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lib60870-C 2.1.0 User Guide

Introduction

lib60870-C is a new implementation of the IEC 60870-5-101/104 protocol for client (master station) and server (slave or controlled station). The library implements all data types of the IEC 60870-5-101/104 specifications. lib60870-C is implemented in standard C and is compatible with the C99 standard. It is designed to be as easy to use as possible.

The client/server API is strictly asynchronous. You send the requests with non-blocking functions and will have to handle the responses and other events in callback functions.

Here is a list of supported features:

  • CS 101 (IEC 60870-5-101) balanced and unbalanced serial modes

  • CS 104 (IEC 60870-5-104) client and server TCP/IP communication

  • CS 104 supports encrypted and authenticated TLS communication

  • CS 104 uses the CS 101 application layer

  • CS 104 slave: support for redundancy groups

  • Master/Client supports sending system commands, process commands, parameter commands, and data messages in reverse direction.

  • Slave/Server supports sending data messages in monitoring direction and commands in reverse direction

  • The list of supported ASDU types can be found in the annex

  • The library supports user defined private ASDU types

NOTE: CS stands for "companion standard" and specifies variants of the communication protocols and services defined in the IEC 60870-5 standard series.

The library uses an "object-oriented" programming style. It is based on abstract data types (ADT) and functions that operate on these data types. In general the actual implementations of the data types (the data structures that hold the data) is hidden from the API user. In almost all cases it is not required (and also not recommended) that the API user accesses these data structures directly.

Application layer messages

This programming style will be explained by the example of the CS101_ASDU ADT that is a central part of the library API. This data type represents an application layer message of the CS101/CS104 protocols. The abbreviation ASDU stands for "Application Service Data Unit". To create a new ASDU object the CS101_ASDU_create function has to be used as a constructor of the object.

CS101_ASDU newAsdu = CS101_ASDU_create(alParams, false, CS101_COT_INTERROGATED_BY_STATION,
      0, 1, false, false);

This function has various parameters to reflect the different properties of an ASDU. Here is the signature of the CS101_ASDU_create function:

CS101_ASDU
CS101_ASDU_create(CS101_AppLayerParameters parameters, bool isSequence, CS101_CauseOfTransmission cot,
                  int oa, int ca, bool isTest, bool isNegative);

The first parameter if another object of type CS101_AppLayerParameters that represents the application layer parameters that are shared between master and slave on agreement. If both side don’t have the identical parameters they will not be able to understand the ASDUs from the other side.

The second parameter isSequence indicates that the ASDU contains a sequence of consecutive information objects (if true) or one or more independent information objects (if false). A sequence of consecutive information objects means that the ASDU only contains a single information object address (IOA). The consecutive information objects then have addresses IOA, IOA + 1, IOA + 2, …​

The third parameters indicates the cause of transmission (COT). It is to tell the other side the reason for sending the messages. Possible values could be CS101_COT_PERIODIC for periodic messages, CS101_COT_SPONTANEOUS for spontaneous messages.

The other parameters are oa for the originator address, ca for the common address of the ASDU, isTest to indicate that the message is a test message, and isNegative to indicate that the message is a negative confirmation of another message.

With the handle of the new ASDU object (in our case newAsdu) we can call one of the various functions to get or set data of the ASDU. For example you can get or set the test flag values with the CS101_ASDU_isTest or CS101_ASDU_setTest functions. The first parameter of these functions is always the handle of the ASDU object.

bool isTest = CS101_ASDU_isTest(newAsdu);

An important function to create usable ASDU objects is the CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject functions. With this function you can add information object instances to the ASDU.

InformationObject io = (InformationObject) MeasuredValueScaled_create(NULL, 100, -1,
                       IEC60870_QUALITY_GOOD);

CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject(newAsdu, io);

This function can be called multiple times to add more information objects to the ASDU object. It has a boolean return values that indicates if the information object has been added successfully (return value true). Adding an information object can fail when the ASDU payload is already full. In this case the function will return false.

Finally, when the application created an ASDU object and it is no longer needed it has to be released with with the CS101_ASDU_destroy function.

CS101_ASDU_destroy(newAsdu);

Master (client) side programming

For master side programming the following abstract data types and APIs can be used:

  • CS101_Master for CS 101 compliant balanced mode and unbalanced mode serial connections.

  • CS104_Connection for a CS 104 compliant TCP/IP connection.

