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% texinfo.tex -- TeX macros to handle Texinfo files.
% Load plain if necessary, i.e., if running under initex.
\expandafter\ifx\csname fmtname\endcsname\relax\input plain\fi
% Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98
% Free Software Foundation, Inc.
% This texinfo.tex file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at
% your option) any later version.
% This texinfo.tex file is distributed in the hope that it will be
% useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty
% General Public License for more details.
% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
% along with this texinfo.tex file; see the file COPYING. If not, write
% to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
% Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
% In other words, you are welcome to use, share and improve this program.
% You are forbidden to forbid anyone else to use, share and improve
% what you give them. Help stamp out software-hoarding!
% Please try the latest version of texinfo.tex before submitting bug
% reports; you can get the latest version from:
% /home/gd/gnu/doc/texinfo.tex on the GNU machines.
% (and all GNU mirrors, see
% (and all CTAN mirrors, finger for a list).
% The texinfo.tex in the texinfo distribution itself could well be out
% of date, so if that's what you're using, please check.
% Send bug reports to
% Please include a precise test case in each bug report,
% including a complete document with which we can reproduce the problem.
% To process a Texinfo manual with TeX, it's most reliable to use the
% texi2dvi shell script that comes with the distribution. For simple
% manuals, however, you can get away with:
% tex foo.texi
% texindex foo.??
% tex foo.texi
% tex foo.texi
% dvips foo.dvi -o # or whatever, to process the dvi file.
% The extra runs of TeX get the cross-reference information correct.
% Sometimes one run after texindex suffices, and sometimes you need more
% than two; texi2dvi does it as many times as necessary.
\message{Loading texinfo [version \texinfoversion]:}
% If in a .fmt file, print the version number
% and turn on active characters that we couldn't do earlier because
% they might have appeared in the input file name.
\everyjob{\message{[Texinfo version \texinfoversion]}%
\catcode`+=\active \catcode`\_=\active}
% Save some parts of plain tex whose names we will redefine.
% We never want plain's outer \+ definition in Texinfo.
% For @tex, we can use \tabalign.
\let\+ = \relax
% If this character appears in an error message or help string, it
% starts a new line in the output.
\newlinechar = `^^J
% Set up fixed words for English if not already set.
\ifx\putwordAppendix\undefined \gdef\putwordAppendix{Appendix}\fi
\ifx\putwordChapter\undefined \gdef\putwordChapter{Chapter}\fi
\ifx\putwordfile\undefined \gdef\putwordfile{file}\fi
\ifx\putwordInfo\undefined \gdef\putwordInfo{Info}\fi
\ifx\putwordMethodon\undefined \gdef\putwordMethodon{Method on}\fi
\ifx\putwordon\undefined \gdef\putwordon{on}\fi
\ifx\putwordpage\undefined \gdef\putwordpage{page}\fi
\ifx\putwordsection\undefined \gdef\putwordsection{section}\fi
\ifx\putwordSection\undefined \gdef\putwordSection{Section}\fi
\ifx\putwordsee\undefined \gdef\putwordsee{see}\fi
\ifx\putwordSee\undefined \gdef\putwordSee{See}\fi
\ifx\putwordShortContents\undefined \gdef\putwordShortContents{Short Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordTableofContents\undefined\gdef\putwordTableofContents{Table of Contents}\fi
% Ignore a token.
\hyphenation{mini-buf-fer mini-buf-fers}
% Margin to add to right of even pages, to left of odd pages.
\newdimen \bindingoffset
\newdimen \normaloffset
\newdimen\pagewidth \newdimen\pageheight
% Sometimes it is convenient to have everything in the transcript file
% and nothing on the terminal. We don't just call \tracingall here,
% since that produces some useless output on the terminal.
\def\gloggingall{\begingroup \globaldefs = 1 \loggingall \endgroup}%
\def\loggingall{\tracingcommands2 \tracingstats2
\tracingpages1 \tracingoutput1 \tracinglostchars1
\tracingmacros2 \tracingparagraphs1 \tracingrestores1
\def\loggingall{\tracingcommands3 \tracingstats2
\tracingpages1 \tracingoutput1 \tracinglostchars1
\tracingmacros2 \tracingparagraphs1 \tracingrestores1
\tracingscantokens1 \tracingassigns1 \tracingifs1
\tracinggroups1 \tracingnesting2
% For @cropmarks command.
% Do @cropmarks to get crop marks.
\let\cropmarks = \cropmarkstrue
% Dimensions to add cropmarks at corners.
% Added by P. A. MacKay, 12 Nov. 1986
\newdimen\outerhsize \newdimen\outervsize % set by the paper size routines
\newdimen\cornerlong \cornerlong=1pc
\newdimen\cornerthick \cornerthick=.3pt
\newdimen\topandbottommargin \topandbottommargin=.75in
% Main output routine.
\chardef\PAGE = 255
\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}
% \onepageout takes a vbox as an argument. Note that \pagecontents
% does insertions, but you have to call it yourself.
\ifcropmarks \hoffset=0pt \else \hoffset=\normaloffset \fi
\ifodd\pageno \advance\hoffset by \bindingoffset
\else \advance\hoffset by -\bindingoffset\fi
% Do this outside of the \shipout so @code etc. will be expanded in
% the headline as they should be, not taken literally (outputting ''code).
\setbox\headlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makeheadline}%
\setbox\footlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makefootline}%
% Have to do this stuff outside the \shipout because we want it to
% take effect in \write's, yet the group defined by the \vbox ends
% before the \shipout runs.
\escapechar = `\\ % use backslash in output files.
\indexdummies % don't expand commands in the output.
\normalturnoffactive % \ in index entries must not stay \, e.g., if
% the page break happens to be in the middle of an example.
\ifcropmarks \vbox to \outervsize\bgroup
\hsize = \outerhsize
\vtop to0pt{%
\hfil % center the page within the outer (page) hsize.
\ifdim\ht\footlinebox > 0pt
% Only leave this space if the footline is nonempty.
% (We lessened \vsize for it in \oddfootingxxx.)
% The \baselineskip=24pt in plain's \makefootline has no effect.
\vskip 2\baselineskip
\egroup % end of \vbox\bgroup
\hfil\egroup % end of (centering) \line\bgroup
\vskip\topandbottommargin plus1fill minus1fill
\boxmaxdepth = \cornerthick
\vbox to0pt{\vss
\egroup % \vbox from first cropmarks clause
}% end of \shipout\vbox
}% end of group with \turnoffactive
\ifnum\outputpenalty>-20000 \else\dosupereject\fi
\newinsert\margin \dimen\margin=\maxdimen
\def\pagebody#1{\vbox to\pageheight{\boxmaxdepth=\maxdepth #1}}
{\catcode`\@ =11
% marginal hacks, juha@viisa.uucp (Juha Takala)
\ifvoid\margin\else % marginal info is present
\rlap{\kern\hsize\vbox to\z@{\kern1pt\box\margin \vss}}\fi
\dimen@=\dp#1 \unvbox#1
\ifvoid\footins\else\vskip\skip\footins\footnoterule \unvbox\footins\fi
\ifr@ggedbottom \kern-\dimen@ \vfil \fi}
% Here are the rules for the cropmarks. Note that they are
% offset so that the space between them is truly \outerhsize or \outervsize
% (P. A. MacKay, 12 November, 1986)
\def\ewtop{\vrule height\cornerthick depth0pt width\cornerlong}
{\hrule height\cornerthick depth\cornerlong width\cornerthick}}
\def\ewbot{\vrule height0pt depth\cornerthick width\cornerlong}
{\hrule height\cornerlong depth\cornerthick width\cornerthick}}
% Parse an argument, then pass it to #1. The argument is the rest of
% the input line (except we remove a trailing comment). #1 should be a
% macro which expects an ordinary undelimited TeX argument.
\let\next = #1%
% If the next token is an obeyed space (from an @example environment or
% the like), remove it and recurse. Otherwise, we're done.
% \obeyedspace is defined far below, after the definition of \sepspaces.
% Remove a single space (as the delimiter token to the macro call).
{\obeyspaces %
\gdef\parseargdiscardspace {\futurelet\temp\parseargx}}
{\obeylines %
\endgroup % End of the group started in \parsearg.
% First remove any @c comment, then any @comment.
% Result of each macro is put in \toks0.
\argremovec #1\c\relax %
\expandafter\argremovecomment \the\toks0 \comment\relax %
% Call the caller's macro, saved as \next in \parsearg.
% Since all \c{,omment} does is throw away the argument, we can let TeX
% do that for us. The \relax here is matched by the \relax in the call
% in \parseargline; it could be more or less anything, its purpose is
% just to delimit the argument to the \c.
\def\argremovec#1\c#2\relax{\toks0 = {#1}}
\def\argremovecomment#1\comment#2\relax{\toks0 = {#1}}
% \argremovec{,omment} might leave us with trailing spaces, though; e.g.,
% @end itemize @c foo
% will have two active spaces as part of the argument with the
% `itemize'. Here we remove all active spaces from #1, and assign the
% result to \toks0.
% This loses if there are any *other* active characters besides spaces
% in the argument -- _ ^ +, for example -- since they get expanded.
% Fortunately, Texinfo does not define any such commands. (If it ever
% does, the catcode of the characters in questionwill have to be changed
% here.) But this means we cannot call \removeactivespaces as part of
% \argremovec{,omment}, since @c uses \parsearg, and thus the argument
% that \parsearg gets might well have any character at all in it.
\global\toks0 = \expandafter{\temp}%
% Change the active space to expand to nothing.
\gdef\ignoreactivespaces{\obeyspaces\let =\empty}
\def\flushcr{\ifx\par\lisppar \def\next##1{}\else \let\next=\relax \fi \next}
%% These are used to keep @begin/@end levels from running away
%% Call \inENV within environments (after a \begingroup)
\newif\ifENV \ENVfalse \def\inENV{\ifENV\relax\else\ENVtrue\fi}
\ifENV\errmessage{Still within an environment; press RETURN to continue}
\endgroup\fi} % This is not perfect, but it should reduce lossage
% @begin foo is the same as @foo, for now.
\newhelp\EMsimple{Press RETURN to continue.}
\def\beginxxx #1{%
\expandafter\ifx\csname #1\endcsname\relax
{\errhelp=\EMsimple \errmessage{Undefined command @begin #1}}\else
\csname #1\endcsname\fi}
% @end foo executes the definition of \Efoo.
\def\endxxx #1{%
\expandafter\ifx\csname E\endthing\endcsname\relax
\expandafter\ifx\csname \endthing\endcsname\relax
% There's no \foo, i.e., no ``environment'' foo.
\errhelp = \EMsimple
\errmessage{Undefined command `@end \endthing'}%
% Everything's ok; the right environment has been started.
\csname E\endthing\endcsname
% There is an environment #1, but it hasn't been started. Give an error.
\errhelp = \EMsimple
\errmessage{This `@end #1' doesn't have a matching `@#1'}%
% Define the control sequence \E#1 to give an unmatched @end error.
\expandafter\def\csname E#1\endcsname{\unmatchedenderror{#1}}%
% Single-spacing is done by various environments (specifically, in
% \nonfillstart and \quotations).
\newskip\singlespaceskip \singlespaceskip = 12.5pt
% Why was this kern here? It messes up equalizing space above and below
% environments. --karl, 6may93
%{\advance \baselineskip by -\singlespaceskip
%\kern \baselineskip}%
\setleading \singlespaceskip
%% Simple single-character @ commands
% @@ prints an @
% Kludge this until the fonts are right (grr).
% This is turned off because it was never documented
% and you can use @w{...} around a quote to suppress ligatures.
