Pre And Postinstall Scripts

Greg Neagle edited this page May 14, 2018 · 10 revisions

Using pre and postinstall_scripts to avoid repackaging

Introduction

A common reason to repackage software is to perform additional configuration tasks or install additional items. You can often avoid repackaging by creating a separate package with your changes or additions and marking that package as an update_for the original package.

Another technique to avoid repackaging is to add a preinstall_script and/or a postinstall_script to the pkginfo for an item. These scripts can take care of some of the tasks you may have previously needed to resort to repackaging to implement.

Details

TextWrangler, a popular text editor, is distributed as a "drag-n-drop" disk image containing the TextWrangler application. But on first launch of the TextWrangler application, the user is prompted for admin credentials so some command-line tools can be installed. One approach to avoid this prompt is to repackage TextWrangler so that the applications and command-line tools are installed up front. But this can quickly become tedious as newer versions of TextWrangler are released.

An alternative is to implement a postinstall_script that copies the command-line tools from the TextWrangler bundle to their intended locations. Here's an example of such a postinstall_script embedded into the pkginfo for TextWrangler 3.5.3:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>autoremove</key>
    <false/>
    <key>catalogs</key>
    <array>
        <string>production</string>
    </array>
    <key>description</key>
    <string>Free text editor from the makers of BBEdit</string>
    <key>display_name</key>
    <string>TextWrangler</string>
    <key>installer_item_hash</key>
    <string>4102747e33d6af3bfe19a1d4eaf9792d65bdf98952cefa9afcf1a008e5fda965</string>
    <key>installer_item_location</key>
    <string>apps/TextWrangler_3.5.3.dmg</string>
    <key>installer_item_size</key>
    <integer>12675</integer>
    <key>installer_type</key>
    <string>copy_from_dmg</string>
    <key>installs</key>
    <array>
        <dict>
            <key>CFBundleIdentifier</key>
            <string>com.barebones.textwrangler</string>
            <key>CFBundleName</key>
            <string>TextWrangler</string>
            <key>CFBundleShortVersionString</key>
            <string>3.5.3</string>
            <key>minosversion</key>
            <string>10.5</string>
            <key>path</key>
            <string>/Applications/TextWrangler.app</string>
            <key>type</key>
            <string>application</string>
        </dict>
    </array>
    <key>items_to_copy</key>
    <array>
        <dict>
            <key>destination_path</key>
            <string>/Applications</string>
            <key>source_item</key>
            <string>TextWrangler.app</string>
        </dict>
    </array>
    <key>minimum_os_version</key>
    <string>10.4.0</string>
    <key>name</key>
    <string>TextWrangler</string>
    <key>postinstall_script</key>
    <string>#!/bin/sh

mkdir -p -m 775 /usr/local/bin
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/MacOS/edit /usr/local/bin/
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/MacOS/twdiff /usr/local/bin/
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/MacOS/twfind /usr/local/bin/

mkdir -p -m 775 /usr/local/share/man/man1
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/Resources/edit.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1/
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/Resources/twdiff.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1/
cp /Applications/TextWrangler.app/Contents/Resources/twfind.1 /usr/local/share/man/man1/

exit 0
    </string>
    <key>uninstall_method</key>
    <string>remove_copied_items</string>
    <key>uninstallable</key>
    <true/>
    <key>version</key>
    <string>3.5.3</string>
</dict>
</plist>

Since these scripts are embedded in XML, you must escape certain characters that are special to the XML parser. Specifically, the following characters and their corresponding XML entities:

  • & is replaced with &amp;
  • < is replaced with &lt;
  • > is replaced with &gt;

You may want to use makepkginfo to do the escaping for you.

If your pre- or postinstall_script is in a file, you can generate the embedded version of the script, complete with proper escaping, with makepkginfo like so:

makepkginfo --postinstall_script /path/to/a/script
makepkginfo --preinstall_script /path/to/a/script

Additionally, GUI editing tools like MunkiAdmin, MunkiWebAdmin, and the like don't require this escaping if you aren't editing raw plists, as they do the escaping when converting a string into XML.

Failure of the preinstall_script will abort the installation attempt. Failure of the postinstall_script will log errors, but the install will be considered complete.

Logging

echo statements will be logged to /Library/Managed Installs/Logs/ManagedSoftwareUpdate.log

Introduction

Munki 3

Managed Software Center

Command-line Tools

Munki configuration

Manifests

Catalogs

Pkginfo

Advanced Munki

Related tasks

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Product-specific notes

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