Create a connection to a CS 104 server

Since an IEC 60870-5-104 connection is based on a TCP client/server connection the connection will be established by the client(master). The server(slave or outstation) is usually passively waiting for connections.

A new connection is simple created by calling a the CS104_Connection_create function of the CS104_Connection type:

CS104_Connection con = CS104_Connection_create("127.0.0.1", 2404);

This creates a new CS104_Connection object that is ready to connect to the server. The parameters are the hostname or IP address of the server and the TCP/IP port (usually 2404). For the port parameter you can also set -1 to use the default port.

After the connection object is created you can now simply call the CS104_Connection_connect function to connect to the server:

CS104_Connection_connect(con);

The parameter con is the reference to the connection object created above.

When the connection has been established correctly you can use the connection object to send commands and receive data.

When you finished using the connection object you have to call

CS104_Connection_destroy(con);

To release all resources allocated by the object. After using the destroy function you cannot use any functions with the con reference!

Preparing a CS 101 connection to one or more slaves

CS 101 provides two link layer modes for master/slave connections.

Balanced mode supports communication between a single master and a single slave using a dedicated serial line. This mode is "balanced" in the sense that both ends can spontaneously send messages at any time.

Unbalanced mode supports communication between a single master and multiple slaves on a serial bus. Each slave is addressed by its unique link layer address. Slaves are not allowed to send messages spontaneously. They only respond following a request from the master. The master can address multiple slaves at once by using a broadcast address.

Configuring the serial port

For both modes first the serial port has to be configured and initialized. The following code shows an example how to prepare the serial port for usage with the library:

  SerialPort port = SerialPort_create("/dev/ttsS0", 9600, 8, 'E', 1);

Create and use a new unbalanced master instances

For balanced and unbalanced communication modes the CS101_Master type has to be used.

The following code creates a new unbalanced master instance using the serial port defined above. The CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler function provides a callback handler for received ASDUs. The CS101_Master_addSlave function will create a new slave specific state machine to handle all communication with the slave with link layer address 1.

CS101_Master master = CS101_Master_create(port, NULL, NULL, IEC60870_LINK_LAYER_UNBALANCED);

CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler(master, asduReceivedHandler, NULL);

CS101_Master_addSlave(master, 1);

The link layer parameters and application layer parameters are optional parameters. If not set default instances of the parameter objects are created and used. The parameters can also be modified later.

Before sending any command or other request to a specific slave the slave address has to be set with the CS101_Master_useSlaveAddress function.

CS101_Master_useSlaveAddress(master, 1);
CS101_Master_sendProcessCommand(master, CS101_COT_ACTIVATION, 1, sc);

Balanced master

The balanced master is created the same way. Just the link layer mode parameter is different. The CS101_Master_useSlaveAddress is used to set the slave address. In the balanced master case it has only to be set one time, as there exists only

CS101_Master master = CS101_Master_create(port, NULL, NULL, IEC60870_LINK_LAYER_BALANCED);

CS101_Master_useSlaveAddress(master, 3);
CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler(master, asduReceivedHandler, NULL);

Setting the link layer parameters is an optional step. When not explicitly set a default set of parameters will be used for the new master instance. The parameters can be given with the constructor CS101_Master_create or modified later.

Example: Disable usage of single char ACKs
LinkLayerParameters llParams = CS101_Master_getLinkLayerParameters(master);
llParams->useSingleCharACK = false;

Sending requests and receiving responses from the slave

In general an application is concerned with sending application layer messages (ASDUs) to the slave. The master side API supports generic and specialized functions to send messages to the slave. When sending system commands or process commands it is recommended to use the specialized functions because they help to create ASDUs that comply to the standards. These specialized functions are explained in the following sections. They exist generally in two variants for CS101 and CS104.

For the general case it is possible to send arbitrary ASDUs by using the CS101_Master_sendASDU or CS104_Connection_sendASDU functions.

For receiving application layer messages the application has to implement the CS101_ASDUReceivedHandler callback.

