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;;; -*- Mode: Lisp; Syntax: Common-Lisp; -*-
;;; Code from Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming
;;; Copyright (c) 1991 Peter Norvig

;;; File interp1.lisp: simple Scheme interpreter, including macros.

(defun interp (x &optional env)
  "Interpret (evaluate) the expression x in the environment env."
  (cond
    ((symbolp x) (get-var x env))
    ((atom x) x)
    ((case (first x)
       (QUOTE (second x))
       (BEGIN (last1 (mapcar #'(lambda (y) (interp y env))
                              (rest x))))
       (SET! (set-var! (second x) (interp (third x) env) env))
       (IF (if (interp (second x) env)
                   (interp (third x) env)
                   (interp (fourth x) env)))
       (LAMBDA (let ((parms (second x))
                     (code (maybe-add 'begin (rest2 x))))
                 #'(lambda (&rest args)
                     (interp code (extend-env parms args env)))))
       (t ;; a procedure application
               (apply (interp (first x) env)
                      (mapcar #'(lambda (v) (interp v env))
                              (rest x))))))))

(defun set-var! (var val env)
  "Set a variable to a value, in the given or global environment."
  (if (assoc var env)
      (setf (second (assoc var env)) val)
      (set-global-var! var val))
  val)

(defun get-var (var env)
  "Get the value of a variable, from the given or global environment."
    (if (assoc var env)
        (second (assoc var env))
        (get-global-var var)))

(defun set-global-var! (var val)
  (setf (get var 'global-val) val))

(defun get-global-var (var)
  (let* ((default "unbound")
         (val (get var 'global-val default)))
    (if (eq val default)
        (error "Unbound scheme variable: ~a" var)
        val)))

(defun extend-env (vars vals env)
  "Add some variables and values to an environment."
  (nconc (mapcar #'list vars vals) env))

(defparameter *scheme-procs*
  '(+ - * / = < > <= >= cons car cdr not append list read member
    (null? null) (eq? eq) (equal? equal) (eqv? eql)
    (write prin1) (display princ) (newline terpri)))

(defun init-scheme-interp ()
  "Initialize the scheme interpreter with some global variables."
  ;; Define Scheme procedures as CL functions:
  (mapc #'init-scheme-proc *scheme-procs*)
  ;; Define the boolean `constants'. Unfortunately, this won't
  ;; stop someone from saying: (set! t nil)
  (set-global-var! t t)
  (set-global-var! nil nil))

(defun init-scheme-proc (f)
  "Define a Scheme procedure as a corresponding CL function."
  (if (listp f)
      (set-global-var! (first f) (symbol-function (second f)))
      (set-global-var! f (symbol-function f))))

(defun scheme (&optional x)
  "A Scheme read-eval-print loop (using interp)"
  ;; Modified by norvig Jun 11 96 to handle optional argument
  ;; instead of always going into a loop.
  (init-scheme-interp)
  (if x
      (interp x nil)
    (loop (format t "~&==> ")
      (print (interp (read) nil)))))

;;;; The following version handles macros:

(defun interp (x &optional env)
  "Interpret (evaluate) the expression x in the environment env.
This version handles macros."
  (cond
    ((symbolp x) (get-var x env))
    ((atom x) x)
    ((scheme-macro (first x)) ;***
     (interp (scheme-macro-expand x) env)) ;***
    ((case (first x)
       (QUOTE (second x))
       (BEGIN (last1 (mapcar #'(lambda (y) (interp y env))
                              (rest x))))
       (SET! (set-var! (second x) (interp (third x) env) env))
       (IF (if (interp (second x) env)
                   (interp (third x) env)
                   (interp (fourth x) env)))
       (LAMBDA (let ((parms (second x))
                     (code (maybe-add 'begin (rest2 x))))
                 #'(lambda (&rest args)
                     (interp code (extend-env parms args env)))))
       (t ;; a procedure application
               (apply (interp (first x) env)
                      (mapcar #'(lambda (v) (interp v env))
                              (rest x))))))))

;;; ==============================

(defun scheme-macro (symbol)
  (and (symbolp symbol) (get symbol 'scheme-macro)))

(defmacro def-scheme-macro (name parmlist &body body)
  "Define a Scheme macro."
  `(setf (get ',name 'scheme-macro)
         #'(lambda ,parmlist .,body)))

(defun scheme-macro-expand (x)
  "Macro-expand this Scheme expression."
  (if (and (listp x) (scheme-macro (first x)))
      (scheme-macro-expand
        (apply (scheme-macro (first x)) (rest x)))
      x))

;;; ==============================

(def-scheme-macro let (bindings &rest body)
  `((lambda ,(mapcar #'first bindings) . ,body)
    .,(mapcar #'second bindings)))

(def-scheme-macro let* (bindings &rest body)
  (if (null bindings)
      `(begin .,body)
      `(let (,(first bindings))
         (let* ,(rest bindings) . ,body))))

(def-scheme-macro and (&rest args)
  (cond ((null args) 'T)
        ((length=1 args) (first args))
        (t `(if ,(first args)
                (and . ,(rest args))))))

(def-scheme-macro or (&rest args)
  (cond ((null args) 'nil)
        ((length=1 args) (first args))
        (t (let ((var (gensym)))
             `(let ((,var ,(first args)))
                (if ,var ,var (or . ,(rest args))))))))

(def-scheme-macro cond (&rest clauses)
  (cond ((null clauses) nil)
        ((length=1 (first clauses))
         `(or ,(first clauses) (cond .,(rest clauses))))
        ((starts-with (first clauses) 'else)
         `(begin .,(rest (first clauses))))
        (t `(if ,(first (first clauses))
                (begin .,(rest (first clauses)))
                (cond .,(rest clauses))))))

(def-scheme-macro case (key &rest clauses)
  (let ((key-val (gensym "KEY")))
    `(let ((,key-val ,key))
       (cond ,@(mapcar
                #'(lambda (clause)
                    (if (starts-with clause 'else)
                        clause
                        `((member ,key-val ',(first clause))
                          .,(rest clause))))
                clauses)))))

(def-scheme-macro define (name &rest body)
  (if (atom name)
      `(begin (set! ,name . ,body) ',name)
      `(define ,(first name)
         (lambda ,(rest name) . ,body))))

(def-scheme-macro delay (computation)
  `(lambda () ,computation))

(def-scheme-macro letrec (bindings &rest body)
  `(let ,(mapcar #'(lambda (v) (list (first v) nil)) bindings)
     ,@(mapcar #'(lambda (v) `(set! .,v)) bindings)
     .,body))
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