%% Define @` and @' to be the same as ` and '
%% but suppressing ligatures.
% Used to generate quoted braces.
\def\mylbrace {{\tt\char123}}
\def\myrbrace {{\tt\char125}}
% Definitions to produce actual \{ & \} command in an index.
\catcode`\{ = 12 \catcode`\} = 12
\catcode`\[ = 1 \catcode`\] = 2
\catcode`\@ = 0 \catcode`\\ = 12
% Accents: @, @dotaccent @ringaccent @ubaraccent @udotaccent
% Others are defined by plain TeX: @` @' @" @^ @~ @= @v @H.
\let\, = \c
\let\dotaccent = \.
\def\ringaccent#1{{\accent23 #1}}
\let\tieaccent = \t
\let\ubaraccent = \b
\let\udotaccent = \d
% Other special characters: @questiondown @exclamdown
% Plain TeX defines: @AA @AE @O @OE @L (and lowercase versions) @ss.
% Dotless i and dotless j, used for accents.
\ifx\temp\imacro \ptexi
\else\ifx\temp\jmacro \j
\else \errmessage{@dotless can be used only with i or j}%
% Be sure we're in horizontal mode when doing a tie, since we make space
% equivalent to this in @example-like environments. Otherwise, a space
% at the beginning of a line will start with \penalty -- and
% since \penalty is valid in vertical mode, we'd end up putting the
% penalty on the vertical list instead of in the new paragraph.
{\catcode`@ = 11
% Avoid using \@M directly, because that causes trouble
% if the definition is written into an index file.
\global\let\tiepenalty = \@M
\gdef\tie{\leavevmode\penalty\tiepenalty\ }
% @: forces normal size whitespace following.
\def\:{\spacefactor=1000 }
% @* forces a line break.
% @. is an end-of-sentence period.
\def\.{.\spacefactor=3000 }
% @! is an end-of-sentence bang.
\def\!{!\spacefactor=3000 }
% @? is an end-of-sentence query.
\def\?{?\spacefactor=3000 }
% @w prevents a word break. Without the \leavevmode, @w at the
% beginning of a paragraph, when TeX is still in vertical mode, would
% produce a whole line of output instead of starting the paragraph.
% @group ... @end group forces ... to be all on one page, by enclosing
% it in a TeX vbox. We use \vtop instead of \vbox to construct the box
% to keep its height that of a normal line. According to the rules for
% \topskip (p.114 of the TeXbook), the glue inserted is
% max (\topskip - \ht (first item), 0). If that height is large,
% therefore, no glue is inserted, and the space between the headline and
% the text is small, which looks bad.
\ifnum\catcode13=\active \else
\errhelp = \groupinvalidhelp
\errmessage{@group invalid in context where filling is enabled}%
% The \vtop we start below produces a box with normal height and large
% depth; thus, TeX puts \baselineskip glue before it, and (when the
% next line of text is done) \lineskip glue after it. (See p.82 of
% the TeXbook.) Thus, space below is not quite equal to space
% above. But it's pretty close.
\egroup % End the \vtop.
\endgroup % End the \group.
% We have to put a strut on the last line in case the @group is in
% the midst of an example, rather than completely enclosing it.
% Otherwise, the interline space between the last line of the group
% and the first line afterwards is too small. But we can't put the
% strut in \Egroup, since there it would be on a line by itself.
% Hence this just inserts a strut at the beginning of each line.
\everypar = {\strut}%
% Since we have a strut on every line, we don't need any of TeX's
% normal interline spacing.
% OK, but now we have to do something about blank
% lines in the input in @example-like environments, which normally
% just turn into \lisppar, which will insert no space now that we've
% turned off the interline space. Simplest is to make them be an
% empty paragraph.
\edef\par{\leavevmode \par}%
% Reset ^^M's definition to new definition of \par.
% Do @comment since we are called inside an environment such as
% @example, where each end-of-line in the input causes an
% end-of-line in the output. We don't want the end-of-line after
% the `@group' to put extra space in the output. Since @group
% should appear on a line by itself (according to the Texinfo
% manual), we don't worry about eating any user text.
% TeX puts in an \escapechar (i.e., `@') at the beginning of the help
% message, so this ends up printing `@group can only ...'.
group can only be used in environments such as @example,^^J%
where each line of input produces a line of output.}
% @need space-in-mils
% forces a page break if there is not space-in-mils remaining.
\newdimen\mil \mil=0.001in
% Old definition--didn't work.
%\def\needx #1{\par %
%% This method tries to make TeX break the page naturally
%% if the depth of the box does not fit.
%\vtop to #1\mil{\vfil}\kern -#1\mil\nobreak
% Go into vertical mode, so we don't make a big box in the middle of a
% paragraph.
% Don't add any leading before our big empty box, but allow a page
% break, since the best break might be right here.
\vtop to #1\mil{\vfil}%
% TeX does not even consider page breaks if a penalty added to the
% main vertical list is 10000 or more. But in order to see if the
% empty box we just added fits on the page, we must make it consider
% page breaks. On the other hand, we don't want to actually break the
% page after the empty box. So we use a penalty of 9999.
% There is an extremely small chance that TeX will actually break the
% page at this \penalty, if there are no other feasible breakpoints in
% sight. (If the user is using lots of big @group commands, which
% almost-but-not-quite fill up a page, TeX will have a hard time doing
% good page breaking, for example.) However, I could not construct an
% example where a page broke at this \penalty; if it happens in a real
% document, then we can reconsider our strategy.
% Back up by the size of the box, whether we did a page break or not.
\kern -#1\mil
% Do not allow a page break right after this kern.
% @br forces paragraph break
\let\br = \par
% @dots{} output an ellipsis using the current font.
% We do .5em per period so that it has the same spacing in a typewriter
% font as three actual period characters.
\hbox to 1.5em{%
\hskip 0pt plus 0.25fil minus 0.25fil
\hskip 0pt plus 0.5fil minus 0.5fil
% @enddots{} is an end-of-sentence ellipsis.
\hbox to 2em{%
\hskip 0pt plus 0.25fil minus 0.25fil
\hskip 0pt plus 0.5fil minus 0.5fil
% @page forces the start of a new page
% @exdent text....
% outputs text on separate line in roman font, starting at standard page margin
% This records the amount of indent in the innermost environment.
% That's how much \exdent should take out.
% This defn is used inside fill environments such as @defun.
\def\exdentyyy #1{{\hfil\break\hbox{\kern -\exdentamount{\rm#1}}\hfil\break}}
% This defn is used inside nofill environments such as @example.
\def\nofillexdentyyy #1{{\advance \leftskip by -\exdentamount
% @inmargin{TEXT} puts TEXT in the margin next to the current paragraph.
\vtop to \strutdepth{\baselineskip\strutdepth\vss
\llap{\rightskip=\inmarginspacing \vbox{\noindent #1}}\null}}}
\newskip\inmarginspacing \inmarginspacing=1cm
% @include file insert text of that file as input.
% Allow normal characters that we make active in the argument (a file name).
% Restore active chars for included file.
% Read the included file in a group so nested @include's work.
% @center line outputs that line, centered
\def\centerzzz #1{{\advance\hsize by -\leftskip
\advance\hsize by -\rightskip
% @sp n outputs n lines of vertical space
\def\spxxx #1{\vskip #1\baselineskip}
% @comment ...line which is ignored...
% @c is the same as @comment
% @ignore ... @end ignore is another way to write a comment
\def\comment{\begingroup \catcode`\^^M=\other%
\catcode`\@=\other \catcode`\{=\other \catcode`\}=\other%
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \gdef\commentxxx#1^^M{\endgroup}}
% @paragraphindent is defined for the Info formatting commands only.
% Prevent errors for section commands.
% Used in @ignore and in failing conditionals.
% Used in nested conditionals, where we have to parse the Texinfo source
% and so want to turn off most commands, in case they are used
% incorrectly.
\let\defcodeindex = \relax
\let\defcv = \relax
\let\deffn = \relax
\let\deffnx = \relax
\let\defindex = \relax
\let\defivar = \relax
\let\defmac = \relax
\let\defmethod = \relax
\let\defop = \relax
\let\defopt = \relax
\let\defspec = \relax
\let\deftp = \relax
\let\deftypefn = \relax
\let\deftypefun = \relax
\let\deftypevar = \relax
\let\deftypevr = \relax
\let\defun = \relax
\let\defvar = \relax
\let\defvr = \relax
\let\ref = \relax
\let\xref = \relax
\let\printindex = \relax
\let\pxref = \relax
\let\settitle = \relax
\let\setchapternewpage = \relax
\let\setchapterstyle = \relax
\let\everyheading = \relax
\let\evenheading = \relax
\let\oddheading = \relax
\let\everyfooting = \relax
\let\evenfooting = \relax
\let\oddfooting = \relax
\let\headings = \relax
\let\include = \relax
\let\lowersections = \relax
\let\down = \relax
\let\raisesections = \relax
\let\up = \relax
\let\set = \relax
\let\clear = \relax
\let\item = \relax
% Ignore @ignore ... @end ignore.
% Ignore @ifinfo, @ifhtml, @ifnottex, @html, @menu, and @direntry text.
% @dircategory CATEGORY -- specify a category of the dir file
% which this file should belong to. Ignore this in TeX.
\let\dircategory = \comment
% Ignore text until a line `@end #1'.
% Don't complain about control sequences we have declared \outer.
% Define a command to swallow text until we reach `@end #1'.
% This @ is a catcode 12 token (that is the normal catcode of @ in
% this texinfo.tex file). We change the catcode of @ below to match.
\long\def\doignoretext##1@end #1{\enddoignore}%
% Make sure that spaces turn into tokens that match what \doignoretext wants.
\catcode32 = 10
% Ignore braces, too, so mismatched braces don't cause trouble.
\catcode`\{ = 9
\catcode`\} = 9
% We must not have @c interpreted as a control sequence.
\catcode`\@ = 12
% Make the letter c a comment character so that the rest of the line
% will be ignored. This way, the document can have (for example)
% @c @end ifinfo
% and the @end ifinfo will be properly ignored.
% (We've just changed @ to catcode 12.)
\catcode`\c = 14
% And now expand that command.
% What we do to finish off ignored text.
% We need to warn folks that they may have trouble with TeX 3.0.
% This uses \immediate\write16 rather than \message to get newlines.
\immediate\write16{***WARNING*** for users of Unix TeX 3.0!}
\immediate\write16{This manual trips a bug in TeX version 3.0 (tex hangs).}
\immediate\write16{If you are running another version of TeX, relax.}
\immediate\write16{If you are running Unix TeX 3.0, kill this TeX process.}
\immediate\write16{ Then upgrade your TeX installation if you can.}
\immediate\write16{ (See}
\immediate\write16{If you are stuck with version 3.0, run the}
\immediate\write16{ script ``tex3patch'' from the Texinfo distribution}
\immediate\write16{ to use a workaround.}
% **In TeX 3.0, setting text in \nullfont hangs tex. For a
% workaround (which requires the file ``dummy.tfm'' to be installed),
% uncomment the following line:
% Ignore text, except that we keep track of conditional commands for
% purposes of nesting, up to an `@end #1' command.
% We must actually expand the ignored text to look for the @end
% command, so that nested ignore constructs work. Thus, we put the
% text into a \vbox and then do nothing with the result. To minimize
% the change of memory overflow, we follow the approach outlined on
% page 401 of the TeXbook: make the current font be a dummy font.
\setbox0 = \vbox\bgroup
% Don't complain about control sequences we have declared \outer.
% Define `@end #1' to end the box, which will in turn undefine the
% @end command again.
