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Plain Old Bash (POB) script to perform Remote IT Management
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README.md
common.sh
run.sh

README.md

	$ ./run.sh 
	Usage: run.sh <user> <host | hostNamesFilePath> [command | recipeFilePath]

Introduction

RemotoIT is a Plain Old Bash (POB) script to perform Server Management. Currently it has been tested in OSX/Ubuntu as a client and Ubuntu/Solaris as the target server. Remoto-it recipes are files that contain no shebang, they are not to be interpreted by bash but by the remoto-it tool. These files are supposed to have statements that will be executed one by one in the remote server.

provisioning
├── recipes
│   ├── apache.sh
│   ├── couch.sh
│   ├── nodejs.sh
│   ├── sample.com.sh
│   └── svn.sh
└── remoto-it
    ├── common.sh
    └── run.sh

Setup

  1. Create a directory where you will keep remoto-it and the recipes, for example 'provisioning'.

  2. Clone this project into a 'remoto-it' subdirectory using either git or https as shown below

     git clone git@github.com:nestoru/remoto-it.git
     git clone https://github.com/nestoru/remoto-it.git
    
  3. Checkout the needed scripts into a 'recipes' subdirectory.

Usage

Scenario 1: By convention run recipes against a single domain

  1. Create the Recipe out of real commands you issue to perform your task in recipes/myRecipe.sh. Here is a simple (idempotent as its intention is reinstall the package any time it is run) nodejs.sh recipe:

     #!/bin/bash
     echo "--- Setting up the NodeJS ---"
     set -e
     cd
     curl -O http://nodejs.org/dist/node-v0.4.10.tar.gz
     tar -zxvf node-v0.4.10.tar.gz
     cd node-v0.4.10
     make clean
     ./configure
     make
     make install
     node --version
    
  2. Add existing recipes to file recipes/${host}.sh where ${host} is the remote server to connect to. Here is sample.com.sh where some recipes are commented out to run only svn.sh and nodejs.sh

     #
     # Recipe line must start with number or letter, 
     # Anything else will be ignored
     #
     svn.sh
     #apache.sh
     #couch.sh
     nodejs.sh
    
  3. Invoke run.sh with a valid user and ${host}:

     ./run.sh remoteUser sample.com
    

Scenario 2: By convention run recipes against multiple domains

    ./run.sh remoteUser /tmp/hosts.txt

Scenario 3: By configuration run recipes against a single domain

    ./run.sh remoteUser sample.com /tmp/myRecipe.sh

Scenario 4: By configuration run recipes against multiple domains

    ./run.sh remoteUser /tmp/hosts.txt /tmp/myRecipe.sh

Scenario 5: By configuration run a specific command against multiple domains

    /run.sh remoteUser /tmp/hosts.txt "service tomcat stop -force" 

How it works

There is not much to do in order to automate using bash scripts. Just authorize a public key in your remote servers so things like rsync are possible, make sure the sudoer user password is only provided from a user answer (as a double optin recognizing you know what you are doing), have a way to customize which of your recipes (POB scripts) will be run remotely and finally send your commands over the created SSH tunel.

The main script run.sh uses a couple of functions from common.sh and a recipes folder containing a file per server domain ($host.sh) with the list of recipes to run there (apache.sh, nodejs.sh, cowch.sh etc) You host your recipes directory wherever you want (hopefully here in github so those are completely reusable by others). Look at the other three scenarios above for alternative use.

Look at common.sh for some handy functionality like the use of "expect" to be able to run commands as root remotely without the need to type the user password more than once. The svn recipe example below shows how you can interactively ask for passwords in your scripts. It uses the powerful "expect" Unix tool. You can hardly automate or test Unix systems without this great piece of software.

Recipe samples

The web is full of semiautomated and fully automated scripts to do anything you want. The possibilities are endless but you will need to change some of them to ensure idempotency. Here are some examples:

The recipes sometimes need resources that are not available publicly (like downloading Java needs user interaction or installing latest snapshot from a trunk in your svn repository). Whether it is source code pulled from an external server like revision control system and later compiled, parsed or interpreted, from an artifactory repository in terms of binary files, from a local CIF, a remote SFTP you will need to provide ways to automate file transfer. Here is a sample svn recipe which makes sure the server stays with a valid svn credential. This is handy because other recipes check for example configuration files from SVN and you do not want to keep inserting user and password to provision the server. To use it for your project you need to change the URL for svn of course:

#!/bin/bash

echo "--- Setting up SVN ---"

set -e


SVN_REPO=http://subversion.sample.com/

echo -n "SVN User: "
read svnuser
echo -n "SVN Password: "
read -s svnpassword
echo

apt-get -q -y install subversion
sed -i 's/# store-passwords = no/store-passwords = yes/g' .subversion/servers
sed -i 's/# store-plaintext-passwords = no/store-plaintext-passwords = yes/g' .subversion/servers
echo $svnpassword | svn info $SVN_REPO --username $svnuser

Here is apache.sh which configures and harden an Apache Server thanks to configuration files stored in SVN. This recipe clearly will not run in you do not update the URLs:

