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###############################################################################
## The Master .htaccess
##
## Version 3.3 - WORK IN PROGRESS
##
## ----------
## This file is designed to be the template .htaccess file to put on your new
## sites, increasing your site's security and performance. It is not meant to
## be just dropped in your site, though. You should go through all of its
## sections and modify it to match your site. Most notably, all instances of
## example.com and example\.com should be replaced with your real domain name.
##
## Some sections are too picky and may cause problems with legitimate requests.
## You are ultimately responsible for disabling them or writing exception rules
## for your requests. Most notably, the advanced server protection section will
## cause issues with several minifiers, eXtplorer, VirtueMart and other exten-
## sions which use non-standard scripts as their entry points. You must add
## exceptions for them manually.
##
## Some sections - depending on your server configuration - may cause your site
## to throw 500 Internal Server Error. The only way to figure out which one is
## causing it is trial and error.
##
## Big thank you's to Brian Teeman, Ken Crowder, Radek Suski and Fotis
## Evangelou for sharing their .htaccess rules with the world and inspiring
## the creation of this file. Special thanks to Jon Brown for sharing his
## research and helping me improve this file.
##
## Additional thank-yous to John for his remarks and g1smd for taking the
## time to optimize the speed of the file.
##
## It is usually prudent to remove the comments from the file when using it
## on a live host to minimize the parsing time.
##
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Do you want to customize this .htaccess file with a few clicks?
## Admin Tools Professional by AkeebaBackup.com does this and much more.
##
## Learn more: http://www.akeebabackup.com/software/admin-tools.html
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## Have fun, stay safe.