\expandafter\def\csname E#1\endcsname{\egroup\ignorespaces}%
% We are going to be parsing Texinfo commands. Most cause no
% trouble when they are used incorrectly, but some commands do
% complicated argument parsing or otherwise get confused, so we
% undefine them.
% We can't do anything about stray @-signs, unfortunately;
% they'll produce `undefined control sequence' errors.
% Set the current font to be \nullfont, a TeX primitive, and define
% all the font commands to also use \nullfont. We don't use
% dummy.tfm, as suggested in the TeXbook, because not all sites
% might have that installed. Therefore, math mode will still
% produce output, but that should be an extremely small amount of
% stuff compared to the main input.
\let\tenrm = \nullfont \let\tenit = \nullfont \let\tensl = \nullfont
\let\tenbf = \nullfont \let\tentt = \nullfont \let\smallcaps = \nullfont
\let\tensf = \nullfont
% Similarly for index fonts (mostly for their use in
% smallexample)
\let\indrm = \nullfont \let\indit = \nullfont \let\indsl = \nullfont
\let\indbf = \nullfont \let\indtt = \nullfont \let\indsc = \nullfont
\let\indsf = \nullfont
% Don't complain when characters are missing from the fonts.
\tracinglostchars = 0
% Don't bother to do space factor calculations.
% Don't report underfull hboxes.
\hbadness = 10000
% Do minimal line-breaking.
\pretolerance = 10000
% Do not execute instructions in @tex
% Do not execute macro definitions.
% `c' is a comment character, so the word `macro' will get cut off.
% @set VAR sets the variable VAR to an empty value.
% @set VAR REST-OF-LINE sets VAR to the value REST-OF-LINE.
% Since we want to separate VAR from REST-OF-LINE (which might be
% empty), we can't just use \parsearg; we have to insert a space of our
% own to delimit the rest of the line, and then take it out again if we
% didn't need it. Make sure the catcode of space is correct to avoid
% losing inside @example, for instance.
\def\set{\begingroup\catcode` =10
\catcode`\-=12 \catcode`\_=12 % Allow - and _ in VAR.
\def\setxxx#1{\setyyy#1 \endsetyyy}
\def\setyyy#1 #2\endsetyyy{%
\ifx\temp\empty \global\expandafter\let\csname SET#1\endcsname = \empty
\else \setzzz{#1}#2\endsetzzz % Remove the trailing space \setxxx inserted.
% Can't use \xdef to pre-expand #2 and save some time, since \temp or
% \next or other control sequences that we've defined might get us into
% an infinite loop. Consider `@set foo @cite{bar}'.
\def\setzzz#1#2 \endsetzzz{\expandafter\gdef\csname SET#1\endcsname{#2}}
% @clear VAR clears (i.e., unsets) the variable VAR.
\def\clearxxx#1{\global\expandafter\let\csname SET#1\endcsname=\relax}
% @value{foo} gets the text saved in variable foo.
\catcode`\_ = \active
% We might end up with active _ or - characters in the argument if
% we're called from @code, as @code{@value{foo-bar_}}. So \let any
% such active characters to their normal equivalents.
\catcode`\-=12 \catcode`\_=12
\indexbreaks \let_\normalunderscore
% We have this subroutine so that we can handle at least some @value's
% properly in indexes (we \let\value to this in \indexdummies). Ones
% whose names contain - or _ still won't work, but we can't do anything
% about that. The command has to be fully expandable, since the result
% winds up in the index file. This means that if the variable's value
% contains other Texinfo commands, it's almost certain it will fail
% (although perhaps we could fix that with sufficient work to do a
% one-level expansion on the result, instead of complete).
\expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
{[No value for ``#1'']}%
\csname SET#1\endcsname
% @ifset VAR ... @end ifset reads the `...' iff VAR has been defined
% with @set.
\def\ifsetxxx #1{%
\expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
% @ifclear VAR ... @end ifclear reads the `...' iff VAR has never been
% defined with @set, or has been undefined with @clear.
\def\ifclearxxx #1{%
\expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
% @iftex, @ifnothtml, @ifnotinfo always succeed; we read the text
% following, through the first @end iftex (etc.). Make `@end iftex'
% (etc.) valid only after an @iftex.
% We can't just want to start a group at @iftex (for example) and end it
% at @end iftex, since then @set commands inside the conditional have no
% effect (they'd get reverted at the end of the group). So we must
% define \Eiftex to redefine itself to be its previous value. (We can't
% just define it to fail again with an ``unmatched end'' error, since
% the @ifset might be nested.)
% Remember the current value of \E#1.
\let\nece{prevE#1} = \nece{E#1}%
% At the `@end #1', redefine \E#1 to be its previous value.
\def\nece{E#1}{\let\nece{E#1} = \nece{prevE#1}}%
% We need to expand lots of \csname's, but we don't want to expand the
% control sequences after we've constructed them.
% @asis just yields its argument. Used with @table, for example.
% @math means output in math mode.
% We don't use $'s directly in the definition of \math because control
% sequences like \math are expanded when the toc file is written. Then,
% we read the toc file back, the $'s will be normal characters (as they
% should be, according to the definition of Texinfo). So we must use a
% control sequence to switch into and out of math mode.
% This isn't quite enough for @math to work properly in indices, but it
% seems unlikely it will ever be needed there.
\let\implicitmath = $
\def\math#1{\implicitmath #1\implicitmath}
% @bullet and @minus need the same treatment as @math, just above.
% @refill is a no-op.
% If working on a large document in chapters, it is convenient to
% be able to disable indexing, cross-referencing, and contents, for test runs.
% This is done with @novalidate (before @setfilename).
\newif\iflinks \linkstrue % by default we want the aux files.
\let\novalidate = \linksfalse
% @setfilename is done at the beginning of every texinfo file.
% So open here the files we need to have open while reading the input.
% This makes it possible to make a .fmt file for texinfo.
\fi % \openindices needs to do some work in any case.
\fixbackslash % Turn off hack to swallow `\input texinfo'.
\global\let\setfilename=\comment % Ignore extra @setfilename cmds.
% If texinfo.cnf is present on the system, read it.
% Useful for site-wide @afourpaper, etc.
% Just to be on the safe side, close the input stream before the \input.
\openin 1 texinfo.cnf
\ifeof1 \let\temp=\relax \else \def\temp{\input texinfo.cnf }\fi
\comment % Ignore the actual filename.
% Called from \setfilename.
% @bye.
% Font-change commands.
% Texinfo sort of supports the sans serif font style, which plain TeX does not.
% So we set up a \sf analogous to plain's \rm, etc.
\def\sf{\fam=\sffam \tensf}
\let\li = \sf % Sometimes we call it \li, not \sf.
% We don't need math for this one.
% Use Computer Modern fonts at \magstephalf (11pt).
% Set the font macro #1 to the font named #2, adding on the
% specified font prefix (normally `cm').
% #3 is the font's design size, #4 is a scale factor
\def\setfont#1#2#3#4{\font#1=\fontprefix#2#3 scaled #4}
% Use cm as the default font prefix.
% To specify the font prefix, you must define \fontprefix
% before you read in texinfo.tex.
% Support font families that don't use the same naming scheme as CM.
\def\rmbshape{bx} %where the normal face is bold
% Instead of cmb10, you many want to use cmbx10.
% cmbx10 is a prettier font on its own, but cmb10
% looks better when embedded in a line with cmr10.
\font\texti=cmmi10 scaled \mainmagstep
\font\textsy=cmsy10 scaled \mainmagstep
% A few fonts for @defun, etc.
\setfont\defbf\bxshape{10}{\magstep1} %was 1314
\def\df{\let\tentt=\deftt \let\tenbf = \defbf \bf}
% Fonts for indices and small examples (9pt).
% We actually use the slanted font rather than the italic,
% because texinfo normally uses the slanted fonts for that.
% Do not make many font distinctions in general in the index, since they
% aren't very useful.
% Fonts for title page:
\font\titlei=cmmi12 scaled \magstep3
\font\titlesy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep4
% Chapter (and unnumbered) fonts (17.28pt).
\font\chapi=cmmi12 scaled \magstep2
\font\chapsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep3
% Section fonts (14.4pt).
\font\seci=cmmi12 scaled \magstep1
\font\secsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep2
% \setfont\ssecrm\bxshape{10}{\magstep1} % This size an font looked bad.
% \setfont\ssecit\itshape{10}{\magstep1} % The letters were too crowded.
% \setfont\ssecsl\slshape{10}{\magstep1}
% \setfont\ssectt\ttshape{10}{\magstep1}
% \setfont\ssecsf\sfshape{10}{\magstep1}
%\setfont\ssecrm\bfshape{10}{1315} % Note the use of cmb rather than cmbx.
%\setfont\ssecit\itshape{10}{1315} % Also, the size is a little larger than
%\setfont\ssecsl\slshape{10}{1315} % being scaled magstep1.
% Subsection fonts (13.15pt).
\font\sseci=cmmi12 scaled \magstephalf
\font\ssecsy=cmsy10 scaled 1315
% The smallcaps and symbol fonts should actually be scaled \magstep1.5,
% but that is not a standard magnification.
% In order for the font changes to affect most math symbols and letters,
% we have to define the \textfont of the standard families. Since
% texinfo doesn't allow for producing subscripts and superscripts, we
% don't bother to reset \scriptfont and \scriptscriptfont (which would
% also require loading a lot more fonts).
\textfont0 = \tenrm \textfont1 = \teni \textfont2 = \tensy
\textfont\itfam = \tenit \textfont\slfam = \tensl \textfont\bffam = \tenbf
\textfont\ttfam = \tentt \textfont\sffam = \tensf
% The font-changing commands redefine the meanings of \tenSTYLE, instead
% of just \STYLE. We do this so that font changes will continue to work
% in math mode, where it is the current \fam that is relevant in most
% cases, not the current font. Plain TeX does \def\bf{\fam=\bffam
% \tenbf}, for example. By redefining \tenbf, we obviate the need to
% redefine \bf itself.
\let\tenrm=\textrm \let\tenit=\textit \let\tensl=\textsl
\let\tenbf=\textbf \let\tentt=\texttt \let\smallcaps=\textsc
\let\tensf=\textsf \let\teni=\texti \let\tensy=\textsy \let\tenttsl=\textttsl
\let\tenrm=\titlerm \let\tenit=\titleit \let\tensl=\titlesl
\let\tenbf=\titlebf \let\tentt=\titlett \let\smallcaps=\titlesc
\let\tensf=\titlesf \let\teni=\titlei \let\tensy=\titlesy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{25pt}}
\def\titlefont#1{{\titlefonts\rm #1}}
\let\tenrm=\chaprm \let\tenit=\chapit \let\tensl=\chapsl
\let\tenbf=\chapbf \let\tentt=\chaptt \let\smallcaps=\chapsc
\let\tensf=\chapsf \let\teni=\chapi \let\tensy=\chapsy \let\tenttsl=\chapttsl
\resetmathfonts \setleading{19pt}}
\let\tenrm=\secrm \let\tenit=\secit \let\tensl=\secsl
\let\tenbf=\secbf \let\tentt=\sectt \let\smallcaps=\secsc
\let\tensf=\secsf \let\teni=\seci \let\tensy=\secsy \let\tenttsl=\secttsl
\resetmathfonts \setleading{16pt}}
\let\tenrm=\ssecrm \let\tenit=\ssecit \let\tensl=\ssecsl
\let\tenbf=\ssecbf \let\tentt=\ssectt \let\smallcaps=\ssecsc
\let\tensf=\ssecsf \let\teni=\sseci \let\tensy=\ssecsy \let\tenttsl=\ssecttsl
\resetmathfonts \setleading{15pt}}
\let\subsubsecfonts = \subsecfonts % Maybe make sssec fonts scaled magstephalf?
