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Windows Important Files

Files that can yield passwords or other intel about the system, network or users.

File Description / Importance
%SYSTEMDRIVE%\pagefile.sys This file is used by the operating system when there is not enough RAM (memory) in the system. It is a large file, but contains spill over from RAM, usually lots of good information can be pulled, but should be a last resort due to size.
%SYSTEMROOT%\repair\SAM
%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\config\RegBack\SAM
These files store the LM and NTLM hashes for local users. Using Volume Shadow Copy or Ninja Copy you can retrieve these files.
%SystemDrive%\inetpub\logs\LogFiles IIS 7.x web server log file location.
%USERPROFILE%\LocalS~1\Tempor~1\Content.IE5\index.dat Internet Explorer web browser history file (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/322916)
%USERPROFILE%\ntuser.dat User-level Windows registry settings (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc758618(v=WS.10).aspx)
%WINDIR%\System32\drivers\etc\hosts System hosts file for local translation of host names to IP addresses.
%WINDIR%\debug\NetSetup.log Shows issues when computers are joined to a domain. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc961817.aspx
%WINDIR%\iis[version].log where [version] = 6, 7, or 8 Internet Information Service (IIS web server) log files.
%WINDIR%\repair\sam
%WINDIR%\repair\system
%WINDIR%\repair\software
%WINDIR%\repair\security
System registry hives. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Registry
%WINDIR%\system32\CCM\logs\*.log Windows SCCM (System Center Configuration Manager) log files (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb892800.aspx)
%WINDIR%\system32\config\AppEvent.Evt
%WINDIR%\system32\config\SecEvent.Evt
Windows Event Logs.
%WINDIR%\system32\config\default.sav
%WINDIR%\system32\config\security.sav
%WINDIR%\system32\config\software.sav
%WINDIR%\system32\config\system.sav
Backup Windows registry files (http://forensics.wikia.com/wiki/Windows_registry_entries)
%WINDIR%\system32\logfiles\httperr\httperr1.log IIS 6.x web server error logs.
%WINDIR%\system32\logfiles\w3svc1\exYYMMDD.log where YYMMDD = year month day Web server log files.
unattend.txt, unattend.xml, sysprep.inf Used in the automated deployment of Windows images and can contain user accounts.