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A curated list of various semantic web and linked data resources for heritage, humanities and art history practitioners.
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GLAM flavoured Semantic Web List

A curated list of various semantic web and linked data resources for heritage, humanities and art history practitioners.

The list is an extension of the semantic web awesome list specifically targeted for GLAM (Galleries, Libraries, Archive, Museum). The the semantic web awesome list is the reference for general SM solutions, while this list is specifically target to domain resources which do not belong to the general list (e.g ontologies, specific software widely used within the community, documentation targeting DH practitioners and point of contacts/exchanges). For the purpose of providing to the reader a complete and stand-alone resource, few elements of the the semantic web awesome list will be reported also here.

The list is public and contributions are welcome.

Semantic Web Standards & Recommendation




Data Shape



Linked Data Fragments (LDF)

Linked Data Notifications

Linked Data Platform


Format Description Mime-type
Turtle Terse RDF Triple Language. text/turtle, application/x-turtle
TriG Plain text format for serializing named graphs and RDF Datasets. application/trig, application/x-trig
JSON-LD JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data. application/ld+json
RDF/JSON RDF 1.1 JSON Alternate Serialization. application/rdf+json
N-Triples Line-based syntax for RDF datasets. application/n-triples
N-Quads Line-based syntax for RDF datasets. application/n-quads, text/x-nquads, text/nquads
Notation3 Notation3 (N3): A readable RDF syntax. text/n3, text/rdf+n3
RDF/XML RDF/XML Syntax Specification. application/rdf+xml, application/xml
TriX RDF Triples in XML. application/trix
HDT Binary RDF Representation for Publication and Exchange. application/x-binary-rdf
aREF Another RDF Encoding Form.



  • Documentation: Official website of the CIDOC-CRM
  • RDFS Official version of CIDOC-CRM available in RDF. No direct link, you can use the latest version available in the page
  • OWL OWL version of CIDOC-CRM. No direct link, use the latest version available in the page.

CIDOC-CRM Official extensions

  • CRMdig: Model for provenance metadata
  • CRMsci: Scientific observation model
  • CRMinf: Argumentation model
  • FRBRoo: Functional Requirement for Bibliographic Records
  • PRESSoo: Modelling of bibliographical information
  • CRMpc: Modelling .1 properties in CRM as n-ary relationship. no direct link download the CRM-PC file from the latest CRM version
  • CRMgeo: Spatiotemporal model
  • CRMba: Model for archaeological buildings
  • CRMtex: Model for the study of ancient text
  • CRMarcheo: Excavation model

CIDOC-CRM Unofficial extensions

  • VIR: Model for visual and iconographical representations
  • DOREMUS: Model for describing musical performances and recordings

CIDOC-CRM Tutorial

CIDOC-CRM Modelling examples and documentation

Gemeinsame Normdatei (GND)

Europeana Data Model

Dublin Core

Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE)

Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF)

ICA Expert Group on Archival Description (EGAD)

Metadata Object Description Schema (MADS)

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework Initiative)

BIBO (Bibliographic Ontology Specification)

Resource Description Access Ontology


World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

  • Web Annotation Vocabulary
  • WGS84 - Basic Geo (WGS84 lat/long) Vocabulary.
  • skos - SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System.
  • skos-xl - SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System eXtension for Labels.
  • vcard - vCard Ontology - for describing People and Organizations.
  • void - Describing Linked Datasets with the VoID Vocabulary.
  • time - Time Ontology in OWL.
  • org - The Organization Ontology.
  • dqv - Vocabulary for describing quality metadata.
  • PROV-O - Represent provenance information.