\let\tenrm=\indrm \let\tenit=\indit \let\tensl=\indsl
\let\tenbf=\indbf \let\tentt=\indtt \let\smallcaps=\indsc
\let\tensf=\indsf \let\teni=\indi \let\tensy=\indsy \let\tenttsl=\indttsl
\resetmathfonts \setleading{12pt}}
% Set up the default fonts, so we can use them for creating boxes.
% Define these so they can be easily changed for other fonts.
% Count depth in font-changes, for error checks
\newcount\fontdepth \fontdepth=0
% Fonts for short table of contents.
%% Add scribe-like font environments, plus @l for inline lisp (usually sans
%% serif) and @ii for TeX italic
% \smartitalic{ARG} outputs arg in italics, followed by an italic correction
% unless the following character is such as not to need one.
\def\smartslanted#1{{\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\smartitalic#1{{\it #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\b#1{{\bf #1}}
% We can't just use \exhyphenpenalty, because that only has effect at
% the end of a paragraph. Restore normal hyphenation at the end of the
% group within which \nohyphenation is presumably called.
\def\nohyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = -1 \aftergroup\restorehyphenation}
\def\restorehyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = `- }
{\tt \rawbackslash \frenchspacing #1}%
\def\key#1{{\smallrm\textfont2=\smallsy \leavevmode\hbox{%
% The old definition, with no lozenge:
%\def\key #1{{\ttsl \nohyphenation \uppercase{#1}}\null}
\def\ctrl #1{{\tt \rawbackslash \hat}#1}
% @file, @option are the same as @samp.
% @code is a modification of @t,
% which makes spaces the same size as normal in the surrounding text.
% Change normal interword space to be same as for the current font.
\spaceskip = \fontdimen2\font
% Switch to typewriter.
% But `\ ' produces the large typewriter interword space.
\def\ {{\spaceskip = 0pt{} }}%
% Turn off hyphenation.
% We *must* turn on hyphenation at `-' and `_' in \code.
% Otherwise, it is too hard to avoid overfull hboxes
% in the Emacs manual, the Library manual, etc.
% Unfortunately, TeX uses one parameter (\hyphenchar) to control
% both hyphenation at - and hyphenation within words.
% We must therefore turn them both off (\tclose does that)
% and arrange explicitly to hyphenate at a dash.
% -- rms.
\catcode`\-=\active \let-\codedash
\catcode`\_=\active \let_\codeunder
% If we end up with any active - characters when handling the index,
% just treat them as a normal -.
\global\def\indexbreaks{\catcode`\-=\active \let-\realdash}
\def\codex #1{\tclose{#1}\endgroup}
%\let\exp=\tclose %Was temporary
% @kbd is like @code, except that if the argument is just one @key command,
% then @kbd has no effect.
% @kbdinputstyle -- arg is `distinct' (@kbd uses slanted tty font always),
% `example' (@kbd uses ttsl only inside of @example and friends),
% or `code' (@kbd uses normal tty font always).
% Default is kbdinputdistinct. (Too much of a hassle to call the macro,
% the catcodes are wrong for parsearg to work.)
\ifx\one\xkey\ifx\threex\three \key{#2}%
% For @url, @env, @command quotes seem unnecessary, so use \code.
% @uref (abbreviation for `urlref') takes an optional second argument
% specifying the text to display. First (mandatory) arg is the url.
% Perhaps eventually put in a hypertex \special here.
\def\uref#1{\urefxxx #1,,\finish}
\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
\unhbox0\ (\code{#1})%
% rms does not like the angle brackets --karl, 17may97.
% So now @email is just like @uref.
%\def\email#1{\angleleft{\tt #1}\angleright}
% Check if we are currently using a typewriter font. Since all the
% Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero interword stretch (and
% shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all typewriter fonts to have
% this property, we can check that font parameter.
\def\ifmonospace{\ifdim\fontdimen3\font=0pt }
% Typeset a dimension, e.g., `in' or `pt'. The only reason for the
% argument is to make the input look right: @dmn{pt} instead of @dmn{}pt.
\def\dmn#1{\thinspace #1}
% @l was never documented to mean ``switch to the Lisp font'',
% and it is not used as such in any manual I can find. We need it for
% Polish suppressed-l. --karl, 22sep96.
%\def\l#1{{\li #1}\null}
% Explicit font changes: @r, @sc, undocumented @ii.
\def\r#1{{\rm #1}} % roman font
\def\sc#1{{\smallcaps#1}} % smallcaps font
\def\ii#1{{\it #1}} % italic font
% @acronym downcases the argument and prints in smallcaps.
\def\acronym#1{{\smallcaps \lowercase{#1}}}
% @pounds{} is a sterling sign.
\message{page headings,}
\newskip\titlepagetopglue \titlepagetopglue = 1.5in
\newskip\titlepagebottomglue \titlepagebottomglue = 2pc
% First the title page. Must do @settitle before @titlepage.
% Do an implicit @contents or @shortcontents after @end titlepage if the
% user says @setcontentsaftertitlepage or @setshortcontentsaftertitlepage.
\let\setcontentsaftertitlepage = \setcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
\let\setshortcontentsaftertitlepage = \setshortcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
\def\shorttitlepagezzz #1{\begingroup\hbox{}\vskip 1.5in \chaprm \centerline{#1}%
\def\titlepage{\begingroup \parindent=0pt \textfonts
\def\subtitlefont{\subtitlerm \normalbaselineskip = 13pt \normalbaselines}%
\def\authorfont{\authorrm \normalbaselineskip = 16pt \normalbaselines}%
% Leave some space at the very top of the page.
% Now you can print the title using @title.
\def\titlezzz##1{\leftline{\titlefonts\rm ##1}
% print a rule at the page bottom also.
\vskip4pt \hrule height 4pt width \hsize \vskip4pt}%
% No rule at page bottom unless we print one at the top with @title.
% Now you can put text using @subtitle.
\def\subtitlezzz##1{{\subtitlefont \rightline{##1}}}%
% @author should come last, but may come many times.
\def\authorzzz##1{\ifseenauthor\else\vskip 0pt plus 1filll\seenauthortrue\fi
{\authorfont \leftline{##1}}}%
% Most title ``pages'' are actually two pages long, with space
% at the top of the second. We don't want the ragged left on the second.
\let\oldpage = \page
\let\page = \oldpage
% \def\page{\oldpage \hbox{}}
% It is important to do the page break before ending the group,
% because the headline and footline are only empty inside the group.
% If we use the new definition of \page, we always get a blank page
% after the title page, which we certainly don't want.
% If they want short, they certainly want long too.
\global\let\shortcontents = \relax
\global\let\contents = \relax
\global\let\contents = \relax
\global\let\shortcontents = \relax
\vskip4pt \hrule height 2pt width \hsize
%%% Set up page headings and footings.
\newtoks\evenheadline % headline on even pages
\newtoks\oddheadline % headline on odd pages
\newtoks\evenfootline % footline on even pages
\newtoks\oddfootline % footline on odd pages
% Now make Tex use those variables
\headline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddheadline
\else \the\evenheadline \fi}}
\footline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddfootline
\else \the\evenfootline \fi}\HEADINGShook}
% Commands to set those variables.
% For example, this is what @headings on does
% @evenheading @thistitle|@thispage|@thischapter
% @oddheading @thischapter|@thispage|@thistitle
% @evenfooting @thisfile||
% @oddfooting ||@thisfile
{\catcode`\@=0 %
\gdef\evenheadingxxx #1{\evenheadingyyy #1@|@|@|@|\finish}
\gdef\evenheadingyyy #1@|#2@|#3@|#4\finish{%
\gdef\oddheadingxxx #1{\oddheadingyyy #1@|@|@|@|\finish}
\gdef\oddheadingyyy #1@|#2@|#3@|#4\finish{%
\gdef\evenfootingxxx #1{\evenfootingyyy #1@|@|@|@|\finish}
\gdef\evenfootingyyy #1@|#2@|#3@|#4\finish{%
\gdef\oddfootingxxx #1{\oddfootingyyy #1@|@|@|@|\finish}
\gdef\oddfootingyyy #1@|#2@|#3@|#4\finish{%
\global\oddfootline = {\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}%
% Leave some space for the footline. Hopefully ok to assume
% @evenfooting will not be used by itself.
\global\advance\pageheight by -\baselineskip
\global\advance\vsize by -\baselineskip
}% unbind the catcode of @.
% @headings double turns headings on for double-sided printing.
% @headings single turns headings on for single-sided printing.
% @headings off turns them off.
% @headings on same as @headings double, retained for compatibility.
% @headings after turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings doubleafter turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings singleafter turns on single-sided headings after this page.
% By default, they are off at the start of a document,
% and turned `on' after @end titlepage.
\def\headings #1 {\csname HEADINGS#1\endcsname}
\global\evenheadline={\hfil} \global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddheadline={\hfil} \global\oddfootline={\hfil}}
% When we turn headings on, set the page number to 1.
% For double-sided printing, put current file name in lower left corner,
% chapter name on inside top of right hand pages, document
% title on inside top of left hand pages, and page numbers on outside top
% edge of all pages.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
% For single-sided printing, chapter title goes across top left of page,
% page number on top right.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
% Subroutines used in generating headings
% Produces Day Month Year style of output.
January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
% Use this if you want the Month Day, Year style of output.
%January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
%July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
%\space\number\day, \number\year}
% @settitle line... specifies the title of the document, for headings
% It generates no output of its own
\def\thistitle{No Title}
\def\settitlezzz #1{\gdef\thistitle{#1}}
% Tables -- @table, @ftable, @vtable, @item(x), @kitem(x), @xitem(x).
% default indentation of table text
\newdimen\tableindent \tableindent=.8in
% default indentation of @itemize and @enumerate text
\newdimen\itemindent \itemindent=.3in
% margin between end of table item and start of table text.
\newdimen\itemmargin \itemmargin=.1in
% used internally for \itemindent minus \itemmargin
% Note @table, @vtable, and @vtable define @item, @itemx, etc., with
% these defs.
% They also define \itemindex
% to index the item name in whatever manner is desired (perhaps none).
\def\internalBitem{\smallbreak \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\internalBitemx{\itemxpar \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\internalBxitem "#1"{\def\xitemsubtopix{#1} \smallbreak \parsearg\xitemzzz}
\def\internalBxitemx "#1"{\def\xitemsubtopix{#1} \itemxpar \parsearg\xitemzzz}
\def\internalBkitem{\smallbreak \parsearg\kitemzzz}
\def\internalBkitemx{\itemxpar \parsearg\kitemzzz}
\def\kitemzzz #1{\dosubind {kw}{\code{#1}}{for {\bf \lastfunction}}%
\itemzzz {#1}}
\def\xitemzzz #1{\dosubind {kw}{\code{#1}}{for {\bf \xitemsubtopic}}%
\itemzzz {#1}}
\def\itemzzz #1{\begingroup %
\advance\hsize by -\rightskip
\advance\hsize by -\tableindent
\nobreak % This prevents a break before @itemx.
% If the item text does not fit in the space we have, put it on a line
% by itself, and do not allow a page break either before or after that
% line. We do not start a paragraph here because then if the next
% command is, e.g., @kindex, the whatsit would get put into the
% horizontal list on a line by itself, resulting in extra blank space.