Example for processing received ASDUs in the CS101_ASDUReceivedHandler
static bool
asduReceivedHandler (void* parameter, int address, CS101_ASDU asdu)
{
    printf("RECVD ASDU type: %s(%i) elements: %i\n",
            TypeID_toString(CS101_ASDU_getTypeID(asdu)),
            CS101_ASDU_getTypeID(asdu),
            CS101_ASDU_getNumberOfElements(asdu));

    if (CS101_ASDU_getTypeID(asdu) == M_ME_TE_1) {

        printf("  measured scaled values with CP56Time2a timestamp:\n");

        int i;

        for (i = 0; i < CS101_ASDU_getNumberOfElements(asdu); i++) {

            MeasuredValueScaledWithCP56Time2a io =
                    (MeasuredValueScaledWithCP56Time2a) CS101_ASDU_getElement(asdu, i);

            printf("    IOA: %i value: %i\n",
                    InformationObject_getObjectAddress((InformationObject) io),
                    MeasuredValueScaled_getValue((MeasuredValueScaled) io)
            );

            MeasuredValueScaledWithCP56Time2a_destroy(io);
        }
    }
    else if (CS101_ASDU_getTypeID(asdu) == M_SP_NA_1) {
        printf("  single point information:\n");

        int i;

        for (i = 0; i < CS101_ASDU_getNumberOfElements(asdu); i++) {

            SinglePointInformation io =
                    (SinglePointInformation) CS101_ASDU_getElement(asdu, i);

            printf("    IOA: %i value: %i\n",
                    InformationObject_getObjectAddress((InformationObject) io),
                    SinglePointInformation_getValue((SinglePointInformation) io)
            );

            SinglePointInformation_destroy(io);
        }
    }

    return true;
}

This callback handler has to be installed with the CS104_Connection_setASDUReceivedHandler or CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler function.

CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler(master, asduReceivedHandler, NULL);

All callback handler have a generic reference parameter with the name "parameter" in its function signatures. This parameter can be used by the user to provide application specific context information to the callback handler. This parameter will be set with the install function of the callback handler (like CS101_Master_setASDUReceivedHandler in the example above). If not used this parameter can be set to NULL.

Table 1. Master side callback handler types
callback type event CS 101 CS 104

CS101_ASDUReceivedHandler

ASDU received but not handled by one of the other callback handlers

+

+

IEC60870_LinkLayerStateChangedHandler

link layer state changed event

+

-

CS104_ConnectionHandler

CS104 APCI event

-

+

Sending a read request

The IEC 60870 documents don’t recommend this service (cyclical data requests or polling) but it is an easy way to get the required data. You just need to know the common address (CA) and the information object address (IOA) to create the proper request.

CS104_Connection_sendReadCommand(con, 1 /* CA */, 2001 /* IOA */);

This call is non-blocking. You have to evaluate the response in the CS101_ASDUReceivedHandler callback function.

Typically it is expected that the server response contains only the basic data type without timestamps (that is using the message types for a specific data type that does not contain the timestamps)!

Interrogation

It is also possible to request a group of data items from a slave with a single request. On the master (client) side you can simply use the sendInterrogationCommand function of the Connection object:

CS104_Connection_sendInterrogationCommand (con, CS101_COT_ACTIVATION, /* CA */ 1, /* QOI */ 20);

The client/master side method signature looks like this:

bool
CS104_Connection_sendInterrogationCommand(CS104_Connection self, CS101_CauseOfTransmission cot, int ca, QualifierOfInterrogation qoi)

The parameter ca is the common address (CA) as in the other methods. The parameter qoi is the "Qualifier of interrogation" (QOI). The value "20" (indicating "station interrogation") for the QOI indicates that it is an request for all data points. Other values for QOI will indicate that the client (master) only wants to receive data from a specific interrogation group.

Clock synchronization procedure

For the clock synchronization procedure the controlling station (master) sends a C_CS_NA_1 ACT message to the controlled station (slave) containing the current valid time information as a CP56Time2a typed time value. The controlled station has to update its internal time and respond with a C_CS_NA_1 ACT_CON message after all queued time-tagged PDUs have been sent.

Clock synchronization of the controlled station can be done with the CS104_Connection_sendClockSyncCommand function for CS104 or the CS101_Master_sendClockSyncCommand for CS101.

First a CP56Time2a timestamp has to be created and initialized:

struct sCP56Time2a currentTime;
CP56Time2a_createFromMsTimestamp(&currentTime, Hal_getTimeInMs());
CS104_Connection_sendClockSyncCommand(con, 1 /* CA */, &currentTime);

Or when using dynamic memory allocation and CS 101:

CP56Time2a currentTime = CP56Time2a_createFromMsTimestamp(NULL, Hal_getTimeInMs());
CS101_Master_sendClockSyncCommand(master, 1 /* CA */, currentTime);

NOTE: The Hal_getTimeInMs function is platform independent way to get the current time as milliseconds since 00:00:00 1. January 1970 UTC. You can also use your own function to get the time.

