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Program to decode traffic from Devices that are broadcasting on 433.9 MHz like temperature sensors
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README.md

rtl_433

rtl_433 (despite the name) is a generic data receiver, mainly for the 433.92 MHz, 868 MHz (SRD), 315 MHz, and 915 MHz ISM bands.

The official source code is in the https://github.com/merbanan/rtl_433/ repository.

It works with RTL-SDR and/or SoapySDR. Activly tested and supported are Realtek RTL2832 based DVB dongles (using RTL-SDR) and LimeSDR (LimeSDR USB and LimeSDR mini engineering samples kindly provided by MyriadRf), PlutoSDR, HackRF One (using SoapySDR drivers), as well as SoapyRemote.

rtl_433 screenshot

Building/installation

See BUILDING.md

Official binary builds for Windows (32 and 64 bit) are available at Bintray.

How to add support for unsupported sensors

Read the Test Data section at the bottom.

Running

rtl_433 -h
Usage:		= General options =
  [-V] Output the version string and exit
  [-v] Increase verbosity (can be used multiple times).
       -v : verbose, -vv : verbose decoders, -vvv : debug decoders, -vvvv : trace decoding).
  [-c <path>] Read config options from a file
		= Tuner options =
  [-d <RTL-SDR USB device index> | :<RTL-SDR USB device serial> | <SoapySDR device query> | rtl_tcp | help]
  [-g <gain> | help] (default: auto)
  [-t <settings>] apply a list of keyword=value settings for SoapySDR devices
       e.g. -t "antenna=A,bandwidth=4.5M,rfnotch_ctrl=false"
  [-f <frequency>] [-f...] Receive frequency(s) (default: 433920000 Hz)
  [-H <seconds>] Hop interval for polling of multiple frequencies (default: 600 seconds)
  [-p <ppm_error] Correct rtl-sdr tuner frequency offset error (default: 0)
  [-s <sample rate>] Set sample rate (default: 250000 Hz)
		= Demodulator options =
  [-R <device> | help] Enable only the specified device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times)
       Specify a negative number to disable a device decoding protocol (can be used multiple times)
  [-G] Enable all device protocols, included those disabled by default
  [-X <spec> | help] Add a general purpose decoder (-R 0 to disable all other decoders)
  [-l <level>] Change detection level used to determine pulses [0-16384] (0 = auto) (default: 0)
  [-z <value>] Override short value in data decoder
  [-x <value>] Override long value in data decoder
  [-n <value>] Specify number of samples to take (each sample is 2 bytes: 1 each of I & Q)
		= Analyze/Debug options =
  [-a] Analyze mode. Print a textual description of the signal.
  [-A] Pulse Analyzer. Enable pulse analysis and decode attempt.
       Disable all decoders with -R 0 if you want analyzer output only.
  [-y <code>] Verify decoding of demodulated test data (e.g. "{25}fb2dd58") with enabled devices
		= File I/O options =
  [-S none | all | unknown | known] Signal auto save. Creates one file per signal.
       Note: Saves raw I/Q samples (uint8 pcm, 2 channel). Preferred mode for generating test files.
  [-r <filename> | help] Read data from input file instead of a receiver
  [-w <filename> | help] Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
  [-W <filename> | help] Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file
		= Data output options =
  [-F kv | json | csv | mqtt | syslog | null | help] Produce decoded output in given format.
       Append output to file with :<filename> (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout.
       Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514
  [-M time[:<options>] | protocol | level | stats | bits | help] Add various meta data to each output.
  [-K FILE | PATH | <tag>] Add an expanded token or fixed tag to every output line.
  [-C native | si | customary] Convert units in decoded output.
  [-T <seconds>] Specify number of seconds to run
  [-E] Stop after outputting successful event(s)
  [-h] Output this usage help and exit
       Use -d, -g, -R, -X, -F, -M, -r, -w, or -W without argument for more help


