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DESCRIPTION =========== Drush is a command line shell and Unix scripting interface for Drupal. If you are unfamiliar with shell scripting, reviewing the documentation for your shell (e.g. man bash) or reading an online tutorial (e.g. search for "bash tutorial") will help you get the most out of Drush. Drush core ships with lots of useful commands for interacting with code like modules/themes/profiles. Similarly, it runs update.php, executes sql queries and DB migrations, and misc utilities like run cron or clear cache. REQUIREMENTS ============ * To use Drush from the command line, you'll need a CLI-mode capable PHP binary version 5.2 or greater. * Drush commands that work with git require git 1.7 or greater. * Drush is designed for a Unix-like OS (Linux, OS X) * Some Drush commands run on Windows. See INSTALLING DRUSH ON WINDOWS, below. * Drush works with Drupal 6, Drupal 7, and Drupal 8. However, occasionally recent changes to the most recent version of Drupal can introduce issues with Drush. INSTALLATION ============ The preferred way to install Drush is via our PEAR channel. See instructions at http://drupal.org/project/drush. If you prefer a more manual install, see below. 1. Place the uncompressed drush.tar.gz, drush.zip, or cloned git repository in a directory that is outside of your web root. 2. Make the 'drush' command executable: $ chmod u+x /path/to/drush/drush 3. Configure your system to recognize where Drush resides. There are 2 options: a) create a symbolic link to the Drush executable in a directory that is already in your PATH, e.g.: $ ln -s /path/to/drush/drush /usr/bin/drush b) explicitly add the Drush executable to the PATH variable which is defined in the the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile, .bash_aliases, or .bashrc that is located in your home folder, i.e. export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/drush:/usr/local/bin" (your system will search path options from left to right until it finds a result) To apply your changes to your current session, either log out and then log back in again, or re-load your bash configuration file, i.e.: $ source .bashrc NOTE: If you do not follow step 3, you will need to inconveniently run Drush commands using the full path to the executable "/path/to/drush/drush" or by navigating to /path/to/drush and running "./drush". The -r or -l options will be required (see USAGE, below). 4. Test that Drush is found by your system: $ which drush 5. Optional. See examples/example.bashrc for instructions on how to add some very useful shell aliases that provides even tighter integration between drush and bash. 6. Optional. If you didn't source it in Step 5 above, see top of drush.complete.sh file for instructions adding bash completion for drush command to your shell. Once configured, completion works for site aliases, command names, shell aliases, global options, and command-specific options. 7. Optional. If drush.complete.sh is being sourced (ideally in bash_completion.d), you can use the supplied __drush_ps1() sh function to add your current drush site (set with `drush use @sitename`) to your PS1 prompt like so: if [ "\$(type -t __git_ps1)" ] && [ "\$(type -t __drush_ps1)" ]; then PS1='\u@\h \w$(__git_ps1 " (%s)")$(__drush_ps1 "[%s]")\$ ' fi Putting this in a .bashrc/.bash_profile/.profile would produce this prompt: msonnabaum@hostname ~/repos/drush (master)[@sitename]$ ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR MAMP: ----------------------------------- Users of MAMP will need to manually specify in their PATH which version of php and MySQL to use in the command line interface. This is independent of the php version selected in the MAMP application settings. Under OS X, edit (or create if it does not already exist) a file called .bash_profile in your home folder. To use php 5.2.x, add this line to .bash_profile: export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.2/bin:$PATH" If you want to use php 5.3.x, add this line instead export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5.3/bin:$PATH" If you have MAMP v.1.84 or lower, this configuration will work for both version of php: export PATH="/Applications/MAMP/Library/bin:/Applications/MAMP/bin/php5/bin:$PATH" If you have done this and are still getting a "no such file or directory" error from PDO::__construct, try this: sudo mkdir /var/mysql sudo ln -s /Applications/MAMP/tmp/mysql/mysql.sock /var/mysql/mysql.sock Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to proceed. ADDITIONAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR OTHER AMP STACKS: ----------------------------------------------- Users of other Apache distributions such as XAMPP, or Acquia's Dev Desktop will want to ensure that its php can be found by the command line by adding it to the PATH variable, using the method in 3.b above. Depending on the version and distribution of your AMP stack, php might reside at: /Applications/acquia-drupal/php/bin Acquia Dev Desktop (Mac) /Applications/xampp/xamppfiles/bin XAMP (Mac) /opt/lampp/bin XAMPP (Windows) Additionally, you may need to adjust your php.ini settings before you can use drush successfully. See CONFIGURING PHP.INI below for more details on how to proceed. CUSTOM CONFIGURATIONS: ---------------------- Running a specific php-cli version for Drush - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - If you want to run Drush with a specific version of php, rather than the php-cli defined by your system, you can add an environment variable to your the shell configuration file called .profile, .bash_profile, .bash_aliases, or .bashrc that is located in your home folder: export DRUSH_PHP='/path/to/php' CONFIGURING PHP.INI ------------------- Usually, php is configured to use separate php.ini files for the web server and the command line. Make sure that Drush's php.ini is given as much memory to work with as the web server is; otherwise, Drupal might