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Test Clang Sanitizers CodeQL


Simple thread-safe signal/slot C++17 library, which is templated and include-only. No linking required. Just include the header file "sigs.h".

In all its simplicity, the class sigs::Signal implements a signal that can be triggered when some event occurs. To receive the signal slots can be connected to it. A slot can be any callable type: lambda, functor, function, or member function. Slots can be disconnected when not needed anymore.

A signal is triggered by invoking its operator()() with an optional amount of arguments to be forwarded to each of the connected slots' invocations. But they must conform with the parameter types of sigs::Signal::SlotType, which reflects the first template argument given when instantiating a sigs::Signal.

Table of contents


The most simple use case is having a void() invoked:

sigs::Signal<void()> s;
s.connect([]{ std::cout << "Hello, signals. I'm an invoked slot.\n"; });
s(); // Trigger it, which will call the function.

As mentioned above you can pass arbitrary arguments to the slots but the types will be enforced at compile-time.

sigs::Signal<void(int, const std::string&)> s;
s.connect([](int n, const std::string &str) {
  std::cout << "I received " << n << " and " << str << std::endl;

// Prints "I received 42 and I like lambdas!".
s(42, "I like lambdas!");

// Error! "no known conversion from 'char const[5]' to 'int' for 1st argument".
s("hmm?", "I like lambdas!");

When connecting a slot the result is a sigs::Connection, and the connection can be disconnected by calling sigs::Connection::disconnect() or sigs::Signal::disconnect(sigs::Connection).

sigs::Signal<void()> s;
s.connect([]{ std::cout << "Hi"; });
auto conn = s.connect([]{ std::cout << " there!\n"; });

// Prints "Hi there!".

// Disconnect second slot.

// Or by using the signal: s.disconnect(conn);

// Prints "Hi".

Note that all slots can be disconnected by giving no arguments to sigs::Signal::disconnect(), or by calling sigs::Signal::clear().

Slots can be any callable type: lambda, functor, or function. Even member functions.

void func() {
  std::cout << "Called function\n";

class Functor {
  void operator()() {
    std::cout << "Called functor\n";

class Foo {
  void test() {
    std::cout << "Called member fuction\n";

sigs::Signal<void()> s;
s.connect([]{ std::cout << "Called lambda\n"; });

Foo foo;
s.connect(&foo, &Foo::test);


/* Prints:
Called function
Called lambda
Called functor
Called member funtion

Another useful feature is the ability to connect signals to signals. If a first signal is connected to a second signal, and the second signal is triggered, then all of the slots of the first signal are triggered as well - and with the same arguments.

sigs::Signal<void()> s1;
s1.connect([]{ std::cout << "Hello 1 from s1\n"; });
s1.connect([]{ std::cout << "Hello 2 from s1\n"; });

decltype(s1) s2;


/* Prints:
Hello 1 from s1
Hello 2 from s1

A signal can be disconnected by using sigs::Signal::disconnect(sigs::Signal&), or the regular sigs::Connection::disconnect().

Ambiguous types

Sometimes there are several overloads for a given function and then it's not enough to just specify &Class::functionName because the compiler does not know which overload to choose.

Consider the following code:

class Ambiguous {
  void foo(int i, int j) { std::cout << "Ambiguous::foo(int, int)\n"; }

  void foo(int i, float j) { std::cout << "Ambiguous::foo(int, float)\n"; }

sigs::Signal<void(int, int)> s;

Ambiguous amb;
s.connect(&amb, &Ambiguous::foo); // <-- Will fail!

Instead we must use the sigs::Use<>::overloadOf() construct:

s.connect(&amb, sigs::Use<int, int>::overloadOf(&Ambiguous::foo));
s(42, 48);

/* Prints:
Ambiguous::foo(int, int)

Without changing the signal we can also connect the second overload foo(int, float):

// This one only works because int can be coerced into float.
s.connect(&amb, sigs::Use<int, float>::overloadOf(&Ambiguous::foo));
s(12, 34);

/* Prints:
Ambiguous::foo(int, int)
Ambiguous::foo(int, float)

Return values

If slots have return values they can be gathered by triggering the signal with a function. But the argument type must be the same as the return type!

The following example adds together the integers from each connected slot:

sigs::Signal<int()> s;
s.connect([] { return 1; });
s.connect([] { return 2; });
s.connect([] { return 3; });

int sum = 0;
s([&sum](int retVal) { sum += retVal; });
// sum is now = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6

Signal interface

When a signal is used in an abstraction one most often doesn't want it exposed directly as a public member since it destroys encapsulation. sigs::Signal::interface() can be used instead to only expose connect and disconnect methods of the signal - it is a std::unique_ptr<sigs::Signal::Interface> wrapper instance.

The example shows a button abstraction where actions can easily be added or removed while preserving the encapsulation of the signal:

class Button {
  void click()

  [[nodiscard]] auto clickSignal()
    return clickSignal_.interface();

  sigs::Signal<void()> clickSignal_;

int main()
  Button btn;
  btn.clickSignal()->connect([] { std::cout << "direct fn" << std::endl; });
  btn.clickSignal()->connect([] { std::cout << "direct fn 2" << std::endl; });

  auto conn = btn.clickSignal()->connect([] { std::cout << "you won't see me" << std::endl; });
  return 0;

Blocking signals and slots

Sometimes it is necessary to block a signal, and any recursive signals, from triggering. That is achieved through sigs::Signal::setBlocked(bool) and sigs::Signal::blocked():

sigs::Signal<void()> s;
s.connect([] { /* .. */ });
s.connect([] { /* .. */ });

// No slots will be triggered since the signal is blocked.

To make things simpler, the sigs::SignalBlocker class utilizes the RAII idiom to block/unblock via its own scoped lifetime:

sigs::Signal<void()> s;
s.connect([] { /* .. */ });
s.connect([] { /* .. */ });

  sigs::SignalBlocker<void()> blocker(s);

  // No slots will be triggered since the signal is blocked.

// All connected slots are triggered since the signal is no longer blocked.

Customizing lock and mutex types

The default signal type sigs::Signal<T> is actually short for sigs::BasicSignal<T, sigs::BasicLock> (with sigs::BasicLock = std::lock_guard<std::mutex>). Thus the lock type is std::lock_guard and the mutex type is std::mutex.

Custom lock and mutex types can be supplied by defining a new type, for instance:

template <typename T>
using MySignal = sigs::BasicSignal<T, MyLock>;

The required lock and mutex interfaces are as follows:

class Mutex {
  void lock();
  void unlock();

template <typename Mutex>
class Lock {
  using mutex_type = Mutex;

  explicit Lock(Mutex &);

The lock type is supposed to lock/unlock following the RAII idiom.