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<h1>git - the simple guide</h1>
<p>just a simple guide for getting started with git. no deep shit ;)</p>
<a href="https://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-via="rogerdudler" data-size="large" data-url="http://rogerdudler.github.com/git-guide" data-related="rogerdudler" data-hashtags="git">Tweet</a>
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<p class="meta">
by <a href="http://www.twitter.com/rogerdudler">Roger Dudler</a>
<br />credits to <a href="http://www.twitter.com/tfnico">@tfnico</a>, <a href="http://www.twitter.com/fhd">@fhd</a> and <a href="http://www.namics.com">Namics</a><br />
this guide in <a href="index.de.html">deutsch</a>, <a href="index.es.html">español</a>, <a href="index.fr.html">français</a>, <a href="index.it.html">italiano</a>, <a href="index.nl.html">nederlands</a>, <a href="index.pt_BR.html">português</a>, <a href="index.ru.html">русский</a>, <a href="index.ja.html">日本語</a><br />
please report issues on <a href="https://github.com/rogerdudler/git-guide/issues">github</a>
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<!-- setup -->
<a name="setup"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-setup">
<h2>setup</h2>
<p>
<a href="http://code.google.com/p/git-osx-installer/downloads/list?can=3">Download git for OSX</a>
</p>
<p>
<a href="http://code.google.com/p/msysgit/downloads/list?can=3">Download git for Windows</a>
</p>
<p>
<a href="http://book.git-scm.com/2_installing_git.html">Download git for Linux</a>
</p>
</div>
<a name="create"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-create">
<h2>create a new repository</h2>
<p>
create a new directory, open it and perform a <br />
<code>git init</code><br />
to create a new git repository.
</p>
</div>
<a name="checkout"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-checkout">
<h2>checkout a repository</h2>
<p>
create a working copy of a local repository by running the command<br />
<code>git clone /path/to/repository</code><br />
when using a remote server, your command will be<br />
<code>git clone username@host:/path/to/repository</code>
</p>
</div>
<a name="trees"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-trees">
<h2>workflow</h2>
<p>
your local repository consists of three "trees" maintained by git.
the first one is your <code>Working Directory</code> which holds the actual files.
the second one is the <code>Index</code> which acts as a staging area and
finally the <code>HEAD</code> which points to the last commit you've made.
</p>
<img src="img/trees.png" alt="" />
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<a name="add"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-add">
<h2>add &amp; commit</h2>
<p>
You can propose changes (add it to the <b>Index</b>) using<br />
<code>git add &lt;filename&gt;</code><br />
<code>git add *</code><br />
This is the first step in the basic git workflow. To actually commit these changes use<br />
<code>git commit -m "Commit message"</code><br />
Now the file is committed to the <b>HEAD</b>, but not in your remote repository yet.
</p>
</div>
<a name="push"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-remote">
<h2>pushing changes</h2>
<p>
Your changes are now in the <b>HEAD</b> of your local working copy. To send those changes to your remote repository, execute <br />
<code>git push origin master</code><br />
Change <i>master</i> to whatever branch you want to push your changes to.
<br /><br />
If you have not cloned an existing repository and want to connect your repository to a remote server, you need to add it with<br />
<code>git remote add origin &lt;server&gt;</code><br />
Now you are able to push your changes to the selected remote server<br />
</p>
</div>
<a name="branching"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-branching">
<h2>branching</h2>
<p>
Branches are used to develop features isolated from each other. The <i>master</i> branch is the "default" branch when you create a repository. Use other branches for development and merge them back to the master branch upon completion.
</p>
<img src="img/branches.png" alt="" />
<p>
create a new branch named "feature_x" and switch to it using<br />
<code>git checkout -b feature_x</code><br />
switch back to master<br />
<code>git checkout master</code><br />
and delete the branch again<br />
<code>git branch -d feature_x</code><br />
a branch is <i>not available to others</i> unless you push the branch to your remote repository<br />
<code>git push origin &lt;branch&gt;</code>
</p>
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<a name="update"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-merging">
<h2>update &amp; merge</h2>
<p>
to update your local repository to the newest commit, execute <br />
<code>git pull</code><br />
in your working directory to <i>fetch</i> and <i>merge</i> remote changes.<br />
to merge another branch into your active branch (e.g. master), use<br />
<code>git merge &lt;branch&gt;</code><br />
in both cases git tries to auto-merge changes. Unfortunately, this is not always possible and results in <i>conflicts</i>.
You are responsible to merge those <i>conflicts</i>
manually by editing the files shown by git. After changing, you need to mark them as merged with<br />
<code>git add &lt;filename&gt;</code><br />
before merging changes, you can also preview them by using<br />
<code>git diff &lt;source_branch&gt; &lt;target_branch&gt;</code>
</p>
</div>
<a name="tagging"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-tagging">
<h2>tagging</h2>
<p>
it's recommended to create tags for software releases. this is a known concept, which also exists in SVN. You can create a new tag named <i>1.0.0</i> by executing<br />
<code>git tag 1.0.0 1b2e1d63ff</code><br />
the <i>1b2e1d63ff</i> stands for the first 10 characters of the commit id you want to reference with your tag. You can get the commit id with <br />
<code>git log</code><br />
you can also use fewer characters of the commit id, it just has to be unique.
</p>
</div>
<a name="checkout-replace"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-checkout-replace">
<h2>replace local changes</h2>
<p>
In case you did something wrong (which for sure never happens ;) you can replace local changes using the command<br />
<code>git checkout -- &lt;filename&gt;</code><br />
this replaces the changes in your working tree with the last content in HEAD. Changes already added to the index, as well as new files, will be kept.
</p>
<p>
If you instead want to drop all your local changes and commits, fetch the latest history from the server and point your local master branch at it like this<br />
<code>git fetch origin</code><br />
<code>git reset --hard origin/master</code>
</p>
</div>
<a name="hints"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-hints">
<h2>useful hints</h2>
<p>
built-in git GUI<br />
<code>gitk</code><br />
use colorful git output<br />
<code>git config color.ui true</code><br />
show log on just one line per commit<br />
<code>git config format.pretty oneline</code><br />
use interactive adding<br />
<code>git add -i</code>
</p>
</div>
<a name="resources"></a>
<div class="scrollblock block-resources">
<h2>links & resources</h2>
<h3>graphical clients</h3>
<p>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://gitx.laullon.com/">GitX (L) (OSX, open source)</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.git-tower.com/">Tower (OSX)</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.sourcetreeapp.com/">Source Tree (OSX, free)</a></li>
<li><a href="http://mac.github.com/">GitHub for Mac (OSX, free)</a></li>
</ul>
</p>
<h3>guides</h3>
<p>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://book.git-scm.com/">Git Community Book</a></li>
<li><a href="http://progit.org/book/">Pro Git</a></li>
<li><a href="http://think-like-a-git.net/">Think like a git</a></li>
<li><a href="http://help.github.com/">GitHub Help</a></li>
<li><a href="http://marklodato.github.com/visual-git-guide/index-en.html">A Visual Git Guide</a></li>
</ul>
</p>
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