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The nbyum tool is a wrapper around yum. Why wrap? Simply because we need a way to call the yum API from a Perl program.

As such, we could easily write a Perl binding to the yum API (which would be quite painful and would require someone with knowledge both in Python and Perl, which I don't have), or wrap it all into a simpler Python command-line tool we can then call as needed.

However, such a tool needs a nicely formatted output, automatically parsable by the caller program.

Thus nbyum, doing a subset of the yum functionality (only what we need), and printing a parser-friendly JSON output on stdout.


The usage should be self-documented thanks to Python's awesome argparse module, so just run nbyum with the -h or --help option for details:

# nbyum -h

Each command has its own help as well, for example, if you want help on the check-update command, you can pass the -h or --help option to that command rather than to the global tool:

# nbyum check-update -h

General considerations for the output

Each line of output is a JSON object with at least a type member, representing the type of output.

The rest of the JSON object depends on this value, which is detailed in the following sections.

Good ol' logging messages (debug, errors,...)

For those, the type member will always be set to log. The "level" of the log message is then the name of the second member, which will be one of debug, info, warning or error.

The value of that second member is the actual logging message.

Unless running nbyum in debug mode, only messages with a level of info, warning or error are shown.

Note: Not all info messages are even shown, only the actually important ones.

A few examples of logging messages:

# nbyum update
[... snip ...]
{"type": "log", "info": "Packages are all up to date"}
# nbyum install sms base
[... snip ...]
{"type": "log", "warning": "Package nbsm-base-5.0.0-0.1.nb5.0.18.noarch already installed and latest version"}
# nbyum check-update nosuchpackage
[... snip ...]
{"type": "log", "error": "No Match for argument: nosuchpackage"}

Progression messages

We print some progress messages while nbyum is performing, so that the user doesn't fall asleep or hammers his keyboard impatiently.

These messages are indicated by the type member of the JSON object being set to progress.

The rest of the object is composed of three members:

  • total is the number of steps to perform. For example, if there are 3 packages to install, then total would be 3.
  • current is where the process is currently, out of the total. For example, if we are installing the second out of 3 packages, then current would be 2.
  • hint is a message indicating what is the current step, so that the user is not left in the dark.

Here is an example of progression message:

# nbyum install sms nbsm-foo
[... snip ...]
{"type": "progress", "current": 2, "total": 3, "hint": "Installing foo-1.0-1.noarch"}

The above shows that we are installing the package foo-1.0-1.noarch, which is the second out of three packages to install during this transaction.

Note: Some operations happen before we even know how many steps we will have to perform during the transaction. For all of those, current would be set to 0 and total to 1. The idea is to provide some feedback to the user as to what is happening, without showing a "fake" progress bar which might "go back" once we know how many operations we will actually perform.

Action messages

There are several possible actions in nbyum. They all share the same value for the type member of the JSON object: recap.

Also, since they represent a summary of what has been done, then there is only one message (and so only one JSON object) with all the data inside.

The other member depends on each action requested by the user:

  • when list-ing packages and security modules, it will be either installed or available, depending on the package(s) being listed.
  • when printing info-rmations about packages and security modules, it will be pkginfos
  • when install-ing, update-ing or remove-ing packages and security modules, it will be install, update or remove, as appropriate.

Of course, there could be more than one of those. For example the user could have requested to list both installed and available packages.

Each one of those members will have the list of corresponding packages as its value. It will always be a list, even if it contains only one package.

Modifying the system

Except for the pkginfos and list cases, each package is a JSON object with up to 4 members:

  • the name of the package.
  • the old version, being removed during the transaction.
  • the new version, being installed during the transaction.
  • an eventual reason for the package to be removed (and only for packages being removed), for example if it is being obsoleted by another one.

Of course, packages being installed will only have a new version, whereas packages being removed will only have an old version and packages being updated will have both.

Note: By the time those messages appear, it is only as a summary of the transaction which has just been executed. As such, they act as a confirmation that everything went fine, and no additional confirmation message will be printed.

To make things crystal clear, here are a couple of examples:

# nbyum install sms nbsm-foo
[... snip ...]
{"type": "recap", "install": [{"name": "nbsm-foo", "new": "5.0-1"},
                              {"name": "foo", "new": "1:5.0-1"}]}

As you can see, we do not make any differences between packages the user requested to install and the ones that come in as dependencies.

Here is what happens on updates:

# nbyum update
[... snip ...]
{"type": "recap", "install": [{"name": "baz", "new": "5.0-1"},
                              {"name": "kernel", "new": "3.3.3-1"}],
                  "update": [{"name": "foo", "old": "5.0-1", "new": "1:5.0-1"}],
                  "remove": [{"name": "kernel", "old": "3.2.0-1", "reason": ""},
                             {"name": "bar", "old": "5.0-1", "reason": "Replaced by baz-5.0-1"}]}

A couple of things are interesting here. First, running an update can of course update packages, but it can also install some and remove others.

Secondly, the kernel is an "installonly" package in Yum-speak, and as such it is only ever installed, never updated. But since we only keep three versions, we also have to remove the older one. Note how the reason member is always present, even when in this case it is empty.

Finally, we are installing the package baz-5.0-1 which is obsoleting the installed bar package. This shows up as a removal.

Listing packages

We will often want to list installed and available packages.

This works pretty much the same as above, except that each item of the pkgs member will also contain the summary of the package, to make the listing a touch more user-friendly:

# nbyum list all packages
[... snip ...]
{"type": "recap", "installed": [{"name": "foo", "version": "5.0-1", "summary": "Foo foo foo"}]
{"type": "recap", "available": [{"name": "foo", "version": "5.0-2", "summary": "Foo foo foo"},
                                {"name": "bar", "version": "5.0-1", "summary": "Bar bar bar"}]

Notice how foo is both installed and available? That's because there is an update in the repositories, waiting to be installed.

Note: We don't show updates of installed security modules as available, because in this case, what the user wants to know is which modules he has activated, which is a very different thing from listing packages.

Note: Some packages and/or security modules are hidden by default. Use the --show-hidden option to display them.

Obtaining informations

The case for pkginfos is also very similar to all the above, except that we show much more details.

Indeed, each item of the pkginfos member will contain lots of information about the package, like its arch, license or even full description. The following examples shows all the printed attributes:

# nbyum info \*foo\*
[... snip ...]
{"type": "recap", "pkginfos": [{"name": "nbsm-foo", "version": "5.0-1",
                                "arch": "noarch", "license": "MIT",
                                "summary": "Un module foo",
                                "basepackage": "nbsm-foo",
                                "description": "Blabla about nbsm-foo"},
                               {"name": "foo", "version": "5.0-1",
                                "arch": "noarch", "license": "MIT",
                                "summary": "Foo foo foo",
                                "basepackage": "foo",
                                "description": "Blabla about foo"}]}

Last update

Administrators might want to know when the system was last updated.

We show that on check-update, but there is also a dedicated command: last-updated.

# nbyum last-update
{"type": "recap", "last_update": "2014-02-04 16:31:29"}


Network Box wrapper around Yum






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