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labels: Blog Django created: 2013-01-01T00:00 place: Alchevs'k, Ukraine comments: true

Schema- and data-migration in Django with South

South

Documentation and tutorials available at http://south.aeracode.org/.

Task: User profile application.

project/requirements.txt:

django==1.4.3
south==0.7.6

Create project, add users application, add users and south to INSTALLED_APPS, configure DATABASES.

python manage.py syncdb

Create initial migrations (once):

python manage.py schemamigration users --initial
Creating migrations directory at '.../project/users/migrations'...
Creating __init__.py in '../project/users/migrations'...
Created 0001_initial.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

Create initial migrations for each app You created.

Create the model:

from django.db import models


class UserProfile(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    email = models.EmailField()
    address = models.CharField(max_length=200)

We need to create a new table for this model, schema-migration:

python manage.py schemamigration users --auto
+ Added model users.UserProfile
Created 0002_auto__add_userprofile.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

Don't forget to add 0002_auto__add_userprofile.py to git index, execute migrations:

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
- Migrating forwards to 0002_auto__add_userprofile.
> users:0001_initial
> users:0002_auto__add_userprofile
- Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

What if requirements were updated and we need to store phone number additionally?

Add phone field to the model:

class UserProfile(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    email = models.EmailField()
    address = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    phone = models.CharField(max_length=20, blank=True, null=True)

Create schema-migration and execute it:

python manage.py schemamigration users --auto
 + Added field phone on users.UserProfile
Created 0003_auto__add_field_userprofile_phone.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
 - Migrating forwards to 0003_auto__add_field_userprofile_phone.
 > users:0003_auto__add_field_userprofile_phone
 - Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

Add one more model?

class Country(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=100)


class UserProfile(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    email = models.EmailField()
    country = models.ForeignKey(Country, related_name='country_users', null=True)
    address = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    phone = models.CharField(max_length=20, blank=True, null=True)

Same as before (schemamigration -> migrate):

python manage.py schemamigration users --auto
 + Added model users.Country
 + Added field country on users.UserProfile
Created 0004_auto__add_country__add_field_userprofile_country.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
 - Migrating forwards to 0004_auto__add_country__add_field_userprofile_country.
 > users:0004_auto__add_country__add_field_userprofile_country
 - Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

Increase complexity:

instead name, we need to use fname and lname, and we already have some data in the table.

We can accomplish this with two schema- and one data-migration. In data-migration we need to copy data from name field to fname and lname fields, for example:

(name == 'Mikuru Asahina') -> (fname == 'Mikuru', lname == 'Asahina')

Roadmap:

  • add fname and lname fields
  • copy data from name field to fname and lname
  • remove name field
class UserProfile(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    fname = models.CharField(max_length=100, blank=True, null=True)
    lname = models.CharField(max_length=100, blnak=True, null=True)
    email = models.EmailField()
    country = models.ForeignKey(Country, related_name='country_users', null=True)
    address = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    phone = models.CharField(max_length=20, blank=True, null=True)
python manage.py schemamigration users --auto
 + Added field fname on users.UserProfile
 + Added field lname on users.UserProfile
Created 0005_auto__add_field_userprofile_fname__add_field_userprofile_lname.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
 - Migrating forwards to 0005_auto__add_field_userprofile_fname__add_field_userprofile_lname.
 > users:0005_auto__add_field_userprofile_fname__add_field_userprofile_lname
 - Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

Create data-migration:

python manage.py datamigration users split_name
Created 0006_split_name.py.

Edit automatically created project/users/migrations/0006_split_name.py file.

class Migration(DataMigration):

    def forwards(self, orm):
        for up in orm.UserProfile.objects.all():
            if not up.name:
                continue
            names = up.name.split()
            if len(names) == 1:
                up.fname = names[0]
            else:
                up.fname = names.pop(0)
                up.lname = ' '.join(names)
            up.save()

    def backwards(self, orm):
        for up in orm.UserProfile.objects.all():
            up.name = ' '.join((up.fname or '', up.lname or ''))
            up.save()

Migration execution looks the same as for schema-migration:

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
 - Migrating forwards to 0006_split_name.
 > users:0006_split_name
 - Migration 'users:0006_split_name' is marked for no-dry-run.
 - Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

Finally remove name field:

class UserProfile(models.Model):
    fname = models.CharField(max_length=100, blank=True, null=True)
    lname = models.CharField(max_length=100, blank=True, null=True)
    email = models.EmailField()
    country = models.ForeignKey(Country, related_name='country_users', null=True)
    address = models.CharField(max_length=200)
    phone = models.CharField(max_length=20, blank=True, null=True)
python manage.py schemamigration users --auto
 ? The field 'UserProfile.name' does not have a default specified, yet is NOT NULL.
 ? Since you are removing this field, you MUST specify a default
 ? value to use for existing rows. Would you like to:
 ?  1. Quit now, and add a default to the field in models.py
 ?  2. Specify a one-off value to use for existing columns now
 ?  3. Disable the backwards migration by raising an exception.
 ? Please select a choice: 2
 ? Please enter Python code for your one-off default value.
 ? The datetime module is available, so you can do e.g. datetime.date.today()
 >>> 'noname'
 - Deleted field name on users.UserProfile
Created 0007_auto__del_field_userprofile_name.py. You can now apply this migration with: ./manage.py migrate users

python manage.py migrate users
Running migrations for users:
 - Migrating forwards to 0007_auto__del_field_userprofile_name.
 > users:0007_auto__del_field_userprofile_name
 - Loading initial data for users.
Installed 0 object(s) from 0 fixture(s)

If you want to use South in project that already has tables in database: read about converting an app.

Links: