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@nathanhoad/data

A small ORM that uses Typescript and plain objects.

Model instances have no fancy database methods. All querying is done statically from the model's class.

npm i @nathanhoad/data

Migration CLI

Generating migrations

npx data migration <migration-name>

For example, npx data migration create-things will create a migration file that creates the table things with an id, createdAt, and updatedAt fields. Add in any other fields and indices that you need but those three fields are the minimum for models to function correctly.

Using something like npx data migration add-name-to-things will create a migration that adds a name field to things. You can add multipled fields with something like add-this-and-that-to-things. It will try its best to guess what you mean but doesn't always get it right.

Running migrations

Run any pending migrations with:

npx data up

And rollback the last migration group:

npx data down

To list all migrations, both pending and completed, run:

npx data list

Schema

Get the schema for all tables or just one:

npx data schema [table]

To get the basic types for a table:

npx data types [table]

Models

The easiest init is:

import data from "@nathanhoad/data";

data is a function that returns a connected instance of Database.

It assumes that process.env.DATABASE_URL or process.env.TEST_DATABASE_URL is set.

If you want to manually connect you can create your own wrapper:

import { Database } from '@nathanhoad/data';

// tell the database to not connect automatically
const database = new Database(false);
// connect accepts a connection string or a knex object
database.connect(process.env.DATABASE_URL);
export database;

A bigger example:

import data from "@nathanhoad/data";

import { IProjectModel } from "./Projects";
import { IShirtModel } from "./Shirts";

export interface IUserModel {
  id?: string;
  firstName?: string;
  lastName?: string;
  slug?: string;
  createdAt?: Date;
  updatedAt?: Date;

  projects?: Array<IProjectModel>;
  department?: IDepartmentModel;
  shirts?: Array<IShirtModel>;
}

export default data().model<IUserModel>("users", {
  hooks: {
    beforeCreate(user) {
      user.slug = slugify(`${user.firstName} ${user.lastName}`, 6);
    }
  },
  relations: {
    projects: { hasAndBelongsToMany: "projects" },
    department: { belongsTo: "department" }, // assumes departmentId
    shirts: { hasMany: "shirts", dependent: true } // deleting this user will delete all of their shirts
  },
  contexts: {
    simple: ["id", "fullName"], // only these fields are included in the resulting object
    derived(user) {
      // Add and remove properties to be sent
      user.activeFor = new Date() - user.createdAt;
      delete user.createdAt;
      delete user.updatedAt;
      return user;
    }
  }
});

Hooks

Models expose a few hooks to help you manage the data going into the database.

Those hooks are (and generally called in this order):

  • beforeCreate - Called before a model is created.
  • beforeSave - Called before a model is saved (including just before it is created)
  • afterSave - Called just after a model is saved (including just after it was created)
  • afterCreate - Called just after a model is created
  • beforeDestroy - Called just before a model is deleted
  • afterDestroy - Called just after a model is deleted

Hooks are just functions and take the model (minus any relations) as the first argument.

const Things = data().model<IThingModel>("users", {
  hooks: {
    beforeCreate(user) {
      user.slug = slugify(`${user.firstName} ${user.lastName}`, 6);
    }
  }
});

You can also return a promise:

const Things = data().model<IThingModel>("users", {
  hooks: {
    async beforeCreate(user) {
      user.slug = await getSomeValue();
    }
  }
});

id, createdAt and updatedAt

All models are assumed to have id, createdAt, and updatedAt defined on them in the database.

Creating

.create() is just an alias for .save().

const Users = data().model<IUserModel>("users");

Users.create({ firstName "Nathan" }).then(user => {
  user.firstName; // => Nathan
});

Users.create([{ firstName "Nathan" }, { firstName "Lilly" }]).then(users => {
  users.length; // => 2
});

Finding

Users.where({ email: "test@test.com" })
  .first()
  .then(user => {
    // user is an instance of Immutable.Map
    user.firstName = "Test";

    Users.save(user).then(updatedUser => {
      user.get("name");
    });
  });

Users.find("167a6f71-4e0f-4fb4-b2e8-a6dd2f5d087e").then(user => {
  user.id; // 167a6f71-4e0f-4fb4-b2e8-a6dd2f5d087e
});

Users.all().then(users => {
  Users.withContext(users);
});

Saving

user.firstName = "Nathan";
Users.save(user).then(user => {
  user.updatedAt; // Just then
});

Saving a model that has relations attached will also attempt to save the attached related rows.

Destroying

Users.destroy(user).then(user => {
  // user is the user that was just destroyed
});

Any dependent related records will also be destroyed (see down further in Associations/Relations).

Applying context

Models can be converted to generic objects (for example, as the final step of an API endpoing response) by given an array of fields or providing a context mapper function.

Contexts are defined on the model:

const Users = data().model<IUserModel>("users", {
  contexts: {
    simple: ["id", "fullName"], // only these fields are included in the resulting object
    derived(user) {
      // Add and remove properties to be sent
      user.activeFor = new Date() - user.createdAt;
      delete user.createdAt;
      delete user.updatedAt;
      return user;
    }
  }
});

// Arrays
Users.withContext(users); // "default" context will just return the object unless defined
Users.withContext(users, "simple");
Users.withContext(users, "derived");
Users.withContext(users);

// Single objects
Users.withContext(user);
Users.withContext(user, "simple");
Users.withContext(user, "derived");

Relations/Associations

Define relations on the collection:

const Users = data().model<IUserModel>("users", {
  relations: {
    projects: { hasAndBelongsToMany: "projects" },
    department: { belongsTo: "department" }, // assumes departmentId unless otherwise specified
    shirts: { hasMany: "shirts", dependent: true } // deleting this user will delete all of their shirts
  }
});

Set them on a model and save them. Anything that hasn't already been saved will be saved.

let newProject = {
  name: "Some cool project"
};

let newUser = {
  name: "Nathan",
  projects: [new_project]
};

Users.create(newUser).then(user => {
  user.projects; // array containing saved newProject
});

And then retrieve them.

Users.include("projects")
  .all()
  .then(users => {
    users[0].projects; // array of projects
  });

You can specify the key fields and table if needed:

const Users = data().model<IUserModel>("users", {
  relations: {
    projects: {
      hasAndBelongsToMany: "projects",
      through: "project_people",
      primaryKey: "user_id",
      foreignKey: "project_id"
    },
    department: { belongsTo: "department", foreignKey: "department_id", table: "department" },
    shirts: { has_many: "shirts", dependent: true, foreignKey: "user_id" }
  }
});

Transactions

To wrap your actions inside a transaction just call:

import data from "@nathanhoad/data";

const Users = data().model<IUserModel>("users");
const Hats = data().model<IHatModel>("hats");

data()
  .transaction(async transaction => {
    const user = await Users.create({ firstName: "Nathan" }, { transaction });
    const hat = await Hats.create({ type: "Cowboy" }, { transaction });
  })
  .then(() => {
    // User and Hat are both committed to the database now
  })
  .catch(err => {
    // Something failed and both User and Hat are now rolled back
  });

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A small ORM that uses Typescript and plain objects. No fancy instance methods - all queries are class methods.

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