\ifdim \wd0>\itemmax
% Make this a paragraph so we get the \parskip glue and wrapping,
% but leave it ragged-right.
\advance\leftskip by-\tableindent
\advance\hsize by\tableindent
\advance\rightskip by0pt plus1fil
% We're going to be starting a paragraph, but we don't want the
% \parskip glue -- logically it's part of the @item we just started.
\nobreak \vskip-\parskip
% Stop a page break at the \parskip glue coming up. Unfortunately
% we can't prevent a possible page break at the following
% \baselineskip glue.
% The item text fits into the space. Start a paragraph, so that the
% following text (if any) will end up on the same line.
% Do this with kerns and \unhbox so that if there is a footnote in
% the item text, it can migrate to the main vertical list and
% eventually be printed.
\dimen0 = \itemmax \advance\dimen0 by \itemmargin \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0
\def\item{\errmessage{@item while not in a table}}
\def\itemx{\errmessage{@itemx while not in a table}}
\def\kitem{\errmessage{@kitem while not in a table}}
\def\kitemx{\errmessage{@kitemx while not in a table}}
\def\xitem{\errmessage{@xitem while not in a table}}
\def\xitemx{\errmessage{@xitemx while not in a table}}
% Contains a kludge to get @end[description] to work.
% @table, @ftable, @vtable.
\gdef\tablex #1^^M{%
\tabley\dontindex#1 \endtabley}}
\gdef\ftablex #1^^M{%
\tabley\fnitemindex#1 \endtabley
\gdef\vtablex #1^^M{%
\tabley\vritemindex#1 \endtabley
\def\dontindex #1{}
\def\fnitemindex #1{\doind {fn}{\code{#1}}}%
\def\vritemindex #1{\doind {vr}{\code{#1}}}%
{\obeyspaces %
\gdef\tabley#1#2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7\endtabley{\endgroup%
\def\tablez #1#2#3#4#5#6{%
\aboveenvbreak %
\begingroup %
\def\Edescription{\Etable}% Necessary kludge.
\ifnum 0#3>0 \advance \leftskip by #3\mil \fi %
\ifnum 0#4>0 \tableindent=#4\mil \fi %
\ifnum 0#5>0 \advance \rightskip by #5\mil \fi %
\itemmax=\tableindent %
\advance \itemmax by -\itemmargin %
\advance \leftskip by \tableindent %
\parindent = 0pt
\parskip = \smallskipamount
\ifdim \parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi%
\let\item = \internalBitem %
\let\itemx = \internalBitemx %
\let\kitem = \internalBkitem %
\let\kitemx = \internalBkitemx %
\let\xitem = \internalBxitem %
\let\xitemx = \internalBxitemx %
% This is the counter used by @enumerate, which is really @itemize
\newcount \itemno
\def\itemizezzz #1{%
\begingroup % ended by the @end itemize
\itemizey {#1}{\Eitemize}
\def\itemizey #1#2{%
\aboveenvbreak %
\itemmax=\itemindent %
\advance \itemmax by -\itemmargin %
\advance \leftskip by \itemindent %
\parindent = 0pt %
\parskip = \smallskipamount %
\ifdim \parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi%
% Set sfcode to normal for the chars that usually have another value.
% These are `.?!:;,'
\def\frenchspacing{\sfcode46=1000 \sfcode63=1000 \sfcode33=1000
\sfcode58=1000 \sfcode59=1000 \sfcode44=1000 }
% \splitoff TOKENS\endmark defines \first to be the first token in
% TOKENS, and \rest to be the remainder.
% Allow an optional argument of an uppercase letter, lowercase letter,
% or number, to specify the first label in the enumerated list. No
% argument is the same as `1'.
\def\enumeratezzz #1{\enumeratey #1 \endenumeratey}
\def\enumeratey #1 #2\endenumeratey{%
\begingroup % ended by the @end enumerate
% If we were given no argument, pretend we were given `1'.
\ifx\thearg\empty \def\thearg{1}\fi
% Detect if the argument is a single token. If so, it might be a
% letter. Otherwise, the only valid thing it can be is a number.
% (We will always have one token, because of the test we just made.
% This is a good thing, since \splitoff doesn't work given nothing at
% all -- the first parameter is undelimited.)
% Only one token in the argument. It could still be anything.
% A ``lowercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is nonzero.
% An ``uppercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is both nonzero, and
% not equal to itself.
% Otherwise, we assume it's a number.
% We need the \relax at the end of the \ifnum lines to stop TeX from
% continuing to look for a <number>.
\numericenumerate % a number (we hope)
% It's a letter.
\lowercaseenumerate % lowercase letter
\uppercaseenumerate % uppercase letter
% Multiple tokens in the argument. We hope it's a number.
% An @enumerate whose labels are integers. The starting integer is
% given in \thearg.
\itemno = \thearg
% The starting (lowercase) letter is in \thearg.
\itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
% Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
\errmessage{No more lowercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
% The starting (uppercase) letter is in \thearg.
\itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
% Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
\errmessage{No more uppercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
% Call itemizey, adding a period to the first argument and supplying the
% common last two arguments. Also subtract one from the initial value in
% \itemno, since @item increments \itemno.
\advance\itemno by -1
% @alphaenumerate and @capsenumerate are abbreviations for giving an arg
% to @enumerate.
% Definition of @item while inside @itemize.
\advance\itemno by 1
{\let\par=\endgraf \smallbreak}%
\ifhmode \errmessage{In hmode at itemizeitem}\fi
{\parskip=0in \hskip 0pt
\hbox to 0pt{\hss \itemcontents\hskip \itemmargin}%
\vadjust{\penalty 1200}}%
% @multitable macros
% Amy Hendrickson, 8/18/94, 3/6/96
% @multitable ... @end multitable will make as many columns as desired.
% Contents of each column will wrap at width given in preamble. Width
% can be specified either with sample text given in a template line,
% or in percent of \hsize, the current width of text on page.
% Table can continue over pages but will only break between lines.
% To make preamble:
% Either define widths of columns in terms of percent of \hsize:
% @multitable @columnfractions .25 .3 .45
% @item ...
% Numbers following @columnfractions are the percent of the total
% current hsize to be used for each column. You may use as many
% columns as desired.
% Or use a template:
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
% @item ...
% using the widest term desired in each column.
% For those who want to use more than one line's worth of words in
% the preamble, break the line within one argument and it
% will parse correctly, i.e.,
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3
% template}
% Not:
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template}
% {Column 3 template}
% Each new table line starts with @item, each subsequent new column
% starts with @tab. Empty columns may be produced by supplying @tab's
% with nothing between them for as many times as empty columns are needed,
% ie, @tab@tab@tab will produce two empty columns.
% @item, @tab, @multitable or @end multitable do not need to be on their
% own lines, but it will not hurt if they are.
% Sample multitable:
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
% @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff @tab third col
% @item
% first col stuff
% @tab
% second col stuff
% @tab
% third col
% @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff
% @tab Many paragraphs of text may be used in any column.
% They will wrap at the width determined by the template.
% @item@tab@tab This will be in third column.
% @end multitable
% Default dimensions may be reset by user.
% @multitableparskip is vertical space between paragraphs in table.
% @multitableparindent is paragraph indent in table.
% @multitablecolmargin is horizontal space to be left between columns.
% @multitablelinespace is space to leave between table items, baseline
% to baseline.
% 0pt means it depends on current normal line spacing.
% Macros used to set up halign preamble:
% #1 is the part of the @columnfraction before the decimal point, which
% is presumably either 0 or the empty string (but we don't check, we
% just throw it away). #2 is the decimal part, which we use as the
% percent of \hsize for this column.
\def\pickupwholefraction#1.#2 {%
\global\advance\colcount by 1
\expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{.#2\hsize}%
\let\go = \relax
\global\advance\colcount by 1
\setbox0=\hbox{#1\unskip }% Add a normal word space as a separator;
% typically that is always in the input, anyway.
\expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{\the\wd0}%
% Put the argument back for the \pickupwholefraction call, so
% we'll always have a period there to be parsed.
\let\go = \setuptable
% multitable syntax
\def\tab{&\hskip1sp\relax} % 2/2/96
% tiny skip here makes sure this column space is
% maintained, even if it is never used.
% @multitable ... @end multitable definitions:
% To parse everything between @multitable and @item:
\setuptable#1 \endsetuptable
% \everycr will reset column counter, \colcount, at the end of
% each line. Every column entry will cause \colcount to advance by one.
% The table preamble
% looks at the current \colcount to find the correct column width.
% \filbreak%% keeps underfull box messages off when table breaks over pages.
% Maybe so, but it also creates really weird page breaks when the table
% breaks over pages. Wouldn't \vfil be better? Wait until the problem
% manifests itself, so it can be fixed for real --karl.
% This preamble sets up a generic column definition, which will
% be used as many times as user calls for columns.
% \vtop will set a single line and will also let text wrap and
% continue for many paragraphs if desired.
\halign\bgroup&\global\advance\colcount by 1\relax
\multistrut\vtop{\hsize=\expandafter\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname
% In order to keep entries from bumping into each other
% we will add a \leftskip of \multitablecolspace to all columns after
% the first one.
% If a template has been used, we will add \multitablecolspace
% to the width of each template entry.
% If the user has set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize we will
% use that dimension as the width of the column, and the \leftskip
% will keep entries from bumping into each other. Table will start at
% left margin and final column will justify at right margin.
% Make sure we don't inherit \rightskip from the outer environment.
% The first column will be indented with the surrounding text.
\advance\hsize by\leftskip
\ifsetpercent \else
% If user has not set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize
% we will advance \hsize by \multitablecolspace.
\advance\hsize by \multitablecolspace
% In either case we will make \leftskip=\multitablecolspace:
% Ignoring space at the beginning and end avoids an occasional spurious
% blank line, when TeX decides to break the line at the space before the
% box from the multistrut, so the strut ends up on a line by itself.
% For example:
% @multitable @columnfractions .11 .89
% @item @code{#}
% @tab Legal holiday which is valid in major parts of the whole country.
% Is automatically provided with highlighting sequences respectively marking
% characters.
\def\setmultitablespacing{% test to see if user has set \multitablelinespace.
% If so, do nothing. If not, give it an appropriate dimension based on
% current baselineskip.
%% strut to put in table in case some entry doesn't have descenders,
%% to keep lines equally spaced
\let\multistrut = \strut
%% Test to see if parskip is larger than space between lines of
%% table. If not, do nothing.
%% If so, set to same dimension as multitablelinespace.
\gdef\multistrut{\vrule height\multitablelinespace depth\dp0
width0pt\relax} \fi
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
%% than skip between lines in the table.
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
%% than skip between lines in the table.
% Index generation facilities
% Define \newwrite to be identical to plain tex's \newwrite
% except not \outer, so it can be used within \newindex.
% \newindex {foo} defines an index named foo.
% It automatically defines \fooindex such that
% \fooindex of line... puts an entry in the index foo.
% It also defines \fooindfile to be the number of the output channel for
% the file that accumulates this index. The file's extension is foo.
% The name of an index should be no more than 2 characters long
% for the sake of vms.
\expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
\openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1 % Open the file
\expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{% % Define @#1index
% @defindex foo == \newindex{foo}
% Define @defcodeindex, like @defindex except put all entries in @code.
\expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
\openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1
% @synindex foo bar makes index foo feed into index bar.
% Do this instead of @defindex foo if you don't want it as a separate index.
% The \closeout helps reduce unnecessary open files; the limit on the
% Acorn RISC OS is a mere 16 files.
\def\synindex#1 #2 {%
\expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{% define \xxxindex
% @syncodeindex foo bar similar, but put all entries made for index foo
% inside @code.