Option -R:
Supported device protocols:
    [01]  Silvercrest Remote Control
    [02]  Rubicson Temperature Sensor
    [03]  Prologue Temperature Sensor
    [04]  Waveman Switch Transmitter
    [06]* ELV EM 1000
    [07]* ELV WS 2000
    [08]  LaCrosse TX Temperature / Humidity Sensor
    [10]* Acurite 896 Rain Gauge
    [11]  Acurite 609TXC Temperature and Humidity Sensor
    [12]  Oregon Scientific Weather Sensor
    [13]* Mebus 433
    [14]* Intertechno 433
    [15]  KlikAanKlikUit Wireless Switch
    [16]  AlectoV1 Weather Sensor (Alecto WS3500 WS4500 Ventus W155/W044 Oregon)
    [17]  Cardin S466-TX2
    [18]  Fine Offset Electronics, WH2, WH5, Telldus Temperature/Humidity/Rain Sensor
    [19]  Nexus Temperature & Humidity Sensor
    [20]  Ambient Weather Temperature Sensor
    [21]  Calibeur RF-104 Sensor
    [22]* X10 RF
    [23]  DSC Security Contact
    [24]* Brennenstuhl RCS 2044
    [25]  GT-WT-02 Sensor
    [26]  Danfoss CFR Thermostat
    [29]  Chuango Security Technology
    [30]  Generic Remote SC226x EV1527
    [31]  TFA-Twin-Plus-30.3049, Conrad KW9010, Ea2 BL999
    [32]  Fine Offset Electronics WH1080/WH3080 Weather Station
    [33]  WT450, WT260H, WT405H
    [34]  LaCrosse WS-2310 / WS-3600 Weather Station
    [35]  Esperanza EWS
    [36]  Efergy e2 classic
    [37]* Inovalley kw9015b, TFA Dostmann 30.3161 (Rain and temperature sensor)
    [38]  Generic temperature sensor 1
    [39]  WG-PB12V1 Temperature Sensor
    [40]  Acurite 592TXR Temp/Humidity, 5n1 Weather Station, 6045 Lightning
    [41]  Acurite 986 Refrigerator / Freezer Thermometer
    [42]  HIDEKI TS04 Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Rain Sensor
    [43]  Watchman Sonic / Apollo Ultrasonic / Beckett Rocket oil tank monitor
    [44]  CurrentCost Current Sensor
    [45]  emonTx OpenEnergyMonitor
    [46]  HT680 Remote control
    [47]  Conrad S3318P Temperature & Humidity Sensor
    [48]  Akhan 100F14 remote keyless entry
    [49]  Quhwa
    [50]  OSv1 Temperature Sensor
    [51]  Proove / Nexa / KlikAanKlikUit Wireless Switch
    [52]  Bresser Thermo-/Hygro-Sensor 3CH
    [53]  Springfield Temperature and Soil Moisture
    [54]  Oregon Scientific SL109H Remote Thermal Hygro Sensor
    [55]  Acurite 606TX Temperature Sensor
    [56]  TFA pool temperature sensor
    [57]  Kedsum Temperature & Humidity Sensor, Pearl NC-7415
    [58]  Blyss DC5-UK-WH
    [59]  Steelmate TPMS
    [60]  Schrader TPMS
    [61]* LightwaveRF
    [62]  Elro DB286A Doorbell
    [63]  Efergy Optical
    [64]* Honda Car Key
    [67]  Radiohead ASK
    [68]  Kerui PIR / Contact Sensor
