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The neural architecture of language: Integrative modeling converges on predictive processing

Code accompanying the paper The neural architecture of language: Integrative modeling converges on predictive processing by Schrimpf, Blank, Tuckute, Kauf, Hosseini, Kanwisher, Tenenbaum, and Fedorenko.

Overview of Results

Large-scale evaluation of neural network language models as predictive models of human language processing. This pipeline compares dozens of state-of-the-art models and 4 human datasets (3 neural, 1 behavioral). It builds on the Brain-Score framework and can easily be extended with new models and datasets.

Please see the community platform Brain-Score Language for many accessible neural and behavioral benchmarks and computational models, including those from this paper.


git clone
cd neural-nlp
pip install -e .

You might have to install nltk by hand / with conda.


To score gpt2-xl on the Blank2014fROI-encoding benchmark:

python neural_nlp run --model gpt2-xl --benchmark Blank2014fROI-encoding --log_level DEBUG

Other available benchmarks are e.g. Pereira2018-encoding (takes a while to compute), and Fedorenko2016v3-encoding.

You can also specify different models to run -- note that some of them require additional download of weights (run ressources/ for automated download).


When running a model on a benchmark, the data will automatically be downloaded from S3 (e.g. for the Pereira2018 benchmark). Costly ceiling estimates have also been precomputed and will be downloaded since they can take days to compute.

Precomputed scores

Scores for models run on the neural, behavioral, and computational-task benchmarks are also available, see the precomputed-scores.csv file. You can re-create the figures in the paper using the analyze scripts.

Benchmark contextualization

In Schrimpf et al. (2021), each sentence was contextualized with respect to the full set of sentences in the same topic (assuming a fixed order of paragraphs within a topic). We later noticed that this was not how the materials were presented to the participants in Pereira et al. (2018) where sentences were presented in the contexts of paragraphs but paragraphs were randomly ordered for each participant. Below, we show that this error does not affect the results as reported in Schrimpf et al. (2021). In particular, the predictivity values are very closely correlated for these two ways of contextualization. pnas21-vs-23


If you use this work, please cite

	author = {Schrimpf, Martin and Blank, Idan and Tuckute, Greta and Kauf, Carina and Hosseini, Eghbal A. and Kanwisher, Nancy and Tenenbaum, Joshua and Fedorenko, Evelina},
	title = {The neural architecture of language: Integrative modeling converges on predictive processing},
	year = {2021},
	journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
	url = {}