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mod_memcache_block is an apache module that allows you to block access to your servers using a block list stored in memcache. It also offers distributed rate limiting based on HTTP response code.

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README.rdoc

mod_memcache_block v0.99 (beta)

John Adams <jna@twitter.com> May 6, 2009

Description

mod_memcache_block is an Apache module that allows you to block access to your servers using a block list stored in memcache. It also offers distributed rate limiting based on HTTP response code.

FEATURES

  • Distributed White and Black listing of IPs, ranges, and CIDR blocks

  • Configurable timeouts, memcache server listings

  • Support for continuous hasing using libmemcached's Ketama

  • Windowded Rate limiting based on Response code (to block brute-force dictionary attacks against .htpasswd, for example)

REQUIREMENTS

  • libmemcached-0.25 or better

  • Memcached server

  • Apache 2.x (tested with 2.2.11)

INSTALLATION

  1. Install libmemcached-0.25 or better.

  2. Install memcached-1.26

  3. Edit the Makefile to indicate the location of libmemcached

  4. Type “make”, then “make install”

  5. Update your apache configuration

  6. Restart the server with apachectl restart

CONFIGURATION

The following configuration directives are used by mod_memcache_block:

MBEnable On|Off

Default: On

On or Off, controls if this module is enabled or not (default on)

MBServers serverlist

A list of participating memcache servers, in the form

(servername:port,servername:port…)

MBPrefix n

The Memcache key prefix prepended to all keys

MBTimeout n

The timeout, in microseconds, to wait for a backend memcached

MBExpiration n

The Duration, in seconds, of an automatic rate-limit based block

MBTableRefresh n

How long to wait between refreshes of the block table. Do not

set this to a low value, or the server will spend lots of time during request processing reloading the white/blacklist tables.

This translates into ((2 * MBMaxBlocks) * Workers) memcached

gets every n seconds.

MBMaxBlocks n

The size of the block table (the number of keys to look for in memcached) A Restart is required if this value changes.

MBRateLimit On|Off

Default: On

Whether or not the module honors ResponseLimit directives.

MBResponseLimit CODE COUNT PERIOD

If the module receives more than COUNT responses with HTTP

response code CODE within PERIOD seconds, add the IP to memcache

with a TTL of MBExpiration seconds.

EXAMPLE

Add the following lines to your Apache configuration, in the global area. Only one configuration may exist.

<IfModule memcache_block_module>
MBEnable On
# You must set timeout BEFORE the server list.  If you want to have
# different timeouts for different sets of servers, just change it
# before adding more servers.
MBTimeout 2
MBServers 127.0.0.1:11211
MBPrefix block
MBExpiration 3600
# if you change the size of MaxBlocks, you must restart the server.
MBMaxBlocks 10
MBRateLimitByResult 401 20 3600
</IfModule>

KEY STORAGE

mod_memcache_block writes and uses many keys in memcache. They are:

PREFIX:w:n (where 0 < n < max_blocks-1) “whitelist”

The list of ranges to whitelist, in one of the following forms:

exact_string    An exact string to match against the remote IP (i.e. ::1 or 127.0.0.1)
n.n.n.n/x       A netblock in CIDR form, like 192.168.1.0/24
n.n.n.n-y.y.y.y A range of IPs to block, in sequential order

The enclosed setblocks.rb and removeblocks.rb ruby scripts are good examples on how to add blocks to memcache. Note that keys can fall out of cache! It's a good idea to refresh the list periodically and to run a dedicated set of servers to manage blocks.

PREFIX:b:n (where 0 < n < max_blocks-1) “blacklist”

The list of ranges to blacklist, in the same format as the whitelist. If the user is in the whitelist and the blacklist, the whitelist takes precedence.

PREFIX:c:IP_ADDRESS:response_code “counter”

The number of times the address and response code tuple has been seen

PREFIX:d:IP_ADDRESS “Deny”

If this memcache key exists, access is denied to the site. The difference between this key, and the blacklist (b) key, is that this key is automatically created with a TTL of MBExpiration when the response count (as specified in MBRateLimit) is exceeded. When the key expires from cache, the IP address is allowed back in.

KNOWN BUGS

  • If all memcache servers die and this module cannot connect to memcached, it will fail open (which, in our opinion, is the right thing to do.) Errors will appear in the apache error log.

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