#!/bin/bash

echo "--- Setting up Apache ---"

set -e

rm -fR /var/log/apache2/
apt-get -q -y install apache2
apt-get -q -y install libapache2-mod-jk
a2dismod status
cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/
rm -f rewrite.load
ln -s ../mods-available/rewrite.load rewrite.load
cd /etc/apache2/
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/apache2.conf
a2enmod ssl
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/ports.conf
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/workers.properties
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/mod-jk.conf 
cd /etc/apache2/sites-available
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/sites-available/bhub
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/settings/bhub/local/apache/sites-available/bhub-ssl
mkdir -p /etc/apache2/certs/
cd /etc/apache2/certs/
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/resources/bhub/local/apache/bhubdev.sample.com.crt
svn export http://subversion.sample.com/environment/resources/bhub/local/apache/bhubdev.sample.com.key
cd /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/
rm -f 000-bhub
ln -s ../sites-available/bhub 000-bhub
rm -f 001-bhub-ssl
ln -s ../sites-available/bhub-ssl 001-bhub-ssl
rm -f 000-default
mkdir -p /var/sample-app
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Finally here is an idempotent recipe to install couchdb. It can be run again and again and it will always finish with the installed package or an error but the error will not make you start from a given intermediate point. I have tested it in Ubuntu 10.10 and Ubuntu 12.4 with great results. In fact this is one of the tasks I have done that made me write this package. I saw a lot of back and forth in the couchdb WIKI and I figured I rather have a script that did all for me. This script can take up to two hours in a Ubuntu 12.4 running with 512MB in my Snow Leopard OSX. I have run it after networking errors, package reconfigurations, Ubuntu upgrades and what not. In fact our plan is to have our whole dev environment created from scripts like this run from Remoto-IT.

#!/bin/bash

echo "--- Setting up CouchDB ---"

set -e
USER=admin
couchpid=`ps -ef|grep couch | grep -v grep | awk '{print $2}'`
if [ $couchpid ]; then kill -9 $couchpid; fi
apt-get -q -y update
apt-get -q -y autoremove
apt-get -q -y remove couchdb*
apt-get -q -y purge couchdb*
apt-get -q -y build-dep couchdb
apt-get -q -y install libtool zip
cd
rm -fr js-1.8.5
curl -O http://ftp.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/js/js185-1.0.0.tar.gz
tar xvzf js185-1.0.0.tar.gz 
cd js-1.8.5/js/src
./configure
make
make install
cd
rm -fr otp_src_R14B0
curl -O http://www.erlang.org/download/otp_src_R14B04.tar.gz
tar xvzf otp_src_R14B04.tar.gz 
cd otp_src_R14B04
./configure --enable-smp-support --enable-dynamic-ssl-lib --enable-kernel-poll
make
make install
cd
rm -fr apache-couchdb-1.1.1
curl -O http://mirror.candidhosting.com/pub/apache/couchdb/1.1.1/apache-couchdb-1.1.1.tar.gz
tar xvzf apache-couchdb-1.1.1.tar.gz
cd apache-couchdb-1.1.1
prefix='/usr/local'
./configure --prefix=${prefix} 
make
make install
grep couchdb /etc/passwd || useradd -d /var/lib/couchdb couchdb
chown -R couchdb:${USER} ${prefix}/var/{lib,log,run}/couchdb ${prefix}/etc/couchdb
for dir in `whereis couchdb | sed 's/couchdb: //'`; do echo $dir | xargs chown couchdb; done
export xulrunnerversion=`xulrunner -v 2>&1 >  /dev/null | egrep -o "([0-9]{1,2})(\.[0-9]{1,2})+"`
echo $xulrunnerversion
echo "/usr/lib/xulrunner-$xulrunnerversion" > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/xulrunner.conf
echo "/usr/lib/xulrunner-devel-$xulrunnerversion" >> /etc/ld.so.conf.d/xulrunner.conf
/sbin/ldconfig
ln -s /usr/local/etc/init.d/couchdb /etc/init.d/couchdb
update-rc.d couchdb defaults
/etc/init.d/couchdb start
curl -X GET http://localhost:5984

Provisioning is not just about continuous software delivery. It is about continuous software maintenance. Software to be maintained needs healthy environments. The Infrastructure needs software upgrades, updates, patches. You can automate and should automate all that especially if you maintain farms of similar servers.

Recipe Resources

As mentioned before CIFS/NFS can be used to host packages that are only available for download after double-optins, license agreements and other manual procedures. For those we simply need to create a repository and mount it via CIFS/NFS. It is good to have a convention and the one we use is /mnt/pob-resource-repository. The POB recipes can then point to the right resource in a standard way that will work for any server. For a full example visit http://thinkinginsoftware.blogspot.com/2012/07/patching-or-installing-java-in-ubuntu.html.

FAQ

Why this and not Chef or Puppet? Options. Just pick the one that works for you. Will I use Puppet or Chef? Yes, why not? Will I use them for everything? Not really. POB or POS are mandatory even if you are working with Chef or Puppet so let us learn the shell well enough first.

TODO

  1. Other OS client support. Currently tested from OSX and Ubuntu.
  2. Other OS Server support. Currently tested to provision Ubuntu and Solaris.
  3. You name it ...
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