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/*
* QR Code generator library (C++)
*
* Copyright (c) Project Nayuki. (MIT License)
* https://www.nayuki.io/page/qr-code-generator-library
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
* this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
* the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
* use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
* the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
* subject to the following conditions:
* - The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
* - The Software is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind, express or
* implied, including but not limited to the warranties of merchantability,
* fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement. In no event shall the
* authors or copyright holders be liable for any claim, damages or other
* liability, whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise, arising from,
* out of or in connection with the Software or the use or other dealings in the
* Software.
*/
#pragma once
#include <cstdint>
#include <deque>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include "QrSegment.hpp"
namespace qrcodegen {
/*
* A QR Code symbol, which is a type of two-dimension barcode.
* Invented by Denso Wave and described in the ISO/IEC 18004 standard.
* Instances of this class represent an immutable square grid of black and white cells.
* The class provides static factory functions to create a QR Code from text or binary data.
* The class covers the QR Code Model 2 specification, supporting all versions (sizes)
* from 1 to 40, all 4 error correction levels, and 4 character encoding modes.
*
* Ways to create a QR Code object:
* - High level: Take the payload data and call QrCode::encodeText() or QrCode::encodeBinary().
* - Mid level: Custom-make the list of segments and call QrCode::encodeSegments().
* - Low level: Custom-make the array of data codeword bytes (including
* segment headers and final padding, excluding error correction codewords),
* supply the appropriate version number, and call the QrCode() constructor.
* (Note that all ways require supplying the desired error correction level.)
*/
class QrCode final {
/*---- Public helper enumeration ----*/
/*
* The error correction level in a QR Code symbol.
*/
public: enum class Ecc {
LOW = 0 , // The QR Code can tolerate about 7% erroneous codewords
MEDIUM , // The QR Code can tolerate about 15% erroneous codewords
QUARTILE, // The QR Code can tolerate about 25% erroneous codewords
HIGH , // The QR Code can tolerate about 30% erroneous codewords
};
// Returns a value in the range 0 to 3 (unsigned 2-bit integer).
private: static int getFormatBits(Ecc ecl);
/*---- Static factory functions (high level) ----*/
/*
* Returns a QR Code representing the given Unicode text string at the given error correction level.
* As a conservative upper bound, this function is guaranteed to succeed for strings that have 2953 or fewer
* UTF-8 code units (not Unicode code points) if the low error correction level is used. The smallest possible
* QR Code version is automatically chosen for the output. The ECC level of the result may be higher than
* the ecl argument if it can be done without increasing the version.
*/
public: static QrCode encodeText(const char *text, Ecc ecl);
/*
* Returns a QR Code representing the given binary data at the given error correction level.
* This function always encodes using the binary segment mode, not any text mode. The maximum number of
* bytes allowed is 2953. The smallest possible QR Code version is automatically chosen for the output.
* The ECC level of the result may be higher than the ecl argument if it can be done without increasing the version.
*/
public: static QrCode encodeBinary(const std::vector<std::uint8_t> &data, Ecc ecl);
/*---- Static factory functions (mid level) ----*/
/*
* Returns a QR Code representing the given segments with the given encoding parameters.
* The smallest possible QR Code version within the given range is automatically
* chosen for the output. Iff boostEcl is true, then the ECC level of the result
* may be higher than the ecl argument if it can be done without increasing the
* version. The mask number is either between 0 to 7 (inclusive) to force that
* mask, or -1 to automatically choose an appropriate mask (which may be slow).
* This function allows the user to create a custom sequence of segments that switches
* between modes (such as alphanumeric and byte) to encode text in less space.
* This is a mid-level API; the high-level API is encodeText() and encodeBinary().
*/
public: static QrCode encodeSegments(const std::vector<QrSegment> &segs, Ecc ecl,
int minVersion=1, int maxVersion=40, int mask=-1, bool boostEcl=true); // All optional parameters
/*---- Instance fields ----*/
// Immutable scalar parameters:
/* The version number of this QR Code, which is between 1 and 40 (inclusive).
