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README.md

Presentation and Documentation on Home Smart Mesh

This readme is an extract from Home Smart Mesh with focus on software configuration and protocol implementation details

The content of this repository

./raspi/

The server's python scripts running also on a raspberry pi

  • ./raspi/rf_uart : the interface to the serial port that transfers data between MQTT and the RF mesh
  • ./raspi/mesh_wizard/ : The web interface for real time view of the mesh with webgl, uses a websocket to connect to the MQTT broquer
  • ./raspi/ruler/ : json configurable rules through sensors and actuators MQTT topics and a separate python rules file
  • ./raspi/influx/ : the influx client that listens to MQTT and grabs standard sesnors patterns to be sent to the database
  • ./raspi/grafana : Grafana is used as a dashboard, it is a webserver interface that is installed on the raspberry pi (or on the docker image). Some dashboards examples are provided in this directory, where the queries are matching the way how the influx client has recorded the sensors data.
  • ./raspi/wemo/ : The wemo switch smart socket interface, provides power sensing and sends the Watt value to MQTT
  • ./raspi/milight : The milight RF gateway client (require the wifi to RF milight bridge HW)
  • Data collection into a time series database

./boards/

Schematics, PCBs and boards headers for the SensorTag and the Dongle used by the nRF52 firmware

./applications/

The nRF52 firmware grouped in project directories each containing the "main.c", "Makefile" and other project configuration files

  • ./applications/nrf52_sensortag/ : Low power Custom Sensor application with BME280 and MAX44009 (currently @22 uA)
  • ./applications/nrf52_dongle/ : Reprogrammed USB dongle from the market
  • ./applications/nrf52_accel/ : Motion detection Tag

./drivers/

Contains the specific drivers for this project from which the "mesh.c" a light weight Mesh Protocol connecting all the devices using a custom RF protocol (without softdevice)

  • Sleepy nodes (low power) and router nodes (always listening)
  • single layer ultra simple rpotocol. App into mac with unique ids to small ids mapping
  • An alternative to the Bluetooth Mesh and Zigbee Thread IPV6 world

./tools/

Contains the fancy Makefile extensions that allow :

  • switch power on and off using a Segger jlink
  • read and write parameters matching the device's unique identifier read from the HW registers

./nRF5_SDK_15.0.0_prf/

This is a submodule that minifies the nRF15 SDK for the content required by this repository. When compiling the nRF applications firmware don't forget to call the submodule update command, it is also possible to do that without git by going to the repository link, downloading it and placing it under the same path. Although if you do not use git command line at this stage, you might want to consider following a git tutorial.

git submodule update --init

Dependencies

  • For the Raspberry pi tools and scripts see full installation steps in the Installation website page
  • For the nRF52 firmare :
    • GNU Tools ARM Embedded version 6 2017-q2-update, referenced from the SDK Makefile.windows
    • Python jlink wrapper. Used in Makefile and tools of this repo, more on pylink.readthedocs. Note that it has to be used with a 32 bit python version referenced in the tools scripts as C:\Python27\python.exe. wrapper scripts already availabe in the tools directory

Details about the nRF52 Frimware environment

  • System variable NODES_CONFIG should point on a json configuration file, see an example at node.json or the screenshot below

The parameters here are used by external tools to have a consistent undersanding of the mesh network. From simple id to name translation, to location display according to coordinates down to user data flashing.

Cool defines and data configuration

sdk config tool

Once in the application directory just use make conf to call a cmsis configuration wizard, as provided in the SDK. Note that it was here extended to make the user drivers shared and configurable as well, e.g. the I²C frequency of the Application in the screenshot

Automated mesh devices configuration

User data flashing is done with Pylink which reads in uicr.py the registers of the attached device, look it up in the NODES_CONFIG file, retrives which parameters should be flashed, the mapping of parameters to CUSTOMER_X registers come from "uicr_map.json".

simple board switch

The repo contais a directory for boards declaration "boards/" and a directory for applications "applications/". Although every application targets a particular board, it is possible to use any application for any other board. In the makefile a sinlge line has to be edited

USED_BOARD := BOARD_NRF52_SENSOR_TAG

Doxygen Documentation

Yes this is only wrapping doxygen Doxyfile but just take it as a workspace local alias

nRF52 Sensor Tag

This board is based on modules, it is very simple to solder and allows selection of any other I²C sensor modules.