##
## Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
## Lead Developer, AkeebaBackup.com
##
## CHANGELOG:
## Version 3.3 (PENDING RELEASE)
## - Version 3.2 wasn't tested and killed some sites
## Version 3.2 (April 8th, 2011)
## - Some slight improvements with negligible (if any) performance impact
## Version 3.1 (April 5th, 2011)
## - Expiration time of static resources adjusted to 1 month instead of 1 year
## - GET variables not passed along in the index.php to site root redirection
## - Fixed typos
## - Alternative for HTTP to HTTPS redirection
## - Common exploits protection: Minor changes in comments, combined base64_encode/base64_decode rule
## - Bug in query string protection rule
## - Back-end & front-end protection optimization
## - Fixed the UNION SELECT SQLi rule to actually work against real attacks
## - Added comments to Joomla! core SEF section
## Version 3.0 (March 28th, 2011)
## - Massive rewrite
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
## - Added .ico to the pass-through rules, for favicons to load
## Version 2.2 (October 25th, 2010)
## - Bug in the tmpl=component rule
## Version 2.1 (October 19th, 2010)
## - index.php to root redirection would kill some AJAX requests
## - Referer filtering was screwed up
## - Simplified and more thorough PHP Easter Egg code (thanks Jon!)
## - The tp/template/tmpl filter was not thorough and killed some components
## - Optimized Joomla! core SEF section
## - Bot filters and GZip optimization would never run for dynamic content
## - Content expiration optimization got more optimized
## - Added ETag rule
##
###############################################################################
########## Begin - RewriteEngine enabled
RewriteEngine On
########## End - RewriteEngine enabled
########## Begin - RewriteBase
# Uncomment following line if your webserver's URL
# is not directly related to physical file paths.
# Update Your Joomla! Directory (just / for root)
# RewriteBase /
########## End - RewriteBase
########## Begin - No directory listings
## Note: +FollowSymlinks may cause problems and you might have to remove it
IndexIgnore *
Options +FollowSymLinks All -Indexes
########## End - No directory listings
########## Begin - File execution order, by Komra.de
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
########## End - File execution order
########## Begin - ETag Optimization
## This rule will create an ETag for files based only on the modification
## timestamp and their size. This works wonders if you are using rsync'ed
## servers, where the inode number of identical files differs.
## Note: It may cause problems on your server and you may need to remove it
FileETag MTime Size
########## End - ETag Optimization
########## Begin - Optimal default expiration time
## Note: this might cause problems and you might have to comment it out by
## placing a hash in front of this section's lines
## Note: Some people prefer using "now plus 1 month" instead of "now plus 1 year".
## Suit to taste.
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
# Enable expiration control
ExpiresActive On
# Default expiration: 1 hour after request
ExpiresDefault "now plus 1 hour"
# CSS and JS expiration: 1 week after request
ExpiresByType text/css "now plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType application/javascript "now plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "now plus 1 week"
# Image files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType image/bmp "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/gif "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jp2 "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/pipeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/png "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/tiff "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType text/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/vnd.wap.wbmp "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/vnd.wap.wbxml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/smil "now plus 1 month"
# Audio files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType audio/basic "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/mid "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/midi "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-aiff "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-mpegurl "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-pn-realaudio "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-wav "now plus 1 month"
# Movie files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType application/x-shockwave-flash "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType x-world/x-vrml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-msvideo "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/quicktime "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-la-asf "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-ms-asf "now plus 1 month"
</IfModule>
########## End - Optimal expiration time
########## Begin - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
## By SigSiu.net and @nikosdion.
# This line also disables Akeeba Remote Control 2.5 and earlier
SetEnvIf user-agent "Indy Library" stayout=1
# WARNING: Disabling wget will also block the most common method for
# running CRON jobs. Remove if you have issues with CRON jobs.
SetEnvIf user-agent "Wget" stayout=1
# The following rules are for bandwidth-hogging download tools
SetEnvIf user-agent "libwww-perl" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Download Demon" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetRight" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetWeb!" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go!Zilla" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go-Ahead-Got-It" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GrabNet" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "TurnitinBot" stayout=1
# This line denies access to all of the above tools
deny from env=stayout
########## End - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
########## Begin - Automatic compression of resources
# Compress text, html, javascript, css, xml, kudos to Komra.de
# May kill access to your site for old versions of Internet Explorer
# The server needs to be compiled with mod_deflate otherwise it will send HTTP 500 Error.
# mod_deflate is not available on Apache 1.x series. Can only be used with Apache 2.x server.
# AddOutputFilterByType is now deprecated by Apache. Use mod_filter in the future.
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain text/html text/xml text/css application/xml application/xhtml+xml application/rss+xml application/javascript application/x-javascript
########## End - Automatic compression of resources
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
## If the above doesn't work on your server, try this:
## RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R,L]
########## End - Google Apps redirection
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
# If the above line throws a 500 error, try this instead:
# RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R,L]
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
########## Begin - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
## Note: olddomain.com is your old domain name, you want to redirect FROM,
## whereas www.example.com is the new domain name you want to redirect TO.
## Change those names to reflect your current configuration. Remember, this
## part of the file is supposed to be placed in www.olddomain.com!
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
########## End - Redirect olddomain.com to www.example.com
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
# to work.
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
# Add more rules below this line
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
########## Begin - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
## If you experience problems on your site block out the operations listed below
## This attempts to block the most common type of exploit `attempts` to Joomla!
#
# If the request query string contains /proc/self/environ (by SigSiu.net)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
# Legacy variable injection (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode/base64_decode data to send via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code\(.*\) [OR]
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_decode\(.*\) [OR]
# Block out any script that includes a <script> tag in URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C).*script.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
# Block out any script trying to set a PHP GLOBALS variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} GLOBALS(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2}) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to modify a _REQUEST variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2})
