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Questions I have been asked and answers:
Q: My VB,.NET or Delphi application doesn't work. I suppose libnodave doesn't work with my
hardware or doesn't work at all. Can you help me?
A: You can most easily find out whether Libnodave works with your hardware, PLC, adapter
etc: try the precompiled test programs. If they don't work (trying different options when
suggested), it's clearly libnodave's fault.
If they work, it's your application (or there is a little chance, the problem is in the
interface to the language you use).
Q: Can you help me?
A: Before asking me, try out the test programs as described above. When they don't work for
you, send me the output with debug option, e.g. do:
testMPI -d COM1 >debugout.txt
If they work, but your application doesn't, do:
Insert "daveSetDebug(daveDebugAll)" before calling anything else from libnodave.
Then do:
yourappliation >debugout.txt
For those people who grew up with mice and don't know the command line:
This works even with MS-Excel. Create a spreadsheet, import the VBA module,
- uncomment the "call daveSetDebug(daveDebugAll)" at the begin of sub initialize,
- save the sheet.
- then, from commandline (dos box, cmd) do:
excel testsheet >debugout.txt
All debug output (otherwise invisible) goes into debugout.txt.
When time falls short, I shall discard mails not containig debug output!
Q: What mail format do you prefer?
A: Ok, nobody asked that, but I DO prefer PLAIN TEXT.
Q: I want to read out whether my PLC is in RUN or STOP mode. Is there a function for that?
A: No, not a specialized one. For S7-300/400, use daveReadSZL to read the diagnostic lists.
This is what Step7 does. You will find information about IDs and indices in Siemens
documentation. The state of all the CPU LEDs is in ID 25 (19hex) index 0.
With S7-200, the information is somewhere in the system data.
Q: I trying to trace libnodave with a debugger. I need help?
A: There is no reason to use a debugger on libnodave unless you suspect one of the
following things:
- memory leaks
- range overflows, on numbers or array indices
- problems with passing parameters to library functions
In the latter case, better recompile libnodave after uncommenting #define DEBUG_CALLS in
nodave.c.
To find problems with PLCs and adapters, the FAR better way is to use
setDaveDebug(daveDebugAll). This will show you what is sent and received from PLC/adapter
and it will show you the relevant information instead of extracting it from memory
contents or processor registers. Thus, data exchange with the PLC is still carried out with
normal timing. With a debugger, the code might send one part of a message and then pause
longer than PLC side timeouts.
Q: Can you give documentation about S7 communication or MPI protocol?
A: No, I can't. What I know about it is from reverse engineering. This means sniffing lots of
packets, trying to make sense of them and trying to generate them with my own code.
If things are named so or so in libnodave this reflects my current hypothesis. I could
try to write documentation, but that would allways be a step behind the code: The code
is what can be proven against existing hardware, i.e. reaity. The docs cannot. And I think
the code is fairly well documented...
Q: So why do you have these complicated structures?
A: What people might have found complicated are probably the pointers to protocol dependent
functions. In fact, they make the library more simple in two ways:
- First, they separate packet forming from transport. If someone finds out how to do some
function that can be done with a Simatic S7, it is sufficient to implement the packet
forming part and it will most likely work with any transport protocol. Vice versa, if there
would be a new transport mechanism, probaly all functions will work with it as soon as the
transport functions are implemented. Version 0.8 clearly shows that by implementing a
transport vie s7online.dll.
- Commercial libraries I looked at usually have separate sets of functions for the 200
and the 300/400 family. Libnodave hasn't, so you have less to learn about the API while your
code can do more without any modification.
Q: Why do you export these structures if you say they are meaningless for applications?
A: They are not completely meaningless. There are also a lot of "intermediate step functions"
that are exported from the .dll or.so which are normally of no use to end users.
- All this is there - in the spirit of open source - for those who want to do their
own experiments. It may give you possibilities I did not think of.
- At least once, I could help a user implementing a new function (daveForce200). He only
had to add about 20 lines to his application which in turn called intermediate steps
of packet forming and analysis, like _daveAddData.
Q: Why aren't there functions like readOutputs, readInputs, readData ?
A: Other libraries usually have separate functions to read from inputs, outputs, flags,
data blocks and so on. Libnodave hasn't. Again, you have to learn less about the API.
Q: Why aren't there functions like readBytes, readIntegers, readDWords, readFloat ?
A: Other libraries often have separate functions to read integers, dwords or floats.
Libnodave hasn't. The reason is: If you have a DB (or memory area) containg mixed data
types, with those function you can only read parts of such a block. Or you use readBytes
to read the memory as raw bytes and you are left alone wit the conversion.