Design

Module

Schematics

Here a screenshot of the schematics which design files are also available in the board subdirectory

Mounted PCBs

It is possible to mount either CR2032 or CR2477

It is based on a market available nRF52832 module seen below

Low Power configuration

Flags to clear
NRFX_UARTE_ENABLED
NRFX_UART_ENABLED
UART_ENABLED
UART0_ENABLED
NRF_FPRINTF_ENABLED
NRF_LOG_BACKEND_UART_ENABLED
NRF_LOG_STR_FORMATTER_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT_ENABLED
NRF_LOG_ENABLED
  • removed nrf_drv_uart.c from Makefile
  • Required nRF52832 Errata [89] TWI: Static 400 uA current while using GPIOTE

Low Power measures

Mode Current
RTC + RAM 9.6 uA
// + Sensors 22 uA
// without TWI Woraround 470 uA
Uart Log 500 uA
Uart Log + HF 700 uA

nRF52 Dongle

Software

RF to Serial Gateway

The node connected through serial port will report messages in text format

  1. Local Events

Upon startup such message is sent

nodeid:75;channel:10;reset:1
  1. Listening

Upon activation of the uicr config is_listening the node starts acting as a gatewy that will report messages through serial in text mode

rssi:-50;id:73;ctrl:0x81;src:73;alive:68;tx_power:0
  1. commands requests and responses

It is possible to reconfigure the Node on runtime and manage manage a mesh network by sending messages

cmd:0x0102
cmd:0x<command id><arguments>
Command id Function Parameters
0x01 Set Node Id Mode Mesh Short Identifier
0x02 Get Node Id
0x03 Set RF Channel 0:2400 MHz - 100:2500 MHz
0x04 Get RF Channel
0x05 Set Tx Power 0x04: +4dBm - 0xD8: -40dBm
0x06 Get Tx Power
0x07 Set Bitrate tbd
0x08 Get Bitrate
0x09 Set CRC 0 : No CRC - 1 : 8bit - 2 : 16 bit
0x0A Get CRC
0x0B Set UICR used uicr registers
0x0C Get UICR

Command examples

Set channel 10/0x0A

cmd:0x030A

get channel

cmd:0x04

Set Tx Power to -4dBm/0xFC

cmd:0x05FC

Set UICR e.g. RF Channel @ CUSTOMER[1] to channel 10

cmd:0x0B010A

Send message, directed (not broadcast) with ttl = 2, ping(75/0x4B) from 73/0x49

msg:0x7201494B

Send message to execute on the RF target node 75/0x4B the command Set Tx Power to -4 dBm

msg:0x72EC494B05FC

Send message to execute on the RF target node 75/0x4B the command Set channel to 0x0A

msg:0x72EC494B030A

Send request to execute on the RF target node 75/0x4B the command Set channel to 0x0A The only difference to the previous example is that an intermediate ack for the request is not required before getting the response

msg:0x22EC494B030A

Switch between serial SERIAL and LOG over UART

run

make conf

then switch both flags :

  • nRF_Log/NRF_LOG_BACKEND_UART_ENABLED
  • Application/APP_SERIAL_ENABLED don't forget to save

Serial mode

  • NRF_SERIAL_MODE_IRQ flag is not used by the driver and has equivalent function as NRF_SERIAL_MODE_DMA

  • ser_send() must be used with a variable in memory as DMA cannot read from Code in Flash

Hardware

Why reinvent the wheel ? When it comes to a Server interface as a dongle, we can reuse a usb dongle from the market that includes a 2104 serial to usb converter. Keyword search on shopping websites : nRF52832 USB dongle. Aka "nRF52832-YJ-17017-USB-UART"


From the inside


pinout

nRF52 pin
Rx P0.05
Tx P0.06
CTS P0.07
RTS P0.08
LED1 P0.28
LED2 P0.29

Needle adapter

Making a needle adapter is made easier with 3d printing. The used pogo pin is seen below

The adapter model still in preparation can be found here. It should look something like this:


Raspi Host Controller Interface

HCI MQTT Test vector

Commands

get mesh node id of attached dongle

mosquitto_pub -t 'cmd/request/get_node_id' -m ''

Response

cmd/response/get_node_id {"cmd": "get_node_id", "node_id": "73"}

get channel of attached dongle

mosquitto_pub -t 'cmd/request/get_channel' -m ''

Response

cmd/response/get_channel {"cmd": "get_channel", "channel": "2"}

Remote Commands

Request to set remote node 74 on RF channel 2

mosquitto_pub -t 'remote_cmd/request/set_channel' -m '{"channel":2,"remote":74}'

Response

remote_cmd/response/set_channel {"pid": "236", "ctrl": "0x02", "src": "74", "dest": "73", "cmd": "set_channel", "set": "2", "get": "2"}

Actions

Ping node 74

mosquitto_pub -t 'Nodes/79/ping' -m '{"remote":"74"}'

Aknowledge

Nodes/79/ack 1

Unhandled exceptions

OSError: [Errno 11] Resource temporarily unavailable uart> /dev/ttyUSB0 Traceback (most recent call last): File "rf_uart/mesh_controller.py", line 204, in loop_forever() File "rf_uart/mesh_controller.py", line 130, in loop_forever mesh.run() File "/home/pi/nRF52_Mesh/raspi/rf_uart/mesh.py", line 219, in run ser.run() File "/home/pi/nRF52_Mesh/raspi/rf_uart/rf_uart.py", line 9, in run line = ser.readline().decode("utf-8") File "/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/serial/serialposix.py", line 453, in read buf = os.read(self.fd, size-len(read)) OSError: [Errno 11] Resource temporarily unavailable