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Drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal.
If you are unfamiliar with shell scripting, reviewing the documentation
for your shell (e.g. man bash) or reading an online tutorial (e.g. search
for "bash tutorial") will help you get the most out of Drush.

Drush core ships with lots of useful commands for interacting with code
like modules/themes/profiles. Similarly, it runs update.php, executes sql
queries and DB migrations, and misc utilities like run cron or clear cache.

* To use Drush from the command line, you'll need a
  CLI-mode capable PHP binary version 5.2 or greater.

* Drush commands that work with git require git 1.7 or greater.

* Drush is designed for a Unix-like OS (Linux, OS X)

* Some Drush commands run on Windows.  See INSTALLING DRUSH ON WINDOWS, below.

* Drush works with Drupal 6, Drupal 7, and Drupal 8.  However, occasionally
  recent changes to the most recent version of Drupal can introduce issues
  with Drush.

The preferred way to install Drush is via our PEAR channel. See
instructions at If you prefer a more manual
install, see below.

1. Place the uncompressed drush.tar.gz,, or cloned git repository
   in a directory that is outside of your web root.

2. Make the 'drush' command executable:

     $ chmod u+x /path/to/drush/drush

3. Configure your system to recognize where Drush resides. There are 2 options:

  a) create a symbolic link to the Drush executable in a directory that is already in your PATH, e.g.:

       $ ln -s /path/to/drush/drush /usr/bin/drush

  b) explicitly add the Drush executable to the PATH variable which is defined
     in the the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile, .bash_aliases, or .bashrc
     that is located in your home folder, i.e.

       export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/drush:/usr/local/bin"
       (your system will search path options from left to right until it finds a result)

     To apply your changes to your current session, either log out and then log back in again,
     or re-load your bash configuration file, i.e.:

       $ source .bashrc

  NOTE:  If you do not follow step 3, you will need to inconveniently run Drush commands using
  the full path to the executable "/path/to/drush/drush" or by navigating to /path/to/drush
  and running "./drush". The -r or -l options will be required (see USAGE, below).

4. Test that Drush is found by your system:

  $ which drush

5. Optional. See examples/example.bashrc for instructions on how to add some very useful
shell aliases that provides even tighter integration between drush and bash.

6. Optional. If you didn't source it in Step 5 above, see top of
file for instructions adding bash completion for drush command to your shell.
Once configured, completion works for site aliases, command names, shell aliases,
global options, and command-specific options.

7. Optional. If is being sourced (ideally in bash_completion.d),
you can use the supplied __drush_ps1() sh function to add your current drush
site (set with `drush use @sitename`) to your PS1 prompt like so:

    if [ "\$(type -t __git_ps1)" ] && [ "\$(type -t __drush_ps1)" ]; then
      PS1='\u@\h \w$(__git_ps1 " (%s)")$(__drush_ps1 "[%s]")\$ '

Putting this in a .bashrc/.bash_profile/.profile would produce this

    msonnabaum@hostname ~/repos/drush (master)[@sitename]$

Users of MAMP will need to manually specify in their PATH which version
of php and MySQL to use in the command line interface. This is independent of the php
version selected in the MAMP application settings.
Under OS X, edit (or create if it does not already exist) a file called .bash_profile
in your home folder.

To use php 5.2.x, add this line to .bash_profile:

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.2/bin:$PATH"

If you want to use php 5.3.x, add this line instead

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.3/bin:$PATH"

If you have MAMP v.1.84 or lower, this configuration will work for both version of php:

  export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5/bin:$PATH"
If you have done this and are still getting a "no such file or directory" error from
PDO::__construct, try this:

  sudo mkdir /var/mysql
  sudo ln -s /Applications/MAMP/tmp/mysql/mysql.sock /var/mysql/mysql.sock

Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use
drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to proceed.

Users of other Apache distributions such as XAMPP, or Acquia's Dev Desktop
will want to ensure that its php can be found by the command line by adding
it to the PATH variable, using the method in 3.b above. Depending on the
version and distribution of your AMP stack, php might reside at:

  /Applications/acquia-drupal/php/bin   Acquia Dev Desktop (Mac)
  /Applications/xampp/xamppfiles/bin    XAMP (Mac)
  /opt/lampp/bin                        XAMPP (Windows)

Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use
drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to proceed.

Running a specific php-cli version for Drush
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
  If you want to run Drush with a specific version of php, rather than the
  php-cli defined by your system, you can add an environment variable to your
  the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile, .bash_aliases, or .bashrc
  that is located in your home folder:

    export DRUSH_PHP='/path/to/php'

Usually, php is configured to use separate php.ini files for the web server
and the command line. Make sure that Drush's php.ini is given as much memory
to work with as the web server is; otherwise, Drupal might run out of memory
when Drush bootstraps it.