Command procedures

Commands are used to set set points, parameters or trigger some actions at the controlled station.

The following command types (data types are available for commands):

  • C_SC (single command) - to control binary data (switch…​)

  • C_DC (double command) - to control binary data with transition state (moving switch…​)

  • S_RC (step position command) - to control a step position

  • S_SE (setpoint command) - to control a set point (scaled value, normalized value, floating point values) - may also be used to set parameters, alarm limits etc.

These command types are also available in a version with a time tag (CP56TIme2a).

There are two different command procedures available. The direct operate command procedure and the select before operate command procedure.

To send a command for the direct operate command procedure you have to send an ACTIVATION APDU to the controlled station.

Send a process command to the controlled station
  InformationObject sc = (InformationObject)
        SingleCommand_create(NULL, 5000, true, false, 0);

  CS101_Master_sendProcessCommand(master, CS101_COT_ACTIVATION, 1, sc);

  InformationObject_destroy(sc);

The constructor of SingleCommand data type has the following signature:

  SingleCommand
  SingleCommand_create(SingleCommand self, int ioa, bool command, bool selectCommand, int qu);

In order to send a direct operate command the selectCommand parameter should be false. The qualifier (qu) should in general be set to 0.

For select before operate the command has to be sent with the selectCommand parameter set to true to select the control output. In the next step an additional command with selectCommand set to false has to be sent to cause the actual command execution.

If the command has been successful the outstation will answer with an ACT_CON response message with the negative flag not set. In case the outstation cannot execute the command it will also answer with an ACT_CON response but with the negative flag set. You can check if this flag is set with the CS101_ASDU_isNegative function used with the received CS101_ASDU instance.

For a CS 104 master a command can be sent the same way by using the CS104_Master_sendProcessCommandEx function.

Slave (server) side programming

CS104 (TCP/IP) Server configuration and setup

To configure and setup an IEC 60870-5-104 server/slave an instance of the CS104_Slave data type is required.

CS104_Slave slave = CS104_Slave_create(100, 100);

After the server instance is created it can be configured

CS104 Server mode

The server provides three different modes concerning the support of redundant connections and event queue handling:

The default mode (CS104_MODE_SINGLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUP) allows only a single active client connection. An active client connection is a connection where ASDUs (application data units) are sent. All other connections are only standby connections that don’t send application layer data. There is a single queue for events. Events are also stored when no client is connected or when no connection is active.

The second mode (CS104_MODE_CONNECTION_IS_REDUNDANCY_GROUP) allows multiple active client connections. Every connection has its own event queue. The event queue will be deleted when the client connection is closed. This mode can be used when more than one client has to access the application data. This mode is easy to use. But the drawback of this mode is that events are lost when no client is connected.

The third mode (CS104_MODE_MULTIPLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUPS) allows multiple active client connections while preserving events when no client is connected. In this mode clients can be assigned to specific redundancy groups. The assignment is based on the IP address of the client. A redundancy group can have multiple simultaneous connections but only one of these connections can be active. The number of activated connections is restricted by the number of redundancy groups. Each redundancy group has a dedicated event queue.

The server mode can be set with the CS104_Slave_setServerMode function:

CS104_Slave_setServerMode(slave, CS104_MODE_MULTIPLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUPS);

CS104: Defining multiple redundancy groups

Redundancy groups only have to be created explicitly when using the servermode CS104_MODE_MULTIPLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUPS. You can assign multiple IP addresses to a redundancy group. Incoming connections from one of these IP addresses will then automatically be assigned to this specific redundancy group.

When a redundancy group has no assigned IP address it works as a "catch all" group. This means that all incoming connections that are not assigned to one of the other groups will end up in this group.

Example how to define multipe redundancy groups
CS104_Slave_setServerMode(slave, CS104_MODE_MULTIPLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUPS);

CS104_RedundancyGroup redGroup1 = CS104_RedundancyGroup_create("red-group-1");
CS104_RedundancyGroup_addAllowedClient(redGroup1, "192.168.2.9");

CS104_RedundancyGroup redGroup2 = CS104_RedundancyGroup_create("red-group-2");
CS104_RedundancyGroup_addAllowedClient(redGroup2, "192.168.2.223");
CS104_RedundancyGroup_addAllowedClient(redGroup2, "192.168.2.222");

CS104_RedundancyGroup redGroup3 = CS104_RedundancyGroup_create("catch-all");

CS104_Slave_addRedundancyGroup(slave, redGroup1);
CS104_Slave_addRedundancyGroup(slave, redGroup2);
CS104_Slave_addRedundancyGroup(slave, redGroup3);

CS101 (serial) slave configuration and setup

Similar to the master side the CS101 slave side can also be configured for one of the two link layer modes (balanced or unbalanced). A CS101 slave is represented by a CS101_SLave object.