    [69]  Fine Offset WH1050 Weather Station
    [70]  Honeywell Door/Window Sensor
    [71]  Maverick ET-732/733 BBQ Sensor
    [72]* RF-tech
    [73]  LaCrosse TX141-Bv2/TX141TH-Bv2 sensor
    [74]  Acurite 00275rm,00276rm Temp/Humidity with optional probe
    [75]  LaCrosse TX35DTH-IT, TFA Dostmann 30.3155 Temperature/Humidity sensor
    [76]  LaCrosse TX29IT Temperature sensor
    [77]  Vaillant calorMatic VRT340f Central Heating Control
    [78]  Fine Offset Electronics, WH25, WH32B, WH24, WH65B, HP1000 Temperature/Humidity/Pressure Sensor
    [79]  Fine Offset Electronics, WH0530 Temperature/Rain Sensor
    [80]  IBIS beacon
    [81]  Oil Ultrasonic STANDARD FSK
    [82]  Citroen TPMS
    [83]  Oil Ultrasonic STANDARD ASK
    [84]  Thermopro TP11 Thermometer
    [85]  Solight TE44
    [86]  Wireless Smoke and Heat Detector GS 558
    [87]  Generic wireless motion sensor
    [88]  Toyota TPMS
    [89]  Ford TPMS
    [90]  Renault TPMS
    [91]  inFactory
    [92]  FT-004-B Temperature Sensor
    [93]  Ford Car Key
    [94]  Philips outdoor temperature sensor
    [95]  Schrader TPMS EG53MA4
    [96]  Nexa
    [97]  Thermopro TP08/TP12 thermometer
    [98]  GE Color Effects
    [99]  X10 Security
    [100]  Interlogix GE UTC Security Devices
    [101]* Dish remote 6.3
    [102]  SimpliSafe Home Security System (May require disabling automatic gain for KeyPad decodes)
    [103]  Sensible Living Mini-Plant Moisture Sensor
    [104]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode C&T, 100kbps (-f 868950000 -s 1200000)
    [105]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode S, 32.768kbps (-f 868300000 -s 1000000)
    [106]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode R, 4.8kbps (-f 868330000)
    [107]* Wireless M-Bus, Mode F, 2.4kbps
    [108]  Hyundai WS SENZOR Remote Temperature Sensor
    [109]  WT0124 Pool Thermometer
    [110]  PMV-107J (Toyota) TPMS
    [111]  Emos TTX201 Temperature Sensor
    [112]  Ambient Weather TX-8300 Temperature/Humidity Sensor
    [113]  Ambient Weather WH31E Thermo-Hygrometer Sensor
    [114]  Maverick et73
    [115]  Honeywell ActivLink, Wireless Doorbell
    [116]  Honeywell ActivLink, Wireless Doorbell (FSK)
    [117]* ESA1000 / ESA2000 Energy Monitor
    [118]* Biltema rain gauge
    [119]  Bresser Weather Center 5-in-1
    [120]* Digitech XC-0324 temperature sensor
    [121]  Opus/Imagintronix XT300 Soil Moisture
    [122]* FS20
    [123]* Jansite TPMS Model TY02S
    [124]  LaCrosse/ELV/Conrad WS7000/WS2500 weather sensors
    [125]  TS-FT002 Wireless Ultrasonic Tank Liquid Level Meter With Temperature Sensor

