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* lock: write lock file with final newline

Before this commit, `nimble lock` wrote the lock file without a final
newline:

    $ nimble lock
         Info:  Generating the lock file...
      Verifying dependencies for foo@0.1.0
      Success:  The lock file is generated.
    $ cat nimble.lock
    {
      "version": 1,
      "packages": {}
    $ wc -l nimble.lock
    3 nimble.lock

Fixes: #1056

* Update src/nimblepkg/lockfile.nim

---------

Co-authored-by: Andreas Rumpf <rumpf_a@web.de>
c701d6e

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Nimble

Nimble is the default package manager for the Nim programming language.

Interested in learning how to create a package? Skip directly to that section here.

This documentation is for the latest commit of Nimble. Nim releases ship with a specific version of Nimble and may not contain all the features and fixes described here. nimble -v will display the version of Nimble in use and corresponding documentation can be found here.

The Nimble change log can be found here.

Contents

Requirements

Nimble has some runtime dependencies on external tools, these tools are used to download Nimble packages. For instance, if a package is hosted on GitHub, you need to have git installed and added to your environment PATH. The same goes for Mercurial repositories on Bitbucket. Nimble packages are typically hosted in Git repositories so you may be able to get away without installing Mercurial.

Warning: Ensure that you have a fairly recent version of Git installed. Current minimal supported version is Git 2.22 from 2019-06-07. Cloning of a specific Git commit described in the lock file uses a method described here and requiring an option enabled on server side with the configuration variable uploadpack.allowReachableSHA1InWant. Currently the feature is supported by both GitHub and BitBucket.

Installation

Nimble is now bundled with Nim (as of Nim version 0.15.0). This means that you should have Nimble installed already, as long as you have the latest version of Nim installed as well. Because of this you likely do not need to install Nimble manually.

But in case you still want to install Nimble manually, you can follow the following instructions.

There are two ways to install Nimble manually. Using koch and using Nimble itself.

Using koch

The koch tool is included in the Nim distribution and repository. Simply navigate to the location of your Nim installation and execute the following command to compile and install Nimble.

./koch nimble

This will clone the Nimble repository, compile Nimble and copy it into Nim's bin directory.

Using Nimble

In most cases you will already have Nimble installed, you can install a newer version of Nimble by simply running the following command:

nimble install nimble

This will download the latest release of Nimble and install it on your system.

Note that you must have ~/.nimble/bin in your PATH for this to work, if you're using choosenim then you likely already have this set up correctly.

Nimble usage

Once you have Nimble installed on your system you can run the nimble command to obtain a list of available commands.

nimble refresh

The refresh command is used to fetch and update the list of Nimble packages (see below). There is no automatic update mechanism, so you need to run this yourself if you need to refresh your local list of known available Nimble packages. Example:

$ nimble refresh
Downloading package list from https://.../packages.json
Done.

Some commands may remind you to run nimble refresh or will run it for you if they fail.

You can also optionally supply this command with a URL if you would like to use a third-party package list.

Package lists can be specified in Nimble's config. Take a look at the config section below to see how to do this.

nimble check

The check command will read your package's .nimble file. It will then verify that the package's structure is valid.

Example:

$ nimble check
    Error: Package 'x' has an incorrect structure. It should contain a single directory hierarchy for source files, named 'x', but file 'foobar.nim' is in a directory named 'incorrect' instead. This will be an error in the future.
     Hint: If 'incorrect' contains source files for building 'x', rename it to 'x'. Otherwise, prevent its installation by adding `skipDirs = @["incorrect"]` to the .nimble file.
  Failure: Validation failed

On check command the development mode dependencies are also validated against the lock file. The following reasons for validation failure are possible:

  • The package directory is not under version control.
  • The package working copy directory is not in clean state.
  • Current VCS revision is not pushed on any remote.
  • The working copy needs sync.
  • The working copy needs lock.
  • The working copy needs merge or re-base.

nimble install

The install command will download and install a package. You need to pass the name of the package (or packages) you want to install. If any of the packages depend on other Nimble packages Nimble will also install them. Example:

$ nimble install nake
Downloading nake into /tmp/nimble/nake...
Executing git...
...
nake installed successfully

Nimble always fetches and installs the latest version of a package. Note that the latest version is defined as the latest tagged version in the Git (or Mercurial) repository, if the package has no tagged versions then the latest commit in the remote repository will be installed. If you already have that version installed, Nimble will ask you whether you wish to overwrite your local copy.

You can force Nimble to download the latest commit from the package's repo, for example:

$ nimble install nimgame@#head

This is of course Git-specific, for Mercurial, use tip instead of head. A branch, tag, or commit hash may also be specified in the place of head.

Instead of specifying a VCS branch, you may also specify a concrete version or a version range, for example:

$ nimble install nimgame@0.5
$ nimble install nimgame@"> 0.5"

The latter command will install a version that is greater than 0.5.

Nim flags provided to nimble install will be forwarded to the compiler when building any binaries. Such compiler flags can be made persistent by using Nim configuration files.

Local Package Development

The install command can also be used for locally testing or developing a Nimble package by leaving out the package name parameter. Your current working directory must be a Nimble package and contain a valid package.nimble file.

Nimble will install the package residing in the current working directory when you don't specify a package name and the directory contains a package.nimble file. This can be useful for developers who are locally testing their .nimble files before submitting them to the official package list. See the Creating Packages section for more info on this.