# Return a 403 Forbidden header and show the content of the root homepage
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
#
########## End - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
########## Begin - File injection protection, by SigSiu.net
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
########## End - File injection protection
########## Begin - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
##
## These are sample exceptions to the Advanced Server Protection 3.0
## rule set further down this file.
##
## Allow UddeIM CAPTCHA
RewriteRule ^components/com_uddeim/captcha15\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Phil Taylor's Turbo Gears
RewriteRule ^plugins/system/GoogleGears/gears-manifest\.php$ - [L]
## Allow JoomlaWorks AllVideos
RewriteRule ^plugins/content/jw_allvideos/includes/jw_allvideos_scripts\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Admin Tools Joomla! updater to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_admintools/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Backup Professional's integrated restoration script to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_akeeba/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Kickstart
RewriteRule ^kickstart\.php$ - [L]
# Add more rules to single PHP files here
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
# Add more rules for allowing full access (except PHP files) on more directories here
## Uncomment to allow full access to the cache directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^cache/ - [L]
## Uncomment to allow full access to the tmp directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^tmp/ - [L]
# Add more full access rules here
########## End - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
########## Begin - Advanced server protection
# Advanced server protection, version 2.0 - August 2010
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain.
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting the
## dots with \., i.e.: www\.example\.com for www.example.com
RewriteRule ^images/stories/.*\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [F]
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
## Initial idea by Brian Teeman and Ken Crowder, see:
## http://www.slideshare.net/brianteeman/hidden-joomla-secrets
## Improved by @nikosdion to work more efficiently and handle template
## and tmpl query parameters
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)tmpl=(component|system) [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [L]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)t(p|emplate)= [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
## Disallow PHP Easter Eggs (can be used in fingerprinting attacks to determine
## your PHP version). See http://www.0php.com/php_easter_egg.php and
## http://osvdb.org/12184 for more information
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[a-f0-9]{8}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{12} [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
## Back-end protection
## This also blocks fingerprinting attacks browsing for XML and INI files
RewriteRule ^administrator/?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/.*\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
## Explicitly allow access only to XML-RPC's xmlrpc/index.php or plain xmlrpc/ directory
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/(index\.php)?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/ - [F]
## Disallow front-end access for certain Joomla! system directories
RewriteRule ^includes/js/ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(cache|includes|language|libraries|logs|tmp)/ - [F]
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/.*\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
## for being so lame, lazy and security unconscious.
# RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/.*(index\.php)?$ - [L]
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
# RewriteRule ^templates/.*\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
## Disallow access to rogue PHP files throughout the site, unless they are explicitly allowed
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} (\.php)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(/index[23]?\.php)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule (.*\.php)$ - [F]
## Disallow access to htaccess.txt and configuration.php-dist
RewriteRule ^(htaccess\.txt|configuration\.php-dist|php\.ini)$ - [F]
## SQLi first line of defense, thanks to Radek Suski (SigSiu.net) @
## http://www.sigsiu.net/presentations/fortifying_your_joomla_website.html
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat.*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union.*select.*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union.*all.*select.* [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
########## End - Advanced server protection
########## Begin - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
## I removed some common words, tweak to your liking
## This code uses PCRE and works only with Apache 2.x.
## This code will NOT work with Apache 1.x servers.
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ambien|blue\spill|cialis|cocaine|ejaculation|erectile)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(erections|hoodia|huronriveracres|impotence|levitra|libido)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(lipitor|phentermin|pro[sz]ac|sandyauer|tramadol|troyhamby)\b [NC,OR]
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ultram|unicauca|valium|viagra|vicodin|xanax|ypxaieo)\b [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
## Note: The previous lines are a "compressed" version
## of the filters. You can add your own filters as:
## RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \bbadword\b [NC,OR]
## where "badword" is the word you want to exclude
########## End - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
########## Begin - Joomla! core SEF Section
#
RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
# If the requested path and file is not /index.php and the request
# has not already been internally rewritten to the index.php script
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/index\.php
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /component/|(/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|raw|ini|zip|json|file|vcf))$ [NC]
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# and the requested path doesn't match a physical folder
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
# internally rewrite the request to the index.php script
RewriteRule .* index.php [L]
#
########## End - Joomla! core SEF Section