  • foaf - Friend of a Friend (FOAF) ontology.
  • obo-relations - Relation Ontology. Relationship types shared across multiple ontologies.
  • RELATIONSHIP - Vocabulary for describing relationships between people.
  • BIO - Vocabulary for describing biographical information.
  • - Structured data on the Internet (Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Yandex).
  • SPAR - Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies.
  • Creative Commons Rights Expression
  • QUDT Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types Ontologies and Vocabularies
  • Ontology of units of measure Dimensions and measurements ontology

Where to find ontologies

Mapping tools

Mapping tools for transforming your data (CSV, XML) into RDF


X3ML is a transformation engine developed by FORTH. It is perfected to work with CIDOC-CRM, however it does work greatly with other ontologies as well. It is available as web application (3M) and a stand alone app (X3ML). In both cases the input file has to be in XML (for transforming a CSV file to XML see Mr Data Converter).

In order to transform the data it is necessary to create a X3ML declaration and a URI Mapping. Examples of both, together with the necessary commands are available at this addresses:


Karma is an information integration tool for aggregating, harmonising and transforming diverse data sources (CSV, XML, JSON, KML, Web APIs). The process is driven by an ontology and results in a transformation of the original data in RDF. A graphical user interface help the user map the data and, moreover, it is build to recognize the mapping of data to ontology classes and then uses the ontology to propose a model that ties together these classes. Karma does not only help the user transform the data but it can be used to normalise them too.


Ontop is an application developed by the University of Bolzano for creating a virtual RDF Graph on top of your current data source. Mappings can be easily created using Protege and results are queryable using SPARQL 1.0. Moreover, it support reasoning.

Vocabularies and KOS




Where to find controlled vocabularies/thesauri

Vocabulary / KOS Management

  • Skosmos Access SKOS vocabularies with SPARQL or API
  • VocBench Web-based, multilingual, collaborative platform for managing OWL, SKOS(/XL) and generic RDF datasets.
  • Ginco Collaborative management and alignment of vocabularies.
  • Opentheso Multilingual collaborative management of KOS
  • iqvoc SKOS(-XL) Vocabulary Management System for the Semantic Web.
  • TemaTres Manage, share, publish, and re-use SKOS vocabularies.

Vocabulary validation & conversion tools

  • Skosify Validate, convert and improve SKOS vocabularies
  • qSKOS Find quality issues in SKOS vocabularies.
  • SKOS Play Render and visualise thesaurus, taxonomies or controlled vocabularies. Furthermore, convert Excel spreadsheets into SKOS files.

Exchange and discussions


Conference not specifically on Semantic Web, but with strong ties to the community

Discussion groups

Academic Journals

Knowledge Graph Management

$ - Proprietary
OS - OpenSource

  • Metaphacts - (OS)($) platform to to use, interact and build up entry point for RDF Stores.
  • WissKI - (OS) Drupal-based platform to interact and build entry point for RDF Stores.

Linked Data Platform (LDP)

  • fedora - Repository platform with native linked data support.
  • warp - Warp an LDP file manager.
  • Marmotta - Apache linked data platform implementation.
  • Elda - Linked data platform from Epimorphics.
  • LDP4j
  • gold - Linked Data server for Go.
  • CarbonLDP
  • trellis




Sublime Text





  • sparql4idea - SPARQL language plugin for IntelliJ IDEA.

Data Management

OpenRefine Reconciliation services





  • - Source code to the website.



  • LODE ontology documentation environment.
  • Widoco Ontology documentation (include LODE).


  • OntoME Ontology Management Environment
  • Grafo Collaborative and graphical ontology design


  • SILK Linked Data Integration Framework.
  • OnAGUI Ontology alignment GUI.
  • Alignment API Tool for Expressing, generating and sharing ontology alignments


  • RDFConvert - RDFConvert is a simple command-line tool for converting RDF file betweeen different syntax formats.
  • RDF2RDF Java tool to converts RDF files from any format to any format.
  • marc2rdf Takes as input INTERMARC-XML and UNIMARC-XML files and generates as output RDF.
  • ntcat Command line tool for concatenating NTriples documents.
  • How to diff RDF
  • grlc - Web APIs from SPARQL queries.


  • Ontology Visualisation Python tool for visualising RDF. Convert rdf to .dot and use Graphviz for constructing a visual representation.
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