Before a CS101_Slave object can be created a SerialPort object is required. The SerialPort object represents the serial interface and its configuration.

SerialPort port = SerialPort_create(serialPort, 9600, 8, 'E', 1);

The created SerialPort object is required for the CS101_Slave_create function:

CS101_Slave slave = CS101_Slave_create(port, NULL, NULL, IEC60870_LINK_LAYER_UNBALANCED);

This function has the following signature:

CS101_Slave
CS101_Slave_create(SerialPort serialPort, LinkLayerParameters llParameters, CS101_AppLayerParameters alParameters, IEC60870_LinkLayerMode linkLayerMode)

Optionally the link layer parameters and application layer parameters can be specified. If the default values should be used these parameters can be skipped (set to NULL). The last parameter specifies if the balanced or unbalanced mode is used.

For the serial slave it is also required to set a link layer address:

CS101_Slave_setLinkLayerAddress(slave, 1);

Setting the callback handler functions

Before starting or running the server it is recommended to set the callback functions to handle slave events. The following callback handler types are available (please the the API reference manual for function signature details). Some of them are only available for CS 104 servers and some only for CS101 slaves.

Table 2. Slave side callback handler types
callback type event CS 101 CS 104

CS101_InterrogationHandler

interrogation requests

+

+

CS101_CounterInterrogationHandler

counter interrogation requests

+

+

CS101_ReadHandler

read requests for single information objects

+

+

CS101_ClockSynchronizationHandler

clock synchronization message received

+

+

CS101_ResetProcessHandler

reset process request received

+

+

CS101_DelayAcquisitionHandler

delay acquisition request received

+

-

CS101_ASDUHandler

ASDU received but not handled by one of the other callback handlers

+

+

CS101_ResetCUHandler

a link layer message of type reset CU (communication unit) has been received

+

-

CS104_ConnectionRequestHandler

a new TCP/IP client tries to connect

-

+

Setting some callback functions for the CS101 slave
/* set the callback handler for the clock synchronization command */
CS101_Slave_setClockSyncHandler(slave, clockSyncHandler, NULL);

/* set the callback handler for the interrogation command */
CS101_Slave_setInterrogationHandler(slave, interrogationHandler, NULL);

/* set handler for other message types */
CS101_Slave_setASDUHandler(slave, asduHandler, NULL);

/* set handler for reset CU (reset communication unit) message */
CS101_Slave_setResetCUHandler(slave, resetCUHandler, (void*) slave);

CS104 Starting/Stopping the server

After the server is configured it can be started with the CS104_Slave_start function. This function starts a new background thread that is listening for incoming client connections.

CS104_Slave_start(slave);

To deactivate the IEC 60870-5-104 service the server can be stopped with the CS104_Slave_stop function.

CS104_Slave_stop(slave);

Spontaneous or periodic transmission of messages

For spontaneous or periodic message transmission on the server/slave side the API user has to allocate a CS101_ASDU object that represents the ASDU, add Information Objects to the ASDU, and finally put the ASDU into the transmission queue. The transmission queue is a FIFO (first in first out) list. If the queue is full the oldest message will be deleted and replaced by the newly added message. Messages will only be sent if the there is an active client connection or working link layer connection. Otherwise the messages will remain in the queue until a connection is activated.

LIB60870-C: In the C version the queue size is determined by the maxQueueSize parameter of the T104Slave_create function. If the library is compiled with the CONFIG_SLAVE_WITH_STATIC_MESSAGE_QUEUE option enabled the maxQueueSize parameter will be ignored and the queue will always have the size defined with by CONFIG_SLAVE_MESSAGE_QUEUE_SIZE.