* This determines the size of this barcode. */
private: int version;
/* The width and height of this QR Code, measured in modules, between
* 21 and 177 (inclusive). This is equal to version * 4 + 17. */
private: int size;
/* The error correction level used in this QR Code. */
private: Ecc errorCorrectionLevel;
/* The index of the mask pattern used in this QR Code, which is between 0 and 7 (inclusive).
* Even if a QR Code is created with automatic masking requested (mask = -1),
* the resulting object still has a mask value between 0 and 7. */
private: int mask;
// Private grids of modules/pixels, with dimensions of size*size:
// The modules of this QR Code (false = white, true = black).
// Immutable after constructor finishes. Accessed through getModule().
private: std::vector<std::vector<bool> > modules;
// Indicates function modules that are not subjected to masking. Discarded when constructor finishes.
private: std::vector<std::vector<bool> > isFunction;
/*---- Constructor (low level) ----*/
/*
* Creates a new QR Code with the given version number,
* error correction level, data codeword bytes, and mask number.
* This is a low-level API that most users should not use directly.
* A mid-level API is the encodeSegments() function.
*/
public: QrCode(int ver, Ecc ecl, const std::vector<std::uint8_t> &dataCodewords, int mask);
/*---- Public instance methods ----*/
/*
* Returns this QR Code's version, in the range [1, 40].
*/
public: int getVersion() const;
/*
* Returns this QR Code's size, in the range [21, 177].
*/
public: int getSize() const;
/*
* Returns this QR Code's error correction level.
*/
public: Ecc getErrorCorrectionLevel() const;
/*
* Returns this QR Code's mask, in the range [0, 7].
*/
public: int getMask() const;
/*
* Returns the color of the module (pixel) at the given coordinates, which is false
* for white or true for black. The top left corner has the coordinates (x=0, y=0).
* If the given coordinates are out of bounds, then false (white) is returned.
*/
public: bool getModule(int x, int y) const;
/*
* Returns a string of SVG code for an image depicting this QR Code, with the given number
* of border modules. The string always uses Unix newlines (\n), regardless of the platform.
*/
public: std::string toSvgString(int border) const;
/*---- Private helper methods for constructor: Drawing function modules ----*/
// Reads this object's version field, and draws and marks all function modules.
private: void drawFunctionPatterns();
// Draws two copies of the format bits (with its own error correction code)
// based on the given mask and this object's error correction level field.
private: void drawFormatBits(int mask);
// Draws two copies of the version bits (with its own error correction code),
// based on this object's version field, iff 7 <= version <= 40.
private: void drawVersion();
// Draws a 9*9 finder pattern including the border separator,
// with the center module at (x, y). Modules can be out of bounds.
private: void drawFinderPattern(int x, int y);
// Draws a 5*5 alignment pattern, with the center module
// at (x, y). All modules must be in bounds.
private: void drawAlignmentPattern(int x, int y);
// Sets the color of a module and marks it as a function module.
// Only used by the constructor. Coordinates must be in bounds.
private: void setFunctionModule(int x, int y, bool isBlack);
// Returns the color of the module at the given coordinates, which must be in range.
private: bool module(int x, int y) const;
/*---- Private helper methods for constructor: Codewords and masking ----*/
// Returns a new byte string representing the given data with the appropriate error correction
// codewords appended to it, based on this object's version and error correction level.
private: std::vector<std::uint8_t> addEccAndInterleave(const std::vector<std::uint8_t> &data) const;
// Draws the given sequence of 8-bit codewords (data and error correction) onto the entire
// data area of this QR Code. Function modules need to be marked off before this is called.
private: void drawCodewords(const std::vector<std::uint8_t> &data);
// XORs the codeword modules in this QR Code with the given mask pattern.
// The function modules must be marked and the codeword bits must be drawn
// before masking. Due to the arithmetic of XOR, calling applyMask() with
// the same mask value a second time will undo the mask. A final well-formed
// QR Code needs exactly one (not zero, two, etc.) mask applied.
private: void applyMask(int mask);
// Calculates and returns the penalty score based on state of this QR Code's current modules.
// This is used by the automatic mask choice algorithm to find the mask pattern that yields the lowest score.
private: long getPenaltyScore() const;
/*---- Private helper functions ----*/
// Returns an ascending list of positions of alignment patterns for this version number.
// Each position is in the range [0,177), and are used on both the x and y axes.