\def\syncodeindex#1 #2 {%
\expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{% define \xxxindex
% Define \doindex, the driver for all \fooindex macros.
% Argument #1 is generated by the calling \fooindex macro,
% and it is "foo", the name of the index.
% \doindex just uses \parsearg; it calls \doind for the actual work.
% This is because \doind is more useful to call from other macros.
% There is also \dosubind {index}{topic}{subtopic}
% which makes an entry in a two-level index such as the operation index.
\def\singleindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{#1}}
% like the previous two, but they put @code around the argument.
\def\singlecodeindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{\code{#1}}}
\def\ { }%
% Take care of the plain tex accent commands.
\def\"{\realbackslash "}%
\def\`{\realbackslash `}%
\def\'{\realbackslash '}%
\def\^{\realbackslash ^}%
\def\~{\realbackslash ~}%
\def\={\realbackslash =}%
\def\b{\realbackslash b}%
\def\c{\realbackslash c}%
\def\d{\realbackslash d}%
\def\u{\realbackslash u}%
\def\v{\realbackslash v}%
\def\H{\realbackslash H}%
% Take care of the plain tex special European modified letters.
\def\oe{\realbackslash oe}%
\def\ae{\realbackslash ae}%
\def\aa{\realbackslash aa}%
\def\OE{\realbackslash OE}%
\def\AE{\realbackslash AE}%
\def\AA{\realbackslash AA}%
\def\o{\realbackslash o}%
\def\O{\realbackslash O}%
\def\l{\realbackslash l}%
\def\L{\realbackslash L}%
\def\ss{\realbackslash ss}%
% Take care of texinfo commands likely to appear in an index entry.
% (Must be a way to avoid doing expansion at all, and thus not have to
% laboriously list every single command here.)
\def\@{@}% will be @@ when we switch to @ as escape char.
% Need these in case \tex is in effect and \{ is a \delimiter again.
% But can't use \lbracecmd and \rbracecmd because texindex assumes
% braces and backslashes are used only as delimiters.
\let\{ = \mylbrace
\let\} = \myrbrace
\def\_{{\realbackslash _}}%
\def\w{\realbackslash w }%
\def\bf{\realbackslash bf }%
%\def\rm{\realbackslash rm }%
\def\sl{\realbackslash sl }%
\def\sf{\realbackslash sf}%
\def\tt{\realbackslash tt}%
\def\gtr{\realbackslash gtr}%
\def\less{\realbackslash less}%
\def\hat{\realbackslash hat}%
\def\TeX{\realbackslash TeX}%
\def\dots{\realbackslash dots }%
\def\result{\realbackslash result}%
\def\equiv{\realbackslash equiv}%
\def\expansion{\realbackslash expansion}%
\def\print{\realbackslash print}%
\def\error{\realbackslash error}%
\def\point{\realbackslash point}%
\def\copyright{\realbackslash copyright}%
\def\tclose##1{\realbackslash tclose {##1}}%
\def\code##1{\realbackslash code {##1}}%
\def\uref##1{\realbackslash uref {##1}}%
\def\url##1{\realbackslash url {##1}}%
\def\env##1{\realbackslash env {##1}}%
\def\command##1{\realbackslash command {##1}}%
\def\option##1{\realbackslash option {##1}}%
\def\dotless##1{\realbackslash dotless {##1}}%
\def\samp##1{\realbackslash samp {##1}}%
\def\,##1{\realbackslash ,{##1}}%
\def\t##1{\realbackslash t {##1}}%
\def\r##1{\realbackslash r {##1}}%
\def\i##1{\realbackslash i {##1}}%
\def\b##1{\realbackslash b {##1}}%
\def\sc##1{\realbackslash sc {##1}}%
\def\cite##1{\realbackslash cite {##1}}%
\def\key##1{\realbackslash key {##1}}%
\def\file##1{\realbackslash file {##1}}%
\def\var##1{\realbackslash var {##1}}%
\def\kbd##1{\realbackslash kbd {##1}}%
\def\dfn##1{\realbackslash dfn {##1}}%
\def\emph##1{\realbackslash emph {##1}}%
\def\acronym##1{\realbackslash acronym {##1}}%
% Handle some cases of @value -- where the variable name does not
% contain - or _, and the value does not contain any
% (non-fully-expandable) commands.
\let\value = \expandablevalue
% If an index command is used in an @example environment, any spaces
% therein should become regular spaces in the raw index file, not the
% expansion of \tie (\\leavevmode \penalty \@M \ ).
\gdef\unsepspaces{\obeyspaces\let =\space}}
% \indexnofonts no-ops all font-change commands.
% This is used when outputting the strings to sort the index by.
% Just ignore accents.
% Take care of the plain tex special European modified letters.
%Don't no-op \tt, since it isn't a user-level command
% and is used in the definitions of the active chars like <, >, |...
% To define \realbackslash, we must make \ not be an escape.
% We must first make another character (@) an escape
% so we do not become unable to do a definition.
{\catcode`\@=0 \catcode`\\=\other
\let\indexbackslash=0 %overridden during \printindex.
\let\SETmarginindex=\relax % put index entries in margin (undocumented)?
% For \ifx comparisons.
% Most index entries go through here, but \dosubind is the general case.
% Workhorse for all \fooindexes.
% #1 is name of index, #2 is stuff to put there, #3 is subentry --
% \empty if called from \doind, as we usually are. The main exception
% is with defuns, which call us directly.
% Put the index entry in the margin if desired.
\insert\margin{\hbox{\vrule height8pt depth3pt width0pt #2}}%
\indexdummies % Must do this here, since \bf, etc expand at this stage
\let\folio = 0% We will expand all macros now EXCEPT \folio.
\def\rawbackslashxx{\indexbackslash}% \indexbackslash isn't defined now
% so it will be output as is; and it will print as backslash.
% If third arg is present, precede it with space in sort key.
\let\subentry = \empty
\def\subentry{ #3}%
% First process the index-string with all font commands turned off
% to get the string to sort by.
{\indexnofonts \xdef\indexsorttmp{#2\subentry}}%
% Now produce the complete index entry, with both the sort key and the
% original text, including any font commands.
\toks0 = {#2}%
\realbackslash entry{\indexsorttmp}{\folio}{\the\toks0}}%
% If third (subentry) arg is present, add it to the index string.
\ifx\thirdarg\emptymacro \else
\toks0 = {#3}%
% If a skip is the last thing on the list now, preserve it
% by backing up by \lastskip, doing the \write, then inserting
% the skip again. Otherwise, the whatsit generated by the
% \write will make \lastskip zero. The result is that sequences
% like this:
% @end defun
% @tindex whatever
% @defun ...
% will have extra space inserted, because the \medbreak in the
% start of the @defun won't see the skip inserted by the @end of
% the previous defun.
% But don't do any of this if we're not in vertical mode. We
% don't want to do a \vskip and prematurely end a paragraph.
% Avoid page breaks due to these extra skips, too.
\skip0 = \lastskip
\ifdim\lastskip = 0pt \else \nobreak\vskip-\lastskip \fi
\temp % do the write
\ifvmode \ifdim\skip0 = 0pt \else \nobreak\vskip\skip0 \fi \fi
% The index entry written in the file actually looks like
% \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}
% or
% \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}{subtopic}
% The texindex program reads in these files and writes files
% containing these kinds of lines:
% \initial {c}
% before the first topic whose initial is c
% \entry {topic}{pagelist}
% for a topic that is used without subtopics
% \primary {topic}
% for the beginning of a topic that is used with subtopics
% \secondary {subtopic}{pagelist}
% for each subtopic.
% Define the user-accessible indexing commands
% @findex, @vindex, @kindex, @cindex.
\def\findex {\fnindex}
\def\kindex {\kyindex}
\def\cindex {\cpindex}
\def\vindex {\vrindex}
\def\tindex {\tpindex}
\def\pindex {\pgindex}
\def\cindexsub {\begingroup\obeylines\cindexsub}
{\obeylines %
\gdef\cindexsub "#1" #2^^M{\endgroup %
% Define the macros used in formatting output of the sorted index material.
% @printindex causes a particular index (the ??s file) to get printed.
% It does not print any chapter heading (usually an @unnumbered).
\dobreak \chapheadingskip{10000}%
\indexfonts \rm
\tolerance = 9500
% See if the index file exists and is nonempty.
% Change catcode of @ here so that if the index file contains
% \initial {@}
% as its first line, TeX doesn't complain about mismatched braces
% (because it thinks @} is a control sequence).
\catcode`\@ = 11
\openin 1 \jobname.#1s
\ifeof 1
% \enddoublecolumns gets confused if there is no text in the index,
% and it loses the chapter title and the aux file entries for the
% index. The easiest way to prevent this problem is to make sure
% there is some text.
(Index is nonexistent)
% If the index file exists but is empty, then \openin leaves \ifeof
% false. We have to make TeX try to read something from the file, so
% it can discover if there is anything in it.
\read 1 to \temp
\ifeof 1
(Index is empty)
% Index files are almost Texinfo source, but we use \ as the escape
% character. It would be better to use @, but that's too big a change
% to make right now.
\catcode`\\ = 0
\escapechar = `\\
\input \jobname.#1s
\closein 1
% These macros are used by the sorted index file itself.
% Change them to control the appearance of the index.
% Some minor font changes for the special characters.
\let\tentt=\sectt \let\tt=\sectt \let\sf=\sectt
% Remove any glue we may have, we'll be inserting our own.
% We like breaks before the index initials, so insert a bonus.
\penalty -300
% Typeset the initial. Making this add up to a whole number of
% baselineskips increases the chance of the dots lining up from column
% to column. It still won't often be perfect, because of the stretch
% we need before each entry, but it's better.
% No shrink because it confuses \balancecolumns.
\vskip 1.67\baselineskip plus .5\baselineskip
\leftline{\secbf #1}%
\vskip .33\baselineskip plus .1\baselineskip
% Do our best not to break after the initial.
% This typesets a paragraph consisting of #1, dot leaders, and then #2
% flush to the right margin. It is used for index and table of contents
% entries. The paragraph is indented by \leftskip.
% Start a new paragraph if necessary, so our assignments below can't
% affect previous text.
% Do not fill out the last line with white space.
\parfillskip = 0in
% No extra space above this paragraph.
\parskip = 0in
% Do not prefer a separate line ending with a hyphen to fewer lines.
\finalhyphendemerits = 0
% \hangindent is only relevant when the entry text and page number
% don't both fit on one line. In that case, bob suggests starting the
% dots pretty far over on the line. Unfortunately, a large
% indentation looks wrong when the entry text itself is broken across
% lines. So we use a small indentation and put up with long leaders.
% \hangafter is reset to 1 (which is the value we want) at the start
% of each paragraph, so we need not do anything with that.
\hangindent = 2em
% When the entry text needs to be broken, just fill out the first line
% with blank space.
\rightskip = 0pt plus1fil
% A bit of stretch before each entry for the benefit of balancing columns.
\vskip 0pt plus1pt
% Start a ``paragraph'' for the index entry so the line breaking
% parameters we've set above will have an effect.
% Insert the text of the index entry. TeX will do line-breaking on it.
% The following is kludged to not output a line of dots in the index if
% there are no page numbers. The next person who breaks this will be
% cursed by a Unix daemon.
\def\tempa{{\rm }}%
\ifx\tempc\tempd\ \else%
% If we must, put the page number on a line of its own, and fill out
% this line with blank space. (The \hfil is overwhelmed with the
% fill leaders glue in \indexdotfill if the page number does fit.)