The following steps have to be done to send spontaneous or periodic messages:

  1. Step: Create a new CS101_ASDU instance (use CS101_COT_PERIODIC for periodic data and CS101_COT_SPONTANEOUS for spontaneous data)

    CS101_ASDU newAsdu = CS101_ASDU_create(alParameters, false, CS101_COT_PERIODIC, 0, 1, false, false);
  2. Step: Create a new information object instance containing the data to send

    InformationObject io = (InformationObject) MeasuredValueScaled_create(NULL, 110, scaledValue, IEC60870_QUALITY_GOOD);
  3. Step: Add the new information object to the ASDU

    CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject(newAsdu, io);
  4. Step: Release the information object memory

    InformationObject_destroy(io);
  5. Step: Put the ASDU into the class 2 data queue for transmission

    CS101_Slave_enqueueUserDataClass2(slave, newAsdu);
  6. Step: Release the ASDU memory

    CS101_ASDU_destroy(newAsdu);

Handling of interrogation requests

On the server side you should use the InterrogationHandler callback function to handle the Interrogation request. Depending on the QOI (Qualifier of interrogation) value you should return different information objects. For a simple system it is enough to only handle station interrogation requests (QOI = 20). The QOI values 21-36 are used for the interrogation groups (1-16). It is up to the slave implementer to assign information objects to interrogation groups.

According to the specification the server has to respond the ACTIVATION request from the client with the ACT_CON response followed by ASDUs containing the information objects with CS101_COT_INTERROGATED_BY_STATION for a station interrogation or COT that represent the respective interrogation group (e.g. CS101_COT_INTERROGATED_BY_GROUP_1 for interrogation group 1). After sending all information objects the server has to send the initial interrogation command message with COT = CS101_COT_ACTIVATION_TERMINATION to indicate that the transmission of the interrogation data is finished.

Example how to implement an interrogation handler
static bool
interrogationHandler(void* parameter, IMasterConnection connection, CS101_ASDU asdu, uint8_t qoi)
{
    if (qoi == 20) { /* only handle station interrogation */

        CS101_AppLayerParameters alParams = IMasterConnection_getApplicationLayerParameters(connection);

        IMasterConnection_sendACT_CON(connection, asdu, false);

        CS101_ASDU newAsdu = CS101_ASDU_create(alParams, false, CS101_COT_INTERROGATED_BY_STATION,
                0, 1, false, false);

        InformationObject io = (InformationObject) MeasuredValueScaled_create(NULL, 100, -1, IEC60870_QUALITY_GOOD);

        CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject(newAsdu, io);

        CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject(newAsdu, (InformationObject)
            MeasuredValueScaled_create((MeasuredValueScaled) io, 101, 23, IEC60870_QUALITY_GOOD));

        CS101_ASDU_addInformationObject(newAsdu, (InformationObject)
            MeasuredValueScaled_create((MeasuredValueScaled) io, 102, 2300, IEC60870_QUALITY_GOOD));

        InformationObject_destroy(io);

        IMasterConnection_sendASDU(connection, newAsdu);

        CS101_ASDU_destroy(newAsdu);

        IMasterConnection_sendACT_TERM(connection, asdu);
    }
    else {
        IMasterConnection_sendACT_CON(connection, asdu, true);
    }

    return true;
}

Inside of the interrogation handler the IMasterConnection interface can be used to send the interrogated data back to the client/master. The CS101_ASDU and InformationObject instances created inside the interrogation handler are in the responsibility of the user and have to be release with the appropriate functions (CS101_ASDU_destroy and InformationObject_destroy) when they have been allocated dynamically.

CS104 (TCP/IP) specific issues

Server mode

The server provides two different modes:

The default mode (CS104_MODE_SINGLE_REDUNDANCY_GROUP) allows only a single active client connection. An active client connection is a connection where ASDUs are sent. All other connections are standby connections. There is a single queue for events. Events are also stored when no client is connected or when no connection is active.

The second mode (CS104_MODE_CONNECTION_IS_REDUNDANCY_GROUP) allows multiple active client connections. Every connection has its own event queue. The event queue will be deleted when the client connection is closed. This mode has to be used when more then one client has to access the application data.

The server mode can be set with the CS104_Slave_setServerMode function.

CS104_Slave_setServerMode(slave, CS104_MODE_CONNECTION_IS_REDUNDANCY_GROUP);

Restrict the number of client connections

The number of clients can be restricted with the CS104_Slave_setMaxOpenConnections function.

CS104_Slave_setMaxOpenConnections(slave, 2);

In this case the server will only allow two concurrent client connections.

Setting local port and IP address

The default TCP port for IEC 60870-5-104 is 2404. The port can be changed with the CS104_Slave_setLocalPort function.