Libnodave generally reads an entire block of data as bytes and then provides you
with conversion functions to convert it to PLC data types and byte order.
Q: I try to compile my source code which includes nodave.h. Why do I get:
"#error Fill in what you need for your OS or API" ?
A: Libnodave has to use different functions to read byte data from serial ports or TCP/IP streams
depending on the operating system. You have to specify which OS you compile for.
Define BCCWIN for Windows and LINUX for Linux or other Unix style operating systems. I do
that using -DBCCWIN or -DLINUX when I call the compilers out of a Makefile. If you use an IDE
(integrated development environment), refer to the IDE's documentation to learn where to do
this. If you can't find out, you can help yourself putting the #define into your code (which
means your code will not be portable to other OS without modification). example:
...
#define BCCWIN // if you work on windows
#include nodave.h // or nodavesimple.h, but NEVER both
#include setport.h // if your code works with serial connections
#include openSocket.h // if your code works with TCP/IP
...
Q: I try to compile libnodave from source code. There are problems.
A: - You do not need to compile libnodave yourself. You won't do it with other DLLs (windows)
or .so (Linux shared libraries). Normally, you will link such libraries dynamically with
your code.
- Nevertheless, you have the sources and you may chose to recompile it or recompile only the
parts you need, etcetera.
- You should know that S7 uses Motorola (big endian, high byte first) byte order (endianness)
while Intel processors use Intel (little endian, low byte first). On Intel and similar
machines, libnodave has to convert multibyte values. This is done in daveGetS2(), daveGetU2(),
daveGetFloat() and friends. The conversion code is only compiled in if you #define
DAVE_LITTLE_ENDIAN. Otherwise, big endian is assumed.
- Be aware that I do compile releases of libnodave using gcc (for Linux) and MSVC++
(for windows). I use the script buildall to build Linux and Windows release versions and test
programs on a Linux box. Buildall uses Linux make with MAKEFILE.VC.WINE to invoke the MSVC++
compiler for windows versions. There is also a MAKEFILE.VC which should work on a windows
system using nmake, but it may be out of date :-(. If in doubt about compiler options or
source files involved, refer to MAKEFILE.VC.WINE!
Q: I want to compile libnodave for another OS. What adaptions shall I have to make?
A: - I suppose your OS is 32 bit and your compiler treats int as 32 bit. If not, you are in
trouble!
- You need to provide functional replacements for setport.c or setportw.c and openSocket.c or
openSocketw.c
- nodave.h: You need to define a record _daveOSserialType containing members:
rfd: a data type that can refer to a serial port or a TCP socket for read access
wfd: a data type that can refer to a serial port or a TCP socket for write access
- nodave.c: You need to code functions stdread() and stdwrite() to read and write a number of
bytes from/to a serial port to/from a buffer.
Q: Is there a function to read PLC Data structure of a data block? The variables
and their data type ?
A: No. The structure information is only available to Step7 BEFORE compilation. It is NOT stored
in the PLC itself. Same situation if you open a new project and load the code from PLC into
programmer: Your DBs will be nothing more than arrays of bytes.
Q: I have problems writing inputs. Can you help me?
A: Well, there are 2 types of inputs: 1. Peripheral adresses. This is what you read with daveP
or, in a PLC program, with L PIW <address>. Accesses to these addresses are real hardware
read or write accesses and there is no way to write to input hardware.
2. Input/Output image memory. This is how programmers normally access Siemens I/O like in:
L IW <address>
or
A I 2.5
Accesses to these addresses do NO access the hardware but a special memory area. The
inputs are copied to this memory in each cycle before the application program is executed.
If you write to this memory area using daveInputs, the memory will be overwritten before next
cycle. Whether your PLC program or your application of Libnodave will "see" the values written
to this memory is a matter of time race.
Q: Is it possible to write a number of bits (up to 3) simultaneously to the PLC?
I want to avoid using "read-modify-write" techniques and make the write as "atomic"
as possible.
A: daveWriteBits() does provide an "atomic" write function, but only for a single bit.
The length parameter to daveWriteBits() has to be one, other values produce errors with
CPUs that I know of. So why is this parameter there? It corresponds to a field in the message
which contains the number of bits to read or write.
Q: Can this (an atomic read to 3 bits) be done using daveWriteBits() or do I have to use multiple
write "items" within the same PDU?
A: It CANNOT be done with daveWriteBits() with the CPUs I know. Whether writing with a PDU containing
multiple items is "atomic" or not I don't know. If you can modify the PLC program, I think the best
solution would be locating the 3 bits into a byte the rest of which remains unused.
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