\null\nobreak\indexdotfill % Have leaders before the page number.
% The `\ ' here is removed by the implicit \unskip that TeX does as
% part of (the primitive) \par. Without it, a spurious underfull
% \hbox ensues.
\ #2% The page number ends the paragraph.
% Like \dotfill except takes at least 1 em.
\hbox{$\mathsurround=0pt \mkern1.5mu ${\it .}$ \mkern1.5mu$}\hskip 1em plus 1fill}
\def\primary #1{\line{#1\hfil}}
\newskip\secondaryindent \secondaryindent=0.5cm
\def\secondary #1#2{
{\parfillskip=0in \parskip=0in
\hangindent =1in \hangafter=1
\noindent\hskip\secondaryindent\hbox{#1}\indexdotfill #2\par
% Define two-column mode, which we use to typeset indexes.
% Adapted from the TeXbook, page 416, which is to say,
% the manmac.tex format used to print the TeXbook itself.
\def\begindoublecolumns{\begingroup % ended by \enddoublecolumns
% Grab any single-column material above us.
\output = {\global\setbox\partialpage = \vbox{%
% Here is a possibility not foreseen in manmac: if we accumulate a
% whole lot of material, we might end up calling this \output
% routine twice in a row (see the doublecol-lose test, which is
% essentially a couple of indexes with @setchapternewpage off). In
% that case, we must prevent the second \partialpage from
% simply overwriting the first, causing us to lose the page.
% This will preserve it until a real output routine can ship it
% out. Generally, \partialpage will be empty when this runs and
% this will be a no-op.
% Unvbox the main output page.
\kern-\topskip \kern\baselineskip
\eject % run that output routine to set \partialpage
% Use the double-column output routine for subsequent pages.
\output = {\doublecolumnout}%
% Change the page size parameters. We could do this once outside this
% routine, in each of @smallbook, @afourpaper, and the default 8.5x11
% format, but then we repeat the same computation. Repeating a couple
% of assignments once per index is clearly meaningless for the
% execution time, so we may as well do it in one place.
% First we halve the line length, less a little for the gutter between
% the columns. We compute the gutter based on the line length, so it
% changes automatically with the paper format. The magic constant
% below is chosen so that the gutter has the same value (well, +-<1pt)
% as it did when we hard-coded it.
% We put the result in a separate register, \doublecolumhsize, so we
% can restore it in \pagesofar, after \hsize itself has (potentially)
% been clobbered.
\doublecolumnhsize = \hsize
\advance\doublecolumnhsize by -.04154\hsize
\divide\doublecolumnhsize by 2
\hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
% Double the \vsize as well. (We don't need a separate register here,
% since nobody clobbers \vsize.)
\advance\vsize by -\ht\partialpage
\vsize = 2\vsize
% The double-column output routine for all double-column pages except
% the last.
\splittopskip=\topskip \splitmaxdepth=\maxdepth
% Get the available space for the double columns -- the normal
% (undoubled) page height minus any material left over from the
% previous page.
\dimen@ = \vsize
\divide\dimen@ by 2
% box0 will be the left-hand column, box2 the right.
\setbox0=\vsplit255 to\dimen@ \setbox2=\vsplit255 to\dimen@
% Re-output the contents of the output page -- any previous material,
% followed by the two boxes we just split, in box0 and box2.
\advance\vsize by \ht\partialpage
\hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
\wd0=\hsize \wd2=\hsize
\hbox to\pagewidth{\box0\hfil\box2}%
\output = {%
% Split the last of the double-column material. Leave it on the
% current page, no automatic page break.
% If we end up splitting too much material for the current page,
% though, there will be another page break right after this \output
% invocation ends. Having called \balancecolumns once, we do not
% want to call it again. Therefore, reset \output to its normal
% definition right away. (We hope \balancecolumns will never be
% called on to balance too much material, but if it is, this makes
% the output somewhat more palatable.)
\global\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}%
\endgroup % started in \begindoublecolumns
% \pagegoal was set to the doubled \vsize above, since we restarted
% the current page. We're now back to normal single-column
% typesetting, so reset \pagegoal to the normal \vsize (after the
% \endgroup where \vsize got restored).
\pagegoal = \vsize
% Called at the end of the double column material.
\setbox0 = \vbox{\unvbox255}% like \box255 but more efficient, see p.120.
\dimen@ = \ht0
\advance\dimen@ by \topskip
\advance\dimen@ by-\baselineskip
\divide\dimen@ by 2 % target to split to
%debug\message{final 2-column material height=\the\ht0, target=\the\dimen@.}%
\splittopskip = \topskip
% Loop until we get a decent breakpoint.
\vbadness = 10000
\global\setbox3 = \copy0
\global\setbox1 = \vsplit3 to \dimen@
\global\advance\dimen@ by 1pt
%debug\message{split to \the\dimen@, column heights: \the\ht1, \the\ht3.}%
\setbox0=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox1}%
\setbox2=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox3}%
\catcode`\@ = \other
% Define chapters, sections, etc.
\newcount\secno \secno=0
\newcount\subsecno \subsecno=0
\newcount\subsubsecno \subsubsecno=0
% This counter is funny since it counts through charcodes of letters A, B, ...
\newcount\appendixno \appendixno = `\@
% Each @chapter defines this as the name of the chapter.
% page headings and footings can use it. @section does likewise.
\newcount\absseclevel % used to calculate proper heading level
\newcount\secbase\secbase=0 % @raise/lowersections modify this count
% @raisesections: treat @section as chapter, @subsection as section, etc.
\def\raisesections{\global\advance\secbase by -1}
\let\up=\raisesections % original BFox name
% @lowersections: treat @chapter as section, @section as subsection, etc.
\def\lowersections{\global\advance\secbase by 1}
\let\down=\lowersections % original BFox name
% Choose a numbered-heading macro
% #1 is heading level if unmodified by @raisesections or @lowersections
% #2 is text for heading
\def\numhead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
\ifnum \absseclevel<0
% like \numhead, but chooses appendix heading levels
\def\apphead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
\ifnum \absseclevel<0
% like \numhead, but chooses numberless heading levels
\def\unnmhead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
\ifnum \absseclevel<0
% @chapter, @appendix, @unnumbered.
\def\thischaptername{No Chapter Title}
\def\chapteryyy #1{\numhead0{#1}} % normally numhead0 calls chapterzzz
\def\chapterzzz #1{%
\secno=0 \subsecno=0 \subsubsecno=0
\global\advance \chapno by 1 \message{\putwordChapter\space \the\chapno}%
\chapmacro {#1}{\the\chapno}%
% We don't substitute the actual chapter name into \thischapter
% because we don't want its macros evaluated now.
\xdef\thischapter{\putwordChapter{} \the\chapno: \noexpand\thischaptername}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash chapentry{\the\toks0}%
\global\let\section = \numberedsec
\global\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
\global\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec
\def\appendixyyy #1{\apphead0{#1}} % normally apphead0 calls appendixzzz
\def\appendixzzz #1{%
\secno=0 \subsecno=0 \subsubsecno=0
\global\advance \appendixno by 1
\message{\putwordAppendix\space \appendixletter}%
\chapmacro {#1}{\putwordAppendix{} \appendixletter}%
\xdef\thischapter{\putwordAppendix{} \appendixletter: \noexpand\thischaptername}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash chapentry{\the\toks0}%
{\putwordAppendix{} \appendixletter}}}%
\global\let\section = \appendixsec
\global\let\subsection = \appendixsubsec
\global\let\subsubsection = \appendixsubsubsec
% @centerchap is like @unnumbered, but the heading is centered.
\def\centerchapyyy #1{{\let\unnumbchapmacro=\centerchapmacro \unnumberedyyy{#1}}}
% @top is like @unnumbered.
\def\unnumberedyyy #1{\unnmhead0{#1}} % normally unnmhead0 calls unnumberedzzz
\def\unnumberedzzz #1{%
\secno=0 \subsecno=0 \subsubsecno=0
% This used to be simply \message{#1}, but TeX fully expands the
% argument to \message. Therefore, if #1 contained @-commands, TeX
% expanded them. For example, in `@unnumbered The @cite{Book}', TeX
% expanded @cite (which turns out to cause errors because \cite is meant
% to be executed, not expanded).
% Anyway, we don't want the fully-expanded definition of @cite to appear
% as a result of the \message, we just want `@cite' itself. We use
% \the<toks register> to achieve this: TeX expands \the<toks> only once,
% simply yielding the contents of <toks register>. (We also do this for
% the toc entries.)
\toks0 = {#1}\message{(\the\toks0)}%
\unnumbchapmacro {#1}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash unnumbchapentry{\the\toks0}}}%
\global\let\section = \unnumberedsec
\global\let\subsection = \unnumberedsubsec
\global\let\subsubsection = \unnumberedsubsubsec
% Sections.
\def\secyyy #1{\numhead1{#1}} % normally calls seczzz
\def\seczzz #1{%
\subsecno=0 \subsubsecno=0 \global\advance \secno by 1 %
\gdef\thissection{#1}\secheading {#1}{\the\chapno}{\the\secno}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash secentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\appendixsecyyy #1{\apphead1{#1}} % normally calls appendixsectionzzz
\def\appendixsectionzzz #1{%
\subsecno=0 \subsubsecno=0 \global\advance \secno by 1 %
\gdef\thissection{#1}\secheading {#1}{\appendixletter}{\the\secno}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash secentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\unnumberedsecyyy #1{\unnmhead1{#1}} % normally calls unnumberedseczzz
\def\unnumberedseczzz #1{%
\plainsecheading {#1}\gdef\thissection{#1}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash unnumbsecentry{\the\toks0}}}%
% Subsections.
\def\numberedsubsecyyy #1{\numhead2{#1}} % normally calls numberedsubseczzz
\def\numberedsubseczzz #1{%
\gdef\thissection{#1}\subsubsecno=0 \global\advance \subsecno by 1 %
\subsecheading {#1}{\the\chapno}{\the\secno}{\the\subsecno}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash subsecentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\appendixsubsecyyy #1{\apphead2{#1}} % normally calls appendixsubseczzz
\def\appendixsubseczzz #1{%
\gdef\thissection{#1}\subsubsecno=0 \global\advance \subsecno by 1 %
\subsecheading {#1}{\appendixletter}{\the\secno}{\the\subsecno}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash subsecentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\unnumberedsubsecyyy #1{\unnmhead2{#1}} %normally calls unnumberedsubseczzz
\def\unnumberedsubseczzz #1{%
\plainsubsecheading {#1}\gdef\thissection{#1}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash unnumbsubsecentry%
% Subsubsections.
\def\numberedsubsubsecyyy #1{\numhead3{#1}} % normally numberedsubsubseczzz
\def\numberedsubsubseczzz #1{%
\gdef\thissection{#1}\global\advance \subsubsecno by 1 %
\subsubsecheading {#1}
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash subsubsecentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\appendixsubsubsecyyy #1{\apphead3{#1}} % normally appendixsubsubseczzz
\def\appendixsubsubseczzz #1{%
\gdef\thissection{#1}\global\advance \subsubsecno by 1 %
\subsubsecheading {#1}
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash subsubsecentry{\the\toks0}%
\def\unnumberedsubsubsecyyy #1{\unnmhead3{#1}} %normally unnumberedsubsubseczzz
\def\unnumberedsubsubseczzz #1{%
\plainsubsubsecheading {#1}\gdef\thissection{#1}%
\toks0 = {#1}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\writetocentry{\realbackslash unnumbsubsubsecentry%
% These are variants which are not "outer", so they can appear in @ifinfo.
