This solution provides scaffolding for a scalable Python Flask web application on Ubuntu 18.04 using Gunicorn and NGINX. The web application also leverages Virtualenv to leverage isolated Python environments.
By executing the setup.sh script (instructions below) you will have a "Hello World" web application which leverages Flask a microframework for Python and Gunicorn acting as a webserver with NGINX serving as a reverse proxy. Upon successful deployment and if port 80 is open to you, going to the server IP in a browser will show you the message "Hello World" in red.
- Ubuntu 18.04 server
- A user named ubuntu on the Ubuntu Server with sudo privileges
- SSH onto your server and clone the repo into your /home/ubuntu directory
- Go into the setup directory and run the setup.sh script
git clone https://github.com/nethacker/scalable-ubuntu-flask-gunicorn-nginx.git cd scalable-ubuntu-flask-gunicorn-nginx/setup bash setup.sh
What is the setup.sh script doing?
Below are the general steps the setup.sh file is executing. Please see the actual setup.sh file in the setup directory for literal commands.
Ubuntu global setup
- Updating ubuntu packages
- Installing ntpdate and updating time against pool.ntp.org
- Installing nptd to maintain time avoiding drift
- Installing Python3 dependencies to support virtualenv
- Installing NGINX
Ubuntu user setup
- Updating .bashrc of the ubuntu user to support virtualenv for development
App dependencies setup
- Creating a directory structure for our test application named app01
- Leverage virtualenv to install Python3 packages in a virtual environment.
- Install gunicorn a webserver, flask a microframework, setproctitle for process friendly name
- Copy test application app01 to appropriate location from repo hierarchy
- Copy test application app01 gunicorn webserver config to appropriate location from repo hierarchy
- Copy test application app01 systemd bootstrap config to appropriate location from repo hierarchy
- Start test application app01 using systemd
- Configure test application app01 to start after reboots
- Copy test application app01 nginx config to appropriate location from repo hierarchy
- Delete default nginx config
- Enable nginx site and restart nginx
- Gunicorn is configured with 5 workers leveraging threading (2 per worker) each worker can handle 1000 connections. Typical formula is 2 workers per cpu core +1 worker
- Gunicorn Timeout value is set to 30 seconds and keepalive is set to 2 seconds
- NGINX is set to use 8 buffers and 24K size per buffer when reading a response from the proxied server for a single connection
- NGINX is set to 4k buffer size used for headers from the pool
- NGINX worker_processes are set to "auto" for detecting number of cores and setting that value