CS104_Slave_setLocalPort(slave, 2405);

Per default the server listens to all local IP addresses. With the CS104_Slave_setLocalAddress function it is possible to restrict the server to a single local IP address.

CS104_Slave_setLocalAddress(slave, "192.168.1.50");

With this setting the CS104 server will only listen on the local interface with the assigned IP address 192.168.1.50.

Set a connection request handler to restrict the access and track connections

The CS104_ConnectionRequestHandler can be used to restrict the access to the server. With the return value the application can allow or deny the connection attempt of a client.

A CS104_ConnectionRequestHandler can be set with the CS104_Slave_setConnectionRequestHandler function. The second parameter is an arbitrary user provided object that will be passed to the handler when it is called. If not needed it can be set to NULL.

CS104_Slave_setConnectionRequestHandler(slave, connectionRequestHandler, NULL);

In the handler you can optionally check the client IP address against a whitelist of allowed clients or implement a blacklist.

Example how to implement a ConnectionRequestHandler
static bool connectionRequestHandler(void* parameter, const char* ipAddress)
{
  /* Allow only known IP addresses! */
  /* You can implement your allowed client whitelist here */
  if (strcmp(ipAddress, "127.0.0.1") == 0) {
    return true;
  else
    return false;
}

Create a secure connection with TLS

The CS 104 standard can also be used with TLS to realize secure and authenticated connections.

In order to use TLS the configuration parameters, certificates, and private keys have to be configured.

This configuration is stored in a TLSConfiguration object. A new configuration object can be created with the TLSConfiguration_create function.

Example how to create a CS 104 slave with TLS support
TLSConfiguration tlsConfig = TLSConfiguration_create();

TLSConfiguration_setChainValidation(tlsConfig, false);
TLSConfiguration_setAllowOnlyKnownCertificates(tlsConfig, true);

TLSConfiguration_setOwnKeyFromFile(tlsConfig, "server-key.pem", NULL);
TLSConfiguration_setOwnCertificateFromFile(tlsConfig, "server.cer");
TLSConfiguration_addCACertificateFromFile(tlsConfig, "root.cer");

TLSConfiguration_addAllowedCertificateFromFile(tlsConfig, "client1.cer");

/* create a new slave/server instance */
CS104_Slave slave = CS104_Slave_createSecure(100, 100, tlsConfig);

lib60870-C specific topics

Debug output

The debug output to the console can be enabled by setting CONFIG_DEBUG_OUTPUT to 1. This will enable the debug output by default. The debug output can be disabled my using the function Lib60870_enableDebugOutput. The default implementation of the debug output function will print to the console (using printf). If you need to redirect the output the most easy way would be to change the implementation of the debug output lib60870_debug_print function in lib60870_common.c.

Big endian platforms

The library contains a C header file to determine the platform byte order (src/inc/internal/platform_endian.h) when using the GCC compiler. This depends on defines that are provided by the C compiler. On some older big endian platforms like PowerPC or Coldfire depending on the compiler this may fail. You may have to define

PLATFORM_IS_BIGENDIAN 1

when compiling the library code.

E.g. put

-DPLATFORM_IS_BIGENDIAN=1

on the GCC command line when the platform byte order is big endian.

Configuration options at library compile time

Some configuration options are fixed at compile time of the library code. These options can be found in the file lib60870_config.h.

Reference information

Supported message types

The library supports the following ASDU (application service data unit) types.

Table 3. IEC 60870-5-101/104 message types
Message type Description C C#

M_SP_NA_1(1)

Single point information (BOOLEAN)

+

+

M_SP_TA_1(2)

Single point information (BOOLEAN) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_DP_NA_1(3)

Double point information (ON/OFF/transient)

+

+

M_DP_TA_1(4)

Double point information (ON/OFF/transient) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_ST_NA_1(5)

Step position information (-64 …​ 63, is transient)

+

+

M_ST_TA_1(6)

Step position information (-64 …​ 63, is transient) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_BO_NA_1(7)

Bitstring32 (32 bit bitstring)

+

+

M_BO_TA_1(8)

Bitstring32 (32 bit bitstring) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_ME_NA_1(9)

Normalized measured value (-1.0 …​ +1.0)

+

+

M_ME_TA_1(10)

Normalized measured value (-1.0 …​ +1.0) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_ME_NB_1(11)

Scaled measured value (-32768 …​ +32767)

+

+

M_ME_TB_1(12)

Scaled measured value (-32768 …​ +32767) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_ME_NC_1(13)

