Modules for event-driven network automation and orchestration using Salt
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Modules for Salt, to retrieve, control, enforce and update configuration of network devices

Salt Basics

New to Salt? Check out this document for a brief introduction to get up to speed on the basics.

Test Environment

Throughout the rest of this document, we'll set up a test environment to run some salt commands against routers. This test environment uses a vagrant VM running Ubuntu 16.04, which acts as a salt-master as well as a proxy-master, which establishes and maintains connections to the routers in order to execute commands on them.

Install Salt

The simplest way to install Salt is via salt bootstrap. Here's an example of an installation:

wget -O
sudo sh

This will install the salt-minion and salt-proxy only, but we also want this box to be the salt-master, so we'll install that:

sudo sh -M

For more specific installation instructions, see the platform-specific instructions from the official Saltstack documentation. Be aware to install the master distribution from the PPA repo, as on the local server will run as Master, controlling the devices as Proxy minions.

CentOS documentation can be found here.

Install NAPALM

If NAPALM has never been installed on your system it will need to be before napalm-salt can work:

sudo apt-get install libffi-dev libssl-dev python-dev python-cffi libxslt1-dev python-pip
sudo pip install --upgrade cffi
sudo pip install napalm-junos napalm-iosxr napalm-ios

The easy way: Salt users can install NAPALM through a single command, using the napalm-install Saltstack formula. A more detailed usage example can be found at:

Configure Salt Proxy (and Minion)

The main configuration file needed to make Salt run as proxy-master is located at /etc/salt/proxy. This file should already exist, though you may need to create it.

We need to tell the proxy process that the local machine is the salt-master, and to turn off multiprocessing. You can add the following to the top of your /etc/salt/proxy file:

master: localhost
multiprocessing: false
mine_enabled: true # not required, but nice to have
pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/proxy # not required - this separates the proxy keys into a different directory

Additionally, you may want to edit the /etc/salt/minion file to point the master location to itself. This is not necessary, but it allows you to target the VM as a minion, in addition to the routers. Add this to the top of /etc/salt/minion:

master: localhost

Configure the connection with a device

The master config file is expecting pillar to be in /srv/pillar, but this directory probably doesn't exist, so create it:

mkdir -p /srv/pillar

To configure store the pillars in a different directory, see the pillar_roots (and file_roots) configuration options in the master configuration file (typically /etc/salt/master or /srv/master - depending on the operating system).

Next, we need to create a top.sls file in that directory, which tells the salt-master which minions receive which pillar. Create and edit the /srv/pillar/top.sls file and make it look like this:



  • DEVICE_ID will be the name used to interact with the device, from the CLI of the server
  • DEVICE_SLS_FILENAME is the name of the file containing the specifications of the device


    - router1_pillar


  • router1 is the name used to interact with the device: salt 'router1'
  • /srv/pillar/router1_pillar.sls is the file containing the specifications of this device

Pay attention to this structure: Notice that the - router1_pillar portion of the top.sls file is missing the .sls extension, even though this line is expecting to see a file in the same directory called router1_pillar.sls. In addtion, note that there should not be dots used when referencing the .sls file, as this will be interpreted as a directory structure. For example, if you had the line configured as - router1.pillar, salt would look in the /srv/pillar directory for a folder called router1, and then for a file in that directory called pillar.sls. One last thing - I'm referring to the pillar file as router1_pillar in this example to make it explicitly clear that the last line is referencing a pillar file, but it is more common to call the pillar file the name of the device itself, so:

    - router1

Now that we've referenced this router1_pillar file, we need to create it and add the pillar. Create and edit the /srv/pillar/router1_pillar.sls file and add the following:

  proxytype: napalm
  driver: [DRIVER]
  host: [HOSTNAME]
  username: [USERNAME]
  passwd: [PASSWORD]


  • DRIVER is the driver to be used when connecting to the device. For the complete list of supported operating systems, please check the NAPALM readthedocs page
  • HOSTNAME, USERNAME, PASSWORD are the connection details

Example router1_pillar.sls:

  proxytype: napalm
  driver: iosxr
  username: my_username
  passwd: my_password

*** NOTE: *** make sure the pillar is a valid YAML file!

Also, double check if you can connect to the device from the server, using the credentials provided in the pillar.

If the errors persist, run the following lines in a Python console and ask in the Slack channel #saltstack in network.toCode():

>>> from napalm_base import get_network_driver
>>> d = get_network_driver('DRIVER')
>>> e = d('HOSTNAME', 'USERNAME', 'PASSWORD', optional_args={'config_lock': False})
>>> e.get_facts()
>>> e.close()

For additional parameters, one can add them inside the optional_args field, e.g.:

  proxytype: napalm
  driver: ios
  username: my_username
  passwd: ''
    secret: sup3rsek3t
    ssh_config_file: ~/custom_ssh_config_file

See the list of optional arguments per driver.

When authenticating using SSH key, the field passwd (or password, pass) can be blank, or can be removed from the pillar. However, note that not all drivers use SSH-based authentication. For example, Arista EOS and Cisco Nexus use HTTP-based APIs so the password is mandatory!

For more details regarding the pillar configuration see the official documentation and the network automation reference under Salt docs.

Start the Salt Services

systemctl start salt-master
systemctl restart salt-minion

Running the proxy minion as a service

To configure the minion to run as a service create the file /etc/systemd/system/salt-proxy@.service with the following:

Description=Salt proxy minion

ExecStart=/usr/bin/salt-proxy -l debug --proxyid=%i


Depending on how your salt master is installed the location of the salt-proxy binary may need to be changed. You can look up the location of the binary with the which salt-proxy command. Also the logging level is set to debug with the -l debug switch. This is useful for troubleshooting however you may want to remove this.

