {#gre{}, Payload} | binary()
arp(Packet) -> {#arp{}, Payload} | binary()
ipv4(Packet) -> {#ipv4{}, Payload} | binary()
ipv6(Packet) -> {#ipv6{}, Payload} | binary()
tcp(Packet) -> {#tcp{}, Payload} | binary()
sctp(Packet) -> {#sctp{}, Payload} | binary()
udp(Packet) -> {#udp{}, Payload} | binary()
icmp(Packet) -> {#icmp{}, Payload} | binary()
icmp6(Packet) -> {#icmp6{}, Payload} | binary()
igmp(Packet) -> {#igmp{}, Payload} | binary()

    Types   Packet = Header | binary()
            Header = #ether{} | #null{} | #linux_cooked{} | #arp{} |
                #ipv4{} | #ipv6{} | #tcp{} | #sctp{} | #udp{} |
                #icmp{} | #icmp6{} | #igmp{} | #gre{} | #llc{} |
                #vrrp{}


makesum(Packet) -> integer()

    Types   Packet = IPv4_header | [IPv4_header, Header, Payload]
            IPv4_header = #ipv4{}
            Header = #tcp{} | #udp{}
            Payload = binary()

    Calculate the one's complement checksum of the packet.

    When computing the checksum, the header sum field must be set
    to 0:

        Sum = pkt:makesum([IPv4, TCP#tcp{sum = 0}, Payload]).

    For verifcation, the checksum can be compared to the value in
    the header or:

        0 = pkt:makesum([IPv4, TCP, Payload]).

EXAMPLES

  • decode an ethernet frame, displaying the source and destination of valid packets
Frame = <<224,105,149,59,163,24,0,22,182,181,62,198,8,0,69,0,0,54,2,108,64,
          0,53,6,172,243,173,192,82,195,192,168,213,54,0,80,143,166,75,154,
          212,181,116,33,53,92,128,24,0,126,60,199,0,0,1,1,8,10,92,104,96,
          16,22,69,237,136,137,0>>,

try pkt:decapsulate(Frame) of
    [#ether{}, #ipv4{saddr = Saddr, daddr = Daddr},
        #tcp{sport = Sport, dport = Dport}, _Payload] ->
        {{Saddr, Sport}, {Daddr, Dport}}
catch
    error:_ ->
        ok; % ignore invalid packets
end
  • verify the TCP checksum of an ethernet frame
{ok, [#ether{}, IPv4, #tcp{sum = Sum} = TCP, Payload]} = pkt:decode(ether, Frame),

% Re-calculate the checksum and match against the checksum in the header
Sum = pkt:makesum([IPv4, TCP#tcp{sum = 0}, Payload]),

% Or just verify the checksum
0 = pkt:makesum([IPv4, TCP, Payload]).

PADDING OF ETHERNET FRAMES

The minimum size of an ethernet payload is 46 bytes. An ethernet frame containing a TCP/IP packet composed of a 20 byte IPv4 header and 20 byte TCP header and payload will be padded by 6 bytes. To calculate the actual length of the packet, use the length and header length values in the IPv4 header and the offset value in the TCP header:

[#ether{}, #ipv4{len = Len, hl = HL}, #tcp{off = Off}, Payload] = pkt:decapsulate(Frame),
    Size = Len - (HL * 4) - (Off * 4),
    <<Payload:Size/bytes>>.

TODO

  • support RFC 2675 (IPv6 Jumbograms)

  • IPv6 AH and ESP

    • handle alignment differences between IPv4 and IPv6 (IPv4 uses 32 bits, IPv6 uses 64 bits)
  • ICMPv6

    • fix handling of neighbour discovery
    • simplify ICMPv6 header record and add a record for ICMPv6 type or add functions for ICMPv6 variable length payloads
  • IGMP

    • support IGMPv3 variable payloads
  • merge in DLT_IEEE802_11 support from wierl

  • merge in ICMPv6 code from gen_icmp

  • DLTs

    • DLT_SLIP
    • DLT_PPP
    • DLT_RAW
    • DLT_PPP_SERIAL
    • DLT_PPP_ETHER
    • DLT_LOOP
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