* Disabled by default, use -R n or -G

Option -d:
	RTL-SDR device driver is available.
[-d <RTL-SDR USB device index>] (default: 0)
[-d :<RTL-SDR USB device serial (can be set with rtl_eeprom -s)>]
	To set gain for RTL-SDR use -g <gain> to set an overall gain in dB.
	SoapySDR device driver is available.
[-d "" Open default SoapySDR device
[-d driver=rtlsdr Open e.g. specific SoapySDR device
	To set gain for SoapySDR use -g ELEM=val,ELEM=val,... e.g. -g LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2 (for LimeSDR).
[-d rtl_tcp[:[//]host[:port]] (default: localhost:1234)
	Specify host/port to connect to with e.g. -d rtl_tcp:127.0.0.1:1234

Option -g:
-g <gain>] (default: auto)
	For RTL-SDR: gain in dB ("0" is auto).
	For SoapySDR: gain in dB for automatic distribution ("" is auto), or string of gain elements.
	E.g. "LNA=20,TIA=8,PGA=2" for LimeSDR.

Option -X:
Use -X <spec> to add a flexible general purpose decoder.

<spec> is "key=value[,key=value...]"
Common keys are:
	name=<name> (or: n=<name>)
	modulation=<modulation> (or: m=<modulation>)
	short=<short> (or: s=<short>)
	long=<long> (or: l=<long>)
	sync=<sync> (or: y=<sync>)
	reset=<reset> (or: r=<reset>)
	gap=<gap> (or: g=<gap>)
	tolerance=<tolerance> (or: t=<tolerance>)
where:
<name> can be any descriptive name tag you need in the output
<modulation> is one of:
	OOK_MC_ZEROBIT :  Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
	OOK_PCM :         Pulse Code Modulation (RZ or NRZ)
	OOK_PPM :         Pulse Position Modulation
	OOK_PWM :         Pulse Width Modulation
	OOK_DMC :         Differential Manchester Code
	OOK_PIWM_RAW :    Raw Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
	OOK_PIWM_DC :     Differential Pulse Interval and Width Modulation
	OOK_MC_OSV1 :     Manchester Code for OSv1 devices
	FSK_PCM :         FSK Pulse Code Modulation
	FSK_PWM :         FSK Pulse Width Modulation
	FSK_MC_ZEROBIT :  Manchester Code with fixed leading zero bit
<short>, <long>, <sync>, and <reset> are the timings for the decoder in µs
PCM     short: Nominal width of pulse [us]
         long: Nominal width of bit period [us]
PPM     short: Nominal width of '0' gap [us]
         long: Nominal width of '1' gap [us]
PWM     short: Nominal width of '1' pulse [us]
         long: Nominal width of '0' pulse [us]
         sync: Nominal width of sync pulse [us] (optional)
          gap: Maximum gap size before new row of bits [us]
    tolerance: Maximum pulse deviation [us] (optional)
        reset: Maximum gap size before End Of Message [us].
Available options are:
	bits=<n> : only match if at least one row has <n> bits
	rows=<n> : only match if there are <n> rows
	repeats=<n> : only match if some row is repeated <n> times
		use opt>=n to match at least <n> and opt<=n to match at most <n>
	invert : invert all bits
	reflect : reflect each byte (MSB first to MSB last)
	match=<bits> : only match if the <bits> are found
	preamble=<bits> : match and align at the <bits> preamble
		<bits> is a row spec of {<bit count>}<bits as hex number>
	countonly : suppress detailed row output

E.g. -X "n=doorbell,m=OOK_PWM,s=400,l=800,r=7000,g=1000,match={24}0xa9878c,repeats>=3"


Option -F:
[-F kv|json|csv|mqtt|syslog|null] Produce decoded output in given format.
	Without this option the default is KV output. Use "-F null" to remove the default.
	Append output to file with :<filename> (e.g. -F csv:log.csv), defaults to stdout.
	Specify MQTT server with e.g. -F mqtt://localhost:1883
	Add MQTT options with e.g. -F "mqtt://host:1883,opt=arg"
	MQTT options are: user=foo, pass=bar, retain[=0|1],
		 usechannel=replaceid|afterid|beforeid|no, <format>[=topic]
	Supported MQTT formats: (default is all)
	  events: posts JSON event data
	  states: posts JSON state data
	  devices: posts device and sensor info in nested topics
	E.g. -F "mqtt://localhost:1883,user=USERNAME,pass=PASSWORD,retain=0,devices=/rtl_433"
	Specify host/port for syslog with e.g. -F syslog:127.0.0.1:1514

Option -M:
[-M time[:<options>]|protocol|level|stats|bits|newmodel] Add various metadata to every output line.
	Use "time" to add current date and time meta data (preset for live inputs).
	Use "time:rel" to add sample position meta data (preset for read-file and stdin).
	Use "time:unix" to show the seconds since unix epoch as time meta data.
	Use "time:iso" to show the time with ISO-8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD"T"hh:mm:ss).
	Use "time:off" to remove time meta data.
	Use "time:usec" to add microseconds to date time meta data.
	Use "time:utc" to output time in UTC.
		(this may also be accomplished by invocation with TZ environment variable set).
		"usec" and "utc" can be combined with other options, eg. "time:unix:utc:usec".
	Use "protocol" / "noprotocol" to output the decoder protocol number meta data.
	Use "level" to add Modulation, Frequency, RSSI, SNR, and Noise meta data.
	Use "stats[:[<level>][:<interval>]]" to report statistics (default: 600 seconds).
	  level 0: no report, 1: report successful devices, 2: report active devices, 3: report all
	Use "bits" to add bit representation to code outputs (for debug).