Once the file is created and populated systemd will need to be reloaded with a systemctl daemon-reload to pick up the new unit. Do note that there may be an impact to reloading systemd so be careful.

Start the proxy minion for your device

Start with testing proxy minion:

sudo salt-proxy --proxyid=[DEVICE_ID] -l debug

On the first connection attempt you will find the that minion cannot talk and is stuck with the following error message:

[ERROR   ] The Salt Master has cached the public key for this node, this salt minion will wait for 10 seconds before attempting to re-authenticate
[INFO    ] Waiting 10 seconds before retry.

This is normal and is due to the salt key from the minion not being accepted by the master. Quit the minion with CTRL+C and run sudo salt-key. Under Unaccepted Keys: you should see your [DEVICE_ID]. Accept the key with sudo salt-key -a [DEVICE_ID]. Now rerun the minion debug and you should see the minion connecting to your device.

Test your configuration

Once the key has been accepted, restart the proxy in debug mode and start a separate terminal session. In your new terminal, issue the following command:

sudo salt 'core01.nrt01'

Substitute your DEVICE_ID for 'core01.nrt01'. Output:


It should return True if there are no problems. If everything checks out, hit CTRL+C and restart salt-proxy as a daemon.

sudo salt-proxy --proxyid=[DEVICE_ID] -d

Finally, sync your packages:

sudo salt core01.nrt01 saltutil.sync_all

As before, where 'core01.nrt01' is your DEVICE_ID.

Start using Salt

Everything is setup now, you need just to start issuing commands to retieve/set properties.



For the updated list of functions, check the following resources:

Few examples:

salt core01.nrt01 net.arp
salt core01.nrt01 net.mac
salt core01.nrt01 net.lldp
salt core01.nrt01 net.ipaddrs
salt core01.nrt01 net.interfaces
salt core01.nrt01 ntp.peers
salt core01.nrt01 ntp.set_peers
salt core01.nrt01 bgp.config  # returns the BGP configuration
salt core01.nrt01 bgp.neighbors  # provides statistics regarding the BGP sessions
salt core01.nrt01 snmp.config
salt core01.nrt01 bgp
salt core01.nrt01 probes.config
salt core01.nrt01 probes.results
salt core01.nrt01 net.commit
salt core01.nrt01 net.rollback

Configuration enforcement

To assure consistency across your network, states are your friend. To use a state is quite straight forwards when the module is already provided (examples in the next sections, for example NTP). There are a couple of states already available, for:

Configuration enforcement for NTP peers (Example)

In the Pillar file of the device append the following lines:

  - [PEER1]
  - [PEER2]
  - ...



Now, when running the command below, Salt will check if on your device the NTP peers are setup as specified in the Pillar file. If not, will add the missing NTP peers and will remove the excess. Thus, at the end of the operation, the list of NTP peers configured on the device will match NTP peers listed in the Pillar.

salt core01.nrt01 state.sls router.ntp

Configuration enforcement for SNMP (Example)

In the pillar file of the device append the following lines:

  contact: <email addr>
  location: <location>
  community: <community name>


  location: San Jose, CA, US
  community: super-safe

Executing the state as following, will update the SNMP configuration on your device:

salt core01.nrt01 state.sls router.snmp

Scheduled states: maintaining configuration updated

Using the capabilities of the states and the schedulers you can ensure the configuration on the device is consistent and up-to-date.

Yes, you don't need to jump in a box and manualluy execute a command or add aliases etc. 5 lines of config is all you need to write:


In the master config file:

    function: state.sls
    args: router.ntp
    returner: smtp
    days: 1


  • ntp_config is just the name of the scheduled job - can be anything
  • function - this is how tell Salt that a state will be executed
  • args - specify the name of the state
  • returner (optional) - you can forward the output of the state to a different service. In this case SNMP - will send an email to a specific address with the summary of the state. There are many other returners available
  • days - how often to check & update the config. Other options are: seconds, minutes, hours etc...

Other modules:

Salt comes with many flavours of modules - complete reference at

There are few other features, such reactor. The reactor system allows you to execute commands after an event happened, based on its output.


One can use the included Vagrantfile and saltstack directory to automatically provision a development/testing environment containing a salt master/minion/proxy host and a vEOS switch. To utilize, download the image from, import it, and start up:

vagrant box add --name vEOS-lab.4.16.9M
vagrant up

This will build an Ubuntu trusty image with salt-minion and salt-master built from latest git sources, install napalm and capirca, and configure the proxy correctly. From there, use vagrant ssh master to log into the master and run salt commands. If desired, the Vagrantfile can be edited prior to running vagrant up to change the number of hosts created, or use a custom saltstack git repository to test new salt modules.

Legacy NAPALM Salt Installation

*** NOTE: *** This is for versions of salt older than 2016.11.0. For more details, see: If not sure, you can check the Salt version using: salt --versions-report.

Start by git cloning this repository and changing into the directory: git clone && cd napalm-salt.

Extract the SPM archive using the command: tar xf napalm-2016.11.spm for Salt >=2016.3 or tar xf napalm.spm for older releases. When unpacking, a directory called napalm will be created.

Copy all its files and directories to the path specified as file_roots in the master config file (default is /etc/salt/states), e.g. cp -r napalm/* /etc/salt/states.

At the end, you should have a directory structure similar to the following under the file_roots directory (e.g.: /etc/salt/states):

├── top.sls
├── _proxy
|   └──
├── _modules
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   └──
├── _grains
|   └──
├── _states
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   ├──
|   └──
├── _runners
|   └──
├── router
    ├── init.sls
    ├── ntp.sls
    ├── users.sls
    ├── snmp.sls
    └── probes.sls