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A tiny dependency injection / inversion of control container for JavaScript.


Dependency injection decouples component and component dependency instantiation from component behavior. That benefits your applications in the following ways:

  • explicit dependencies - all dependencies are passed in as constructor arguments, which makes it easy to understand how particular object depends on the rest of the environment
  • code reuse - such a component is much easier to reuse in other environments because it is not coupled to a specific implementation of its dependencies
  • much easier to test - component dependencies can be mocked trivially / overridden for testing

Following this pattern without a framework, you typically end up with some nasty main() method, where you instantiate all the objects and wire them together.

didi is a dependency injection container that saves you from this boilerplate. It makes wiring the application declarative rather than imperative. Each component declares its dependencies, and the framework does transitively resolve these dependencies.


function Car(engine) {
  this.start = function() {

function createPetrolEngine(power) {
  return {
    start: function() {
      console.log('Starting engine with ' + power + 'hp');

// a module is just a plain JavaScript object
// it is a recipe for the injector, how to instantiate stuff
const carModule = {
  // if an object asks for 'car', the injector will call new Car(...) to produce it
  'car': ['type', Car],
  // if an object asks for 'engine', the injector will call createPetrolEngine(...) to produce it
  'engine': ['factory', createPetrolEngine],
  // if an object asks for 'power', the injector will give it number 1184
  'power': ['value', 1184] // probably Bugatti Veyron

const { Injector } = require('didi');
const injector = new Injector([

injector.invoke(function(car) {

For more examples, check out the tests.

You can also check out Karma or diagram-js, two libraries that heavily use dependency injection at its core.


On the Web

Use the minification save array notation to declare types or factories and their respective dependencies:

const carModule = {
  'car': ['type', [ 'engine', Car ]],

const {
} = require('didi');

const injector = new Injector([

injector.invoke(['car', function(car) {

Registering Stuff

type(token, Constructor)

To produce the instance, Constructor will be called with new operator.

const module = {
  'engine': ['type', DieselEngine]

factory(token, factoryFn)

To produce the instance, factoryFn is called without any context. The factories return value will be used.

const module = {
  'engine': ['factory', createDieselEngine]

value(token, value)

Register the final value.

const module = {
  'power': ['value', 1184]


The injector looks up tokens based on argument names:

function Car(engine, license) {
  // will inject objects bound to 'engine' and 'license' tokens

You can also use comments:

function Car(/* engine */ e, /* x._weird */ x) {
  // will inject objects bound to 'engine' and 'x._weird' tokens

You can also the minification save array notation known from AngularJS:

const Car = [ 'engine', 'trunk', function(e, t) {
  // will inject objects bound to 'engine' and 'trunk'

Sometimes it is helpful to inject only a specific property of some object:

function Engine(/* config.engine.power */ power) {
  // will inject 1184 (config.engine.power),
  // assuming there is no direct binding for 'config.engine.power' token

const engineModule = {
  'config': ['value', {engine: {power: 1184}, other : {}}]


This library is built on top of the (now unmaintained) node-di library. didi is a maintained fork that adds support for ES6, the minification save array notation and other features.

Differences to...


  • support for array notation
  • supports ES2015

Angular DI

  • no config/runtime phases (configuration happens by injecting a config object)
  • no global module register
  • comment annotation
  • no decorators
  • service -> type
  • child injectors
  • private modules