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# Software to manage FEM-MUSina irrigator
# Copyright (c) 2015 Tiziana Dallapè
# Copyright (c) 2015 Matteo Perini
# Copyright (c) 2015 Giambattista Toller
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as
# published by the Free Software Foundation
# See LICENSE file for details
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc.,59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
# See for detailed project
#include <Servo.h> //add libraries
objects and variables declarations and definitions list
Servo myservo; //create a Servo object
int ServoPin = 10; //attach servo to pin 10
int motorPinDirA = 12; //attach motor to pins 12 13 3 11
int motorPinDirB = 13;
int motorPinPwmA = 3;
int motorPinPwmB = 11;
int EVPin = 4; //attach electro valve to pin 4
int stopPin = 2; //attach switch to pin 2
//service variables
int index = 0; //vase index
int dir = 1; //default motor direction
int nStep = 0; //definition of motor steps
long int T0; //variable to store Arduino's timer value [ms]
//variables for the selection of input pin at the 4051 multiplexer
int r0 = 0; //bit value of the selected input pin at the 4051 (s0)
int r1 = 0; //bit value of the selected input pin at the 4051 (s1)
int r2 = 0; //bit value of the selected input pin at the 4051 (s2)
//declaration and initialization of array of motor step
boolean PwmA[8] = {1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0};
boolean PwmB[8] = {1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1};
boolean DirA[8] = {1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0};
boolean DirB[8] = {1,1,0,0,0,0,1,1};
//user customizable variables
const int n_pots = 8; /*change value of index according to number
of pots you have; default: 8 pots*/
int resistance[n_pots] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0};/*declaration and
initialization at 1023
points of array, where
resistance values
(humidity proxy) will be
int threshold[n_pots] = {900,900,900,900,900,900,900,900};/*declara-
tion and
zation of
array of
of every
int steps = 195; /*number of motor steps between two pipes;
default: 195 steps for our motor*/
int water_time = 25000; //valve opening time [ms]
int emptying_delay = 2000;/*water complete emptying time through
pipes; default: 2000ms*/
int check_delay = 180000; /*time between the end of one watering cycle
and the next one*/
void setup() {
this function runs once at the start of the program which is used to
define initial environmental settings
pinMode(motorPinDirA, OUTPUT); //motor "A" channel direction
pinMode(motorPinDirB, OUTPUT); //motor "B" channel direction
pinMode(motorPinPwmA, OUTPUT); //motor "A" impulse
pinMode(motorPinPwmB, OUTPUT); //motor "A" impulse
pinMode(7, OUTPUT); //s0 multiplexer byte index
pinMode(6, OUTPUT); //s1 multiplexer byte index
pinMode(5, OUTPUT); //s2 multiplexer byte index
pinMode(EVPin, OUTPUT); //electro valve control
pinMode(A5, INPUT); //ground resistance reading
pinMode(stopPin, INPUT); //switch reading
Serial.begin(9600); //serial initialization
T0 = millis(); //set T0 to millis()
myservo.attach(ServoPin); //initialize Servo motor
myservo.write(0); //set Servo position to 0deg
void step(int dir) {
motor moving function
if(dir == 1) { //move forward
nStep = (nStep+1)%8;
digitalWrite(motorPinDirA, DirA[nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinDirB, DirB[nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinPwmA, PwmA[nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinPwmB, PwmB[nStep]);
}else { //backward
nStep = (nStep+1)%8;
digitalWrite(motorPinDirA, DirA[7-nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinDirB, DirB[7-nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinPwmA, PwmA[7-nStep]);
digitalWrite(motorPinPwmB, PwmB[7-nStep]);
void check_ground_resistance() {
resistance check function
the ground has variable resistance in function of its humidity.
Resistance is measured by voltage divider, which is red by AD
converter at pin A5. Resistance is checked on every pots
for(index = 0; index <= (n_pots-1); index++) {
r0 = bitRead(index, 0); //read a number as bits (first digit)
r1 = bitRead(index, 1); //read a number as bits (second digit)
r2 = bitRead(index, 2); //read a number as bits (third digit)
digitalWrite(7, r0); //set multiplexer to read indexth input
digitalWrite(6, r1);
digitalWrite(5, r2);
int multiplexerOutput = analogRead(A5);/*read the multiplexer output
resistance[index] = multiplexerOutput; /*set data in resistance
void water(int to_be_watered) {
watering function
this function recieves the index (0...n_pots) of the pot to be
watered, basing on resistance check (humidity proxy); revolver moves
forward to the right position, reached it, Servo pulls down the
revolver which joints its gap with the lower part of machine, the
valve is opened and the water flows through the pipe watering the pot
for the water_time time; the valve is closed, wait for emptying_delay
time for water complete emptying, then Servo pulls up the revolver
Serial.println("Going to the right position...");
for(index = (to_be_watered * steps * 2); index >= 0; index--) {
delay(2); //change this value to change speed; default: 2
Serial.println("Position reached!");
myservo.write(70); //set servo to 70deg
Serial.println("Pull down...");
digitalWrite(EVPin, HIGH);
Serial.println("Please wait...");
digitalWrite(EVPin, LOW);
Serial.println("Turn off the valve...");
Serial.println("Please wait a little...");
myservo.write(0); //set servo to starting position
Serial.println("Pull up...");
void stepper_reset() {
motor backward move function
function moves backward the motor as long as revolver reach the
switch to set the home position
analogWrite(motorPinPwmA, 255);
analogWrite(motorPinPwmB, 255);
Serial.println("I'm going...");
while(!(digitalRead(stopPin) == HIGH)) {
delay(2); //change this value to change speed; default: 2
Serial.println("Home reached!");
void loop() {
watering loop routine runs countless times calling some functions;
when spended time since last watering is higher than check_delay
time, watering loop starts checking resistance: if the ground is dry
(low humidity) tension is high and the ground resistance is high too,
so if the checked resistance in one pot is higher than threshold,
that plant will be watered
analogWrite(motorPinPwmA, 0);
analogWrite(motorPinPwmB, 0);
if((millis() - T0) > check_delay) {
T0 = millis();
Serial.println("Check resistance...");
for(index = 0; index <= (n_pots-2); index++) {
Serial.print(" , ");
Serial.println("Controlling values...");
for(index = 0; index <= (n_pots-1); index++) {
if(resistance[index] > threshold[index]) {
Serial.print("Resistance at the ");
Serial.println("th vase voltage is too high!");
Serial.println("Try to water the plant");
Serial.println("Go to home position...");
int to_be_watered = index+1;
Serial.println("Water the plant");
Serial.println("Plant watered!");
}else {
Serial.print("Plant ");
Serial.println(" doesn't need water...");
Serial.println("Waiting for new resistance check...");