To see which php.ini file Drush is using, run:

  $ drush status

To see which php.ini file the webserver is using, use the phpinfo() function
in a .php web page.  See

If Drush is using the same php.ini file as the web server, you can create
a php.ini file exclusively for Drush by copying your web server's php.ini
file to the folder $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush.  Then you may edit
this file and change the settings described above without affecting the
php enviornment of your web server.

Alternately, if you only want to override a few values, copy example.drush.ini
from the "examples" folder into $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush and edit
to suit.  See comments in example.drush.ini for more details.

Drush requires a fairly unrestricted php environment to run in.  In particular,
you should insure that safe_mode, open_basedir, disable_functions and
disable_classes are empty.

Windows support is improving, but is still lacking! Consider using on
Linux/Unix/OSX using Virtualbox or other virtual machine.

There is a Windows msi installer for drush available at:

Please see that page for more information on running Drush on Windows.

Whenever the documentation or the help text refers to
'drush [option] <command>' or something similar, 'drush' may need to be replaced by 'drush.bat'.

Additional Drush Windows installation documentation can be found at

Once you have completed the installation steps, Drush can be run in your shell
by typing "drush" from within any Drupal root directory.

  $ drush [options] <command> [argument1] [argument2]

Use the 'help' command to get a list of available options and commands:

  $ drush help

For even more documentation, use the 'topic' command:

  $ drush topic

For a full list of Drush commands and documentation by version, visit

Many commands support a --pipe option which returns machine readable output.
For example, return a list of enabled modules:

  $ drush pm-list --type=module --status=enabled --pipe

For multisite installations, use the -l option to target a particular site.
If you are outside the Drupal web root, you might need to use the -r, -l or
other command line options just for Drush to work. If you do not specify a URI
with -l and Drush falls back to the default site configuration, Drupal's
$GLOBAL['base_url'] will be set to http://default.
This may cause some functionality to not work as expected.

  $ drush -l pm-update

Related Options:
  -r <path>, --root=<path>      Drupal root directory to use
                                (defaults to current directory or anywhere in a Drupal directory tree)
  -l <uri> , --uri=<uri>        URI of the Drupal site to use
  -v, --verbose                 Display verbose output.

Very intensive scripts can exhaust your available PHP memory. One remedy is to
just restart automatically using bash. For example:

  while true; do drush search-index; sleep 5; done

Inside /path/to/drush/examples you will find some example files to help you
get started with your Drush configuration file (example.drushrc.php),
site alias definitions (example.aliases.drushrc.php) and Drush commands
( You will also see an example 'policy' file which
can be customized to block certain commands or arguments as required by
your organization's needs.

If you get tired of typing options all the time you can contain them in a
drushrc.php file. Multiple Drush configuration files can provide the
flexibility of providing specific options in different site  directories of a
multi-site installation. See example.drushrc.php for examples and installation

Drush lets you run commands on a remote server, or even on a set of remote servers.
Once defined, aliases can be references with the @ nomenclature, i.e.

  # Syncronize staging files to production
  $ drush rsync @staging:%files/ @live:%files

  # Syncronize database from production to dev, excluding the cache table
  $ drush sql-sync --structure-tables-key=custom --no-cache @live @dev

See and example.aliases.drushrc.php for more information.

Drush can be extended to run your own commands. Writing a Drush command is no harder
than writing simple Drupal modules, since they both follow the same structure.

See examples/ for light details on the internals of a Drush command file.
Otherwise, the core commands in Drush are good models for your own commands.

You can put your Drush command file in a number of places:

  a) In a folder specified with the --include option (see `drush topic docs-configuration`).

  b) Along with one of your enabled modules. If your command is related to an
     existing module, this is the preferred approach.

  c) In a .drush folder in your HOME folder. Note, that you have to create the
     .drush folder yourself.

  d) In the system-wide Drush commands folder, e.g. /usr/share/drush/commands

  e) In Drupal's sites/all/drush folder. Note, that you have to create the
     drush folder yourself.

In any case, it is important that you end the filename with "", so
that Drush can find it.

  Q: What does "drush" stand for?
  A: The Drupal Shell.

  Q: How do I pronounce Drush?
  A: Some people pronounce the dru with a long u like Drupal. Fidelity points go to
  them, but they are in the minority. Most pronounce Drush so that it rhymes with
  hush, rush, flush, etc. This is the preferred pronunciation.

* Originally developed by Arto Bendiken <> for Drupal 4.7.
* Redesigned by Franz Heinzmann (frando) <> in May 2007 for Drupal 5.
* Maintained by Moshe Weitzman <> with much help from
  Owen Barton, Adrian Rossouw, greg.1.anderson, jonhattan, Jonathan Hedstrom.