% Actually, they should now be obsolete; ordinary section commands should work.
% These macros control what the section commands do, according
% to what kind of chapter we are in (ordinary, appendix, or unnumbered).
% Define them by default for a numbered chapter.
\global\let\section = \numberedsec
\global\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
\global\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec
% Define @majorheading, @heading and @subheading
% NOTE on use of \vbox for chapter headings, section headings, and such:
% 1) We use \vbox rather than the earlier \line to permit
% overlong headings to fold.
% 2) \hyphenpenalty is set to 10000 because hyphenation in a
% heading is obnoxious; this forbids it.
% 3) Likewise, headings look best if no \parindent is used, and
% if justification is not attempted. Hence \raggedright.
\def\majorheadingzzz #1{%
{\advance\chapheadingskip by 10pt \chapbreak }%
{\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
\rm #1\hfill}}\bigskip \par\penalty 200}
\def\chapheadingzzz #1{\chapbreak %
{\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
\rm #1\hfill}}\bigskip \par\penalty 200}
% @heading, @subheading, @subsubheading.
% These macros generate a chapter, section, etc. heading only
% (including whitespace, linebreaking, etc. around it),
% given all the information in convenient, parsed form.
%%% Args are the skip and penalty (usually negative)
\def\setchapterstyle #1 {\csname CHAPF#1\endcsname}
%%% Define plain chapter starts, and page on/off switching for it
% Parameter controlling skip before chapter headings (if needed)
\def\chapbreak{\dobreak \chapheadingskip {-4000}}
\def\chapoddpage{\chappager \ifodd\pageno \else \hbox to 0pt{} \chappager\fi}
\def\setchapternewpage #1 {\csname CHAPPAG#1\endcsname}
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
% Plain chapter opening.
% #1 is the text, #2 the chapter number or empty if unnumbered.
\chapfonts \rm
\setbox0 = \hbox{#2\ifx\chapnum\empty\else\enspace\fi}%
\vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
\hangindent = \wd0 \centerparametersmaybe
\unhbox0 #1\par}%
\nobreak\bigskip % no page break after a chapter title
% Plain opening for unnumbered.
% @centerchap -- centered and unnumbered.
\let\centerparametersmaybe = \relax
\advance\rightskip by 3\rightskip
\leftskip = \rightskip
\parfillskip = 0pt
\CHAPFplain % The default
\def\unnchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
\rm #1\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak
\def\chfopen #1#2{\chapoddpage {\chapfonts
\vbox to 3in{\vfil \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #2} \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #1} \vfil}}%
\par\penalty 5000 %
\def\centerchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
\hfill {\rm #1}\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak
% Section titles.
\def\secheadingbreak{\dobreak \secheadingskip {-1000}}
% Subsection titles.
\newskip \subsecheadingskip
\def\subsecheadingbreak{\dobreak \subsecheadingskip {-500}}
% Subsubsection titles.
\let\subsubsecheadingskip = \subsecheadingskip
\let\subsubsecheadingbreak = \subsecheadingbreak
% Print any size section title.
% #1 is the section type (sec/subsec/subsubsec), #2 is the section
% number (maybe empty), #3 the text.
\expandafter\advance\csname #1headingskip\endcsname by \parskip
\csname #1headingbreak\endcsname
% Switch to the right set of fonts.
\csname #1fonts\endcsname \rm
% Only insert the separating space if we have a section number.
\setbox0 = \hbox{#2\ifx\secnum\empty\else\enspace\fi}%
\vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
\hangindent = \wd0 % zero if no section number
\unhbox0 #3}%
\ifdim\parskip<10pt \nobreak\kern10pt\nobreak\kern-\parskip\fi \nobreak
% Write an entry to the toc file, opening it if necessary.
% Called from @chapter, etc. We supply {\folio} at the end of the
% argument, which will end up as the last argument to the \...entry macro.
% We open the .toc file here instead of at @setfilename or any other
% given time so that @contents can be put in the document anywhere.
\immediate\openout\tocfile = \jobname.toc
\iflinks \write\tocfile{#1{\folio}}\fi
\newskip\contentsrightmargin \contentsrightmargin=1in
\newcount\lastnegativepageno \lastnegativepageno = -1
% Finish up the main text and prepare to read what we've written
% to \tocfile.
% If @setchapternewpage on, and @headings double, the contents should
% start on an odd page, unlike chapters. Thus, we maintain
% \contentsalignmacro in parallel with \pagealignmacro.
% From: Torbjorn Granlund <>
% Don't need to put `Contents' or `Short Contents' in the headline.
% It is abundantly clear what they are.
\savepageno = \pageno
\begingroup % Set up to handle contents files properly.
\catcode`\\=0 \catcode`\{=1 \catcode`\}=2 \catcode`\@=11
% We can't do this, because then an actual ^ in a section
% title fails, e.g., @chapter ^ -- exponentiation. --karl, 9jul97.
%\catcode`\^=7 % to see ^^e4 as \"a etc.
\raggedbottom % Worry more about breakpoints than the bottom.
\advance\hsize by -\contentsrightmargin % Don't use the full line length.
% Roman numerals for page numbers.
\ifnum \pageno>0 \pageno = \lastnegativepageno \fi
% Normal (long) toc.
\openin 1 \jobname.toc
\ifeof 1 \else
\closein 1
\input \jobname.toc
\vfill \eject
\lastnegativepageno = \pageno
\pageno = \savepageno
% And just the chapters.
\let\chapentry = \shortchapentry
\let\unnumbchapentry = \shortunnumberedentry
% We want a true roman here for the page numbers.
\let\rm=\shortcontrm \let\bf=\shortcontbf \let\sl=\shortcontsl
\hyphenpenalty = 10000
\advance\baselineskip by 1pt % Open it up a little.
\def\secentry ##1##2##3##4{}
\def\unnumbsecentry ##1##2{}
\def\subsecentry ##1##2##3##4##5{}
\def\unnumbsubsecentry ##1##2{}
\def\subsubsecentry ##1##2##3##4##5##6{}
\def\unnumbsubsubsecentry ##1##2{}
\openin 1 \jobname.toc
\ifeof 1 \else
\closein 1
\input \jobname.toc
\vfill \eject
\lastnegativepageno = \pageno
\pageno = \savepageno
\let\shortcontents = \summarycontents
% These macros generate individual entries in the table of contents.
% The first argument is the chapter or section name.
% The last argument is the page number.
% The arguments in between are the chapter number, section number, ...
% Chapter-level things, for both the long and short contents.
% See comments in \dochapentry re vbox and related settings
\tocentry{\shortchaplabel{#2}\labelspace #1}{\doshortpageno{#3}}%
% Typeset the label for a chapter or appendix for the short contents.
% The arg is, e.g. `Appendix A' for an appendix, or `3' for a chapter.
% We could simplify the code here by writing out an \appendixentry
% command in the toc file for appendices, instead of using \chapentry
% for both, but it doesn't seem worth it.
\setbox0 = \hbox{\shortcontrm \putwordAppendix }
\newdimen\shortappendixwidth \shortappendixwidth = \wd0
% We typeset #1 in a box of constant width, regardless of the text of
% #1, so the chapter titles will come out aligned.
\setbox0 = \hbox{#1}%
\dimen0 = \ifdim\wd0 > \shortappendixwidth \shortappendixwidth \else 0pt \fi
% This space should be plenty, since a single number is .5em, and the
% widest letter (M) is 1em, at least in the Computer Modern fonts.
% (This space doesn't include the extra space that gets added after
% the label; that gets put in by \shortchapentry above.)
\advance\dimen0 by 1.1em
\hbox to \dimen0{#1\hfil}%
% Sections.
% Subsections.
% And subsubsections.
% This parameter controls the indentation of the various levels.
\newdimen\tocindent \tocindent = 3pc
% Now for the actual typesetting. In all these, #1 is the text and #2 is the
% page number.
% If the toc has to be broken over pages, we want it to be at chapters
% if at all possible; hence the \penalty.
\penalty-300 \vskip1\baselineskip plus.33\baselineskip minus.25\baselineskip
\nobreak\vskip .25\baselineskip plus.1\baselineskip
\secentryfonts \leftskip=\tocindent
\subsecentryfonts \leftskip=2\tocindent
\subsubsecentryfonts \leftskip=3\tocindent
% Final typesetting of a toc entry; we use the same \entry macro as for
% the index entries, but we want to suppress hyphenation here. (We
% can't do that in the \entry macro, since index entries might consist
% of hyphenated-identifiers-that-do-not-fit-on-a-line-and-nothing-else.)
\vskip 0pt plus1pt % allow a little stretch for the sake of nice page breaks
% Do not use \turnoffactive in these arguments. Since the toc is
% typeset in cmr, so characters such as _ would come out wrong; we
% have to do the usual translation tricks.
% Space between chapter (or whatever) number and the title.
\def\labelspace{\hskip1em \relax}
\def\dopageno#1{{\rm #1}}
\def\doshortpageno#1{{\rm #1}}
\def\chapentryfonts{\secfonts \rm}
\let\subsecentryfonts = \textfonts
\let\subsubsecentryfonts = \textfonts
% Since these characters are used in examples, it should be an even number of
% \tt widths. Each \tt character is 1en, so two makes it 1em.
% Furthermore, these definitions must come after we define our fonts.
\newbox\dblarrowbox \newbox\longdblarrowbox
\newbox\pushcharbox \newbox\bullbox
\newbox\equivbox \newbox\errorbox
%\global\setbox\dblarrowbox = \hbox to 1em{\hfil$\Rightarrow$\hfil}
%\global\setbox\longdblarrowbox = \hbox to 1em{\hfil$\mapsto$\hfil}
%\global\setbox\pushcharbox = \hbox to 1em{\hfil$\dashv$\hfil}
%\global\setbox\equivbox = \hbox to 1em{\hfil$\ptexequiv$\hfil}
% Adapted from the manmac format (p.420 of TeXbook)
%\global\setbox\bullbox = \hbox to 1em{\kern.15em\vrule height .75ex width .85ex
% depth .1ex\hfil}
% @point{}, @result{}, @expansion{}, @print{}, @equiv{}.
\def\result{\leavevmode\raise.15ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\Rightarrow$\hfil}}
\def\expansion{\leavevmode\raise.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\mapsto$\hfil}}
\def\print{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\dashv$\hfil}}
\def\equiv{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\ptexequiv$\hfil}}
% Adapted from the TeXbook's \boxit.
{\tentt \global\dimen0 = 3em}% Width of the box.
\dimen2 = .55pt % Thickness of rules
% The text. (`r' is open on the right, `e' somewhat less so on the left.)
\setbox0 = \hbox{\kern-.75pt \tensf error\kern-1.5pt}
\global\setbox\errorbox=\hbox to \dimen0{\hfil
\hsize = \dimen0 \advance\hsize by -5.8pt % Space to left+right.
\advance\hsize by -2\dimen2 % Rules.
\hrule height\dimen2
\hbox{\vrule width\dimen2 \kern3pt % Space to left of text.
\vtop{\kern2.4pt \box0 \kern2.4pt}% Space above/below.
\kern3pt\vrule width\dimen2}% Space to right.
\hrule height\dimen2}
% The @error{} command.
% @tex ... @end tex escapes into raw Tex temporarily.
% One exception: @ is still an escape character, so that @end tex works.
% But \@ or @@ will get a plain tex @ character.
\catcode `\\=0 \catcode `\{=1 \catcode `\}=2
\catcode `\$=3 \catcode `\&=4 \catcode `\#=6
\catcode `\^=7 \catcode `\_=8 \catcode `\~=13 \let~=\tie