Option -r:
[-r <filename>] Read data from input file instead of a receiver
	Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.

	A center frequency is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'M',
	'Hz', 'kHz', 'MHz', or 'GHz'.

	A sample rate is detected as (fractional) number suffixed with 'k',
	'sps', 'ksps', 'Msps', or 'Gsps'.

	File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
	'cu8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied), and 'am.s16'.

	Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
	Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')

	E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
	forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext

Option -w:
[-w <filename>] Save data stream to output file (a '-' dumps samples to stdout)
[-W <filename>] Save data stream to output file, overwrite existing file
	Parameters are detected from the full path, file name, and extension.

	File content and format are detected as parameters, possible options are:
	'cu8', 'cs16', 'cf32' ('IQ' implied),
	'am.s16', 'am.f32', 'fm.s16', 'fm.f32',
	'i.f32', 'q.f32', 'logic.u8', 'ook', and 'vcd'.

	Parameters must be separated by non-alphanumeric chars and are case-insensitive.
	Overrides can be prefixed, separated by colon (':')

	E.g. default detection by extension: path/filename.am.s16
	forced overrides: am:s16:path/filename.ext

Some examples:

Command Description
rtl_433 Default receive mode, use the first device found, listen at 433.92 MHz at 250k sample rate.
rtl_433 -C si Default receive mode, also convert units to metric system.
rtl_433 -f 868M -s 1024k Listen at 868 MHz and 1024k sample rate.
rtl_433 -M hires -M level Report microsecond accurate timestamps and add reception levels (depending on gain).
rtl_433 -R 1 -R 8 -R 43 Enable only specific decoders for desired devices.
rtl_433 -A Enable pulse analyzer. Summarizes the timings of pulses, gaps, and periods. Can be used with -R 0 to disable decoders.
rtl_433 -S all -T 120 Save all detected signals (g###_###M_###k.cu8). Run for 2 minutes.
rtl_433 -K FILE -r file_name Read a saved data file instead of receiving live data. Tag output with filenames.
rtl_433 -F json -M utc | mosquitto_pub -t home/rtl_433 -l Will pipe the output to network as JSON formatted MQTT messages. A test MQTT client can be found in tests/mqtt_rtl_433_test.py.
rtl_433 -f 433.53M -f 434.02M -H 15 Will poll two frequencies with 15 seconds hop interval.

Supporting Additional Devices and Test Data

Some device protocol decoders are disabled by default. When testing to see if your device is decoded by rtl_433, use -G to enable all device protocols. This will likely produce false positives, use with caution.

The first step in decoding new devices is to record the signals using -S all. The signals will be stored individually in files named gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8 :

Parameter Description
NNN signal grabbed number
FFF frequency
RRR sample rate

This file can be played back with rtl_433 -r gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8.

These files are vital for understanding the signal format as well as the message data. Use both analyzers -a and -A to look at the recorded signal and determine the pulse characteristics, e.g. rtl_433 -r gNNN_FFFM_RRRk.cu8 -a -A.

Make sure you have recorded a proper set of test signals representing different conditions together with any and all information about the values that the signal should represent. For example, make a note of what temperature and/or humidity is the signal encoding. Ideally, capture a range of data values, such a different temperatures, to make it easy to spot what part of the message is changing.

Add the data files, a text file describing the captured signals, pictures of the device and/or a link the manufacturer's page (ideally with specifications) to the rtl_433_tests github repository. Follow the existing structure as best as possible and send a pull request.

https://github.com/merbanan/rtl_433_tests

Please don't open a new github issue for device support or request decoding help from others until you've added test signals and the description to the repository.

The rtl_433_test repository is also used to help test that changes to rtl_433 haven't caused any regressions.

Google Group

Join the Google group, rtl_433, for more information about rtl_433: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/rtl_433

Troubleshooting

If you see this error:

Kernel driver is active, or device is claimed by second instance of librtlsdr.
In the first case, please either detach or blacklist the kernel module
(dvb_usb_rtl28xxu), or enable automatic detaching at compile time.

then

sudo rmmod dvb_usb_rtl28xxu rtl2832
You can’t perform that action at this time.