Short measured value (FLOAT32)

+

+

M_ME_TC_1(14)

Short measured value (FLOAT32) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_IT_NA_1(15)

Integrated totals (INT32 with quality indicators)

+

+

M_IT_TA_1(16)

Integrated totals (INT32 with quality indicators) with CP24Time2a

+

+

M_EP_TA_1(17)

Event of protection equipment

+

+

M_EP_TB_1(18)

Packed start events of protection equipment

+

+

M_EP_TC_1(19)

Packed output circuit info

+

+

M_PS_NA_1(20)

Packed single point with SCD

+

+

M_ME_ND_1(21)

Normalized measured value (-1.0 …​ +1.0) without quality

+

+

M_SP_TB_1(30)

Single point information (BOOLEAN) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_DP_TB_1(31)

Double point information (ON/OFF/transient) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_ST_TB_1(32)

Step position information (-64 …​ 63, is transient) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_BO_TB_1(33)

Bitstring32 (32 bit bitstring) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_ME_TD_1(34)

Normalized measured value (-1.0 …​ +1.0) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_ME_TE_1(35)

Scaled measured value (-32768 …​ +32767) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_ME_TF_1(36)

Short measured value (FLOAT32) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_IT_TB_1(37)

Integrated totals (INT32 with quality indicators) with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_EP_TD_1(38)

Event of protection equipment with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_EP_TE_1(39)

Packed start events of protection equipment with CP56Time2a

+

+

M_EP_TF_1(40)

Packed output circuit info with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_SC_NA_1(45)

Single command (BOOLEAN)

+

+

C_DC_NA_1(46)

Double command (ON/OFF/transient)

+

+

C_RC_NA_1(47)

Step command

+

+

C_SE_NA_1(48)

Setpoint command, normalized value (-1.0 …​ +1.0)

+

+

C_SE_NB_1(49)

Setpoint command, scaled value (-32768 …​ +32767)

+

+

C_SE_NC_1(50)

Setpoint command, short value (FLOAT32)

+

+

C_BO_NA_1(51)

Bitstring command (32 bit bitstring)

+

+

C_SC_TA_1(58)

Single command (BOOLEAN) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_DC_TA_1(59)

Double command (ON/OFF/transient) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_RC_TA_1(60)

Step command with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_SE_TA_1(61)

Setpoint command, normalized value (-1.0 …​ +1.0) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_SE_TB_1(62)

Setpoint command, scaled value (-32768 …​ +32767) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_SE_TC_1(63)

Setpoint command, short value (FLOAT32) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_BO_TA_1(64)

Bitstring command (32 bit bitstring) with CP56Time2a

+

+

C_IC_NA_1(100)

Interrogation command

+

+

C_CI_NA_1(101)

Counter interrogation command

+

+

C_RD_NA_1(102)

Read command

+

+

C_CS_NA_1(103)

Clock synchronization command

+

+

C_RP_NA_1(105)

Reset process command

+

+

C_CD_NA_1(106)

Delay acquisition command

+

+

P_ME_NA_1(110)

Parameter of measured values, normalized value

+

+

P_ME_NB_1(111)

Parameter of measured values, scaled value

+

+

P_ME_NC_1(112)

Parameter of measured values, short floating point number

+

+

P_AC_NA_1(113)

Parameter for activation

+

+

F_FR_NA_1(120)

File ready

+

+

F_SR_NA_1(121)

Section ready

+

+

F_SC_NA_1(122)

Call/Select directory/file/section

+

+

F_LS_NA_1(123)

Last segment/section

+

+

F_AF_NA_1(124)

ACK file/section

+

+

F_SG_NA_1(125)

File segment

+

+

F_DR_TA_1(126)

File directory

+

+

CS 104 specific parameters

The following parameters are stored in CS104_ConnectionParameters objects.

Table 4. IEC 60870-5-104 parameters
Parameter Description

k

Number of unconfirmed APDUs in I format. Sender will stop transmission after k unconfirmed I messages.

w

Number of unconfirmed APDUs in I format. Receiver will confirm latest after w messages

t0

Timeout for connection establishment (in s)

t1

Timeout for transmitted APDUs in I/U format (in s) when timeout elapsed without confirmation the connection will be closed. This is used by the sender to determine if the receiver has failed to confirm a message.

t2

Timeout to confirm messages (in s). This timeout is used by the receiver to determine the time when the message confirmation has to be sent.

t3

time until test telegrams will be sent in case of an idle connection