// This could be implemented as lookup table of 40 variable-length lists of unsigned bytes.
private: std::vector<int> getAlignmentPatternPositions() const;
// Returns the number of data bits that can be stored in a QR Code of the given version number, after
// all function modules are excluded. This includes remainder bits, so it might not be a multiple of 8.
// The result is in the range [208, 29648]. This could be implemented as a 40-entry lookup table.
private: static int getNumRawDataModules(int ver);
// Returns the number of 8-bit data (i.e. not error correction) codewords contained in any
// QR Code of the given version number and error correction level, with remainder bits discarded.
// This stateless pure function could be implemented as a (40*4)-cell lookup table.
private: static int getNumDataCodewords(int ver, Ecc ecl);
// Inserts the given value to the front of the given array, which shifts over the
// existing values and deletes the last value. A helper function for getPenaltyScore().
private: static void addRunToHistory(int run, std::deque<int> &history);
// Tests whether the given run history has the pattern of ratio 1:1:3:1:1 in the middle, and
// surrounded by at least 4 on either or both ends. A helper function for getPenaltyScore().
// Must only be called immediately after a run of white modules has ended.
private: static bool hasFinderLikePattern(const std::deque<int> &runHistory);
// Returns true iff the i'th bit of x is set to 1.
private: static bool getBit(long x, int i);
/*---- Constants and tables ----*/
// The minimum version number supported in the QR Code Model 2 standard.
public: static constexpr int MIN_VERSION = 1;
// The maximum version number supported in the QR Code Model 2 standard.
public: static constexpr int MAX_VERSION = 40;
// For use in getPenaltyScore(), when evaluating which mask is best.
private: static const int PENALTY_N1;
private: static const int PENALTY_N2;
private: static const int PENALTY_N3;
private: static const int PENALTY_N4;
private: static const std::int8_t ECC_CODEWORDS_PER_BLOCK[4][41];
private: static const std::int8_t NUM_ERROR_CORRECTION_BLOCKS[4][41];
/*---- Private helper class ----*/
/*
* Computes the Reed-Solomon error correction codewords for a sequence of data codewords
* at a given degree. Objects are immutable, and the state only depends on the degree.
* This class exists because each data block in a QR Code shares the same the divisor polynomial.
*/
private: class ReedSolomonGenerator final {
/*-- Immutable field --*/
// Coefficients of the divisor polynomial, stored from highest to lowest power, excluding the leading term which
// is always 1. For example the polynomial x^3 + 255x^2 + 8x + 93 is stored as the uint8 array {255, 8, 93}.
private: std::vector<std::uint8_t> coefficients;
/*-- Constructor --*/
/*
* Creates a Reed-Solomon ECC generator for the given degree. This could be implemented
* as a lookup table over all possible parameter values, instead of as an algorithm.
*/
public: explicit ReedSolomonGenerator(int degree);
/*-- Method --*/
/*
* Computes and returns the Reed-Solomon error correction codewords for the given
* sequence of data codewords. The returned object is always a new byte array.
* This method does not alter this object's state (because it is immutable).
*/
public: std::vector<std::uint8_t> getRemainder(const std::vector<std::uint8_t> &data) const;
/*-- Static function --*/
// Returns the product of the two given field elements modulo GF(2^8/0x11D).
// All inputs are valid. This could be implemented as a 256*256 lookup table.
private: static std::uint8_t multiply(std::uint8_t x, std::uint8_t y);
};
};
/*---- Public exception class ----*/
/*
* Thrown when the supplied data does not fit any QR Code version. Ways to handle this exception include:
* - Decrease the error correction level if it was greater than Ecc::LOW.
* - If the encodeSegments() function was called with a maxVersion argument, then increase
* it if it was less than QrCode::MAX_VERSION. (This advice does not apply to the other
* factory functions because they search all versions up to QrCode::MAX_VERSION.)
* - Split the text data into better or optimal segments in order to reduce the number of bits required.
* - Change the text or binary data to be shorter.
* - Change the text to fit the character set of a particular segment mode (e.g. alphanumeric).
* - Propagate the error upward to the caller/user.
*/
class data_too_long : public std::length_error {
public: explicit data_too_long(const std::string &msg);
};
}