run out of memory when Drush bootstraps it. To see which php.ini file Drush is using, run: $ drush status To see which php.ini file the webserver is using, use the phpinfo() function in a .php web page. See http://drupal.org/node/207036. If Drush is using the same php.ini file as the web server, you can create a php.ini file exclusively for Drush by copying your web server's php.ini file to the folder $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush. Then you may edit this file and change the settings described above without affecting the php enviornment of your web server. Alternately, if you only want to override a few values, copy example.drush.ini from the "examples" folder into $HOME/.drush or the folder /etc/drush and edit to suit. See comments in example.drush.ini for more details. Drush requires a fairly unrestricted php environment to run in. In particular, you should insure that safe_mode, open_basedir, disable_functions and disable_classes are empty. INSTALLING DRUSH ON WINDOWS: ---------------------------- Windows support is improving, but is still lacking! Consider using on Linux/Unix/OSX using Virtualbox or other virtual machine. There is a Windows msi installer for drush available at: http://www.drush.org/drush_windows_installer. Please see that page for more information on running Drush on Windows. Whenever the documentation or the help text refers to 'drush [option] <command>' or something similar, 'drush' may need to be replaced by 'drush.bat'. Additional Drush Windows installation documentation can be found at http://drupal.org/node/594744 USAGE ===== Once you have completed the installation steps, Drush can be run in your shell by typing "drush" from within any Drupal root directory. $ drush [options] <command> [argument1] [argument2] Use the 'help' command to get a list of available options and commands: $ drush help For even more documentation, use the 'topic' command: $ drush topic For a full list of Drush commands and documentation by version, visit http://drush.ws Many commands support a --pipe option which returns machine readable output. For example, return a list of enabled modules: $ drush pm-list --type=module --status=enabled --pipe For multisite installations, use the -l option to target a particular site. If you are outside the Drupal web root, you might need to use the -r, -l or other command line options just for Drush to work. If you do not specify a URI with -l and Drush falls back to the default site configuration, Drupal's $GLOBAL['base_url'] will be set to http://default. This may cause some functionality to not work as expected. $ drush -l http://example.com pm-update Related Options: -r <path>, --root=<path> Drupal root directory to use (defaults to current directory or anywhere in a Drupal directory tree) -l <uri> , --uri=<uri> URI of the Drupal site to use -v, --verbose Display verbose output. Very intensive scripts can exhaust your available PHP memory. One remedy is to just restart automatically using bash. For example: while true; do drush search-index; sleep 5; done DRUSH CONFIGURATION FILES ========================= Inside /path/to/drush/examples you will find some example files to help you get started with your Drush configuration file (example.drushrc.php), site alias definitions (example.aliases.drushrc.php) and Drush commands (sandwich.drush.inc). You will also see an example 'policy' file which can be customized to block certain commands or arguments as required by your organization's needs. DRUSHRC.PHP ----------- If you get tired of typing options all the time you can contain them in a drushrc.php file. Multiple Drush configuration files can provide the flexibility of providing specific options in different site directories of a multi-site installation. See example.drushrc.php for examples and installation details. SITE ALIASES ------------ Drush lets you run commands on a remote server, or even on a set of remote servers. Once defined, aliases can be references with the @ nomenclature, i.e. # Syncronize staging files to production $ drush rsync @staging:%files/ @live:%files # Syncronize database from production to dev, excluding the cache table $ drush sql-sync --structure-tables-key=custom --no-cache @live @dev See http://drupal.org/node/670460 and example.aliases.drushrc.php for more information. COMMANDS -------- Drush can be extended to run your own commands. Writing a Drush command is no harder than writing simple Drupal modules, since they both follow the same structure. See examples/sandwich.drush.inc for light details on the internals of a Drush command file. Otherwise, the core commands in Drush are good models for your own commands. You can put your Drush command file in a number of places: a) In a folder specified with the --include option (see `drush topic docs-configuration`). b) Along with one of your enabled modules. If your command is related to an existing module, this is the preferred approach. c) In a .drush folder in your HOME folder. Note, that you have to create the .drush folder yourself. d) In the system-wide Drush commands folder, e.g. /usr/share/drush/commands e) In Drupal's sites/all/drush folder. Note, that you have to create the drush folder yourself. In any case, it is important that you end the filename with ".drush.inc", so that Drush can find it. FAQ === Q: What does "drush" stand for? A: The Drupal Shell. Q: How do I pronounce Drush? A: Some people pronounce the dru with a long u like Drupal. Fidelity points go to them, but they are in the minority. Most pronounce Drush so that it rhymes with hush, rush, flush, etc. This is the preferred pronunciation. CREDITS ======= * Originally developed by Arto Bendiken <http://bendiken.net/> for Drupal 4.7. * Redesigned by Franz Heinzmann (frando) <http://unbiskant.org/> in May 2007 for Drupal 5. * Maintained by Moshe Weitzman <http://drupal.org/moshe> with much help from Owen Barton, Adrian Rossouw, greg.1.anderson, jonhattan, Jonathan Hedstrom.