Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
or
.
Download ZIP
experimental lisp-embedded pattern matching language (warning: "exploratory" api)
Common Lisp
Branch: master

Fetching latest commit…

Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time

Failed to load latest commit information.
bpm2-test
bpm2
README.md
bpm2-test.asd
bpm2.asd

README.md

BPM2

Bpm2 is lisp-embedded pattern-matching language. it was originally designed for doing code transformation

A BIRD'S EYE VIEW

The bpm2 language is composed of clauses, patterns, and transformers. transformers are currently unimplemented, so that leaves us with clauses and patterns:

  • a clause looks like a call to a macro thats name starts with 2 backslashes (eg //INT)

  • a pattern looks like a call to a macro thats name starts with 1 backslash (eg /INT)

CLAUSES

The first argument to a clause is referred to as the Thing In Question. A clause evaluates the Thing In Question then clause returns T or NIL depending on whether or not the Thing In Question fulfills its constraints.

So:

CL-USER> (//int 5)
-> T

because 5 is an integer

but:

CL-USER> (//int "5")
-> NIL

because "5" is a string, not an integer

PATTERNS

A pattern is like a clause except that it is missing the Thing in Question parameter.

Instead of returning T or NIL, a pattern evaluates to a function that takes one argument and plugs it into the Thing In Question parameter of the related clause.

So:

(/int) ~ (lambda (x) (//int x))

Thus

CL-USER> (/int)
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * 5)
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** "5")
-> NIL

FUNCTORS

Identically named clauses and patterns are grouped together to form a functor (eg, //INT and /INT are refered to as the functor INT)

The only exceptions to the simmitry between the similarly named clauses and patterns are the LISPP and LISP functors

COMBINING FUNCTORS

The AND and OR functors allow you to combine multiple patterns/functors.

For example:

(/or (/string)
   (/number))

will match a string or a number and:

(/and (/string)
      (/number))

will never successfully match anything since there's no type of Lisp object that is both a string and a number (that I'm aware of)

DROPPING INTO LISP

The clause //LISPP behaves similar to lisp's AND. //LISPP takes N forms and returns T if all of them evaluate to a non-NULL value, short-circuiting the first time one of them doesn't

CL-USER> (//lispp 1 2 3 (print "4") 5)
"4"
-> T

CL-USER> (//lispp 1 2 nil (print "4") 5)
-> NIL

The pattern /LISPP takes N function indicators and returns a function that returns T if all of the predicates return a non-NULL value when applied to its argument

CL-USER> (/lispp 'numberp 'integerp 'print)
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * 5)
"5"
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** 5.0)
-> NIL

The clause //LISP is just like //LISPP except that it always returns T and it always tries to evaluate all its forms. The pattern /LISP is like /LISPP except that it always returns T and it always tries to apply all its functions to its argument (/LISP and //LISP are for side effects only)

PATTERN LITERALS

Anything within a pattern or clause that does not look like a pattern or clause (as described above: a call to a macro thats name starts with 1 or 2 slashes) is interpreted as a pattern literal

A pattern literal is a pattern that looks like what it should match.

So:

CL-USER> (/and (a b c))
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * '(a b c))
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** '(a b 3))
-> NIL

CL-USER> (/and "Foo")
-> #<function>

CL-USER> (funcall * "Foo")
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** "foO")
-> NIL

LOGIC VARIABLES

Variables that start with a question mark (#\?) are percieved as logic variables. bpm2's logic variables behave similarly to logic variables in logic languages such as prolog: identically named logic variables must have identical values (by EQUAL).

So:

CL-USER> (/and (?x . ?x)
               (//lisp (print ?x)))
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * '(1 . 1))
"1"
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** '(1 . 2))
-> NIL

A single question mark (#\?) is treated as the wildcard that can match anything and never remembers its value.

CL-USER> (/and ?x
               (? . ?)
               (//lisp (print ?x)))
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * '(1 . 2))
"(1 . 2)"
T

CL-USER> (funcall ** 5)
-> NIL

IS AND DO

One useful functor is IS. IS takes a pattern and some lisp forms. it matches the Thing In Question against the pattern then tries the lisp forms like //LISPP

CL-USER> (/is (?x . ?y)
              (> ?x ?y))
-> #<function ..>

CL-USER> (funcall * '(2 1))
-> T

CL-USER> (funcall ** '(1 2))
-> NIL

DO is like IS except that the lisp clauses behave like //LISP instead of //LISPP [DO is for side-effects only]

EXTENDING BPM2

There are 4 primitive functors

  • AND
  • LISP
  • LISPP
  • OR

All other patterns and clauses are defined with DEF-BPM2-MACRO. DEF-BPM2-MACRO behaves exactly like DEFMACRO except there is some magic that goes on behind the scenes so that the defined bpm2 macros know about the current logic variable envoronment.

BPM2-MACROEXPAND and BPM2-MACROEXPAND-1 behave like MACROEXPAND and MACROEXPAND-1 respectively.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.