Dependencies required for developing or testing a project can be installed by passing --depsOnly without specifying a package name. Nimble will then install any missing dependencies listed in the package's package.nimble file in the current working directoy. Note that dependencies will be installed globally.

For example to install the dependencies for a Nimble project myPackage:

$ cd myPackage/ && nimble install --depsOnly

Package URLs

A valid URL to a Git or Mercurial repository can also be specified, Nimble will automatically detect the type of the repository that the url points to and install it.

For repositories containing the Nimble package in a subdirectory, you can instruct Nimble about the location of your package using the ?subdir=<path> query parameter. For example:

$ nimble install https://github.com/nimble-test/multi?subdir=alpha

nimble develop

The develop command is used for putting packages in a development mode. When executed with a list of packages it clones their repository. If it is executed in a package directory it adds cloned packages to the special nimble.develop file. This is a special file which is used for holding the paths to development mode dependencies of the current directory package. It has the following structure:

{
    "version": 1,
    "includes": [],
    "dependencies": []
}
  • version - JSON schema version
  • includes - JSON array of paths to included files.
  • dependencies - JSON array of paths to Nimble packages directories.

The format for included develop files is the same as the project's develop file.

Develop files validation rules:

  • The included develop files must be valid.
  • The packages listed in the dependencies section and in the included develop files are required to be valid Nimble packages, but they are not required to be valid dependencies of the current project. In the latter case, they are simply ignored.
  • The develop files of the develop mode dependencies of a package are being followed and processed recursively. Finally, only one common set of develop mode dependencies is created.
  • In the final set of develop mode dependencies, it is not allowed to have more than one package with the same name but with different file system paths.

Just as with the install command, a package URL may also be specified instead of a name.

If present, the validity of the package's develop file is added to the requirements for validity of the package which is determined by nimble check command.

The develop command has a list of options:

  • -p, --path path - Specifies the path whether the packages should be cloned.
  • -c, --create [path] - Creates an empty develop file with the name nimble.develop in the current directory or, if a path is present, to the given directory with a given name.
  • -a, --add path - Adds the package at the given path to the nimble.develop file.
  • -r, --remove-path path - Removes the package at the given path from the nimble.develop file.
  • -n, --remove-name path - Removed the package with the given name from the nimble.develop file.
  • -i, --include file - Includes a develop file into the current directory's one.
  • -e, --exclude file - Excludes a develop file from the current directory's one.
  • --with-dependencies - Clones for develop also the dependencies of the packages for which the develop command is executed.
  • --develop-file - Changes the name of the develop file which to be manipulated. It is useful for creating a free develop file which is not associated with any project intended for inclusion in some other develop file.
  • -g, --global - Creates an old style link file in the special links directory. It is read by Nim to be able to use global develop mode packages. Nimble uses it as a global develop file if a local one does not exist.

The options for manipulation of the develop files could be given only when executing develop command from some package's directory unless --develop-file option with a name of develop file is explicitly given.

Because the develop files are user-specific and they contain local file system paths they MUST NOT be committed.

nimble lock

The nimble lock command will generate or update a package lock file named nimble.lock. This file is used for pinning the exact versions of the dependencies of the package. The file is intended to be committed and used by other developers to ensure that exactly the same version of the dependencies is used by all developers.

Currently the lock file have the structure as in the following example:

{
  "version": 1,
  "packages": {
     ...
     "chronos": {
      "version": "3.0.2",
      "vcsRevision": "aab1e30a726bb47c5d3f4a75a826981836cde9e2",
      "url": "https://github.com/status-im/nim-chronos",
      "downloadMethod": "git",
      "dependencies": [
        "stew",
        "bearssl",
        "httputils",
        "unittest2"
      ],
      "checksums": {
        "sha1": "a1cdaa77995f2d1381e8f9dc129594f2fa2ee07f"
      }
    },
    ...
  }
}
  • version - JSON schema version.
  • packages - JSON object containing JSON objects for all dependencies,
  • chronos - Nested JSON object keys are the names of the dependencies packages.
  • version - The version of the dependency.
  • vcsRevision - The revision at which the dependency is locked.
  • url - The URL of the repository of the package.
  • downloadMethod - git or hg according to the type of the repository at url.
  • dependencies - The direct dependencies of the package. Used for writing the reverse dependencies of the package in the nimbledata.json file. Those packages' names also must be in the lock file.
  • checksums - A JSON compound object containing different checksums used for verifying that a downloaded package is exactly the same as the pinned in the lock file package. Currently, only sha1 checksums are supported
  • sha1 - The sha1 checksum of the package files.

If a lock file nimble.lock exists, then on performing all Nimble commands which require searching for dependencies and downloading them in the case they are missing (like build, install, develop), it is read and its content is used to download the same version of the project dependencies by using the URL, download method and VCS revision written in it. The checksum of the downloaded package is compared against the one written in the lock file. In the case the two checksums are not equal then it will be printed error message and the operation will be aborted. Reverse dependencies are added for installed locked dependencies just like for any other package being locally installed.

nimble sync

The nimble sync command will synchronize develop mode dependencies with the content of the lock file. If the revision specified in the lock file is not found locally, it tries to fetch it from the configured remotes. If it is present on multiple branches, it tries to stay on the current one, and if can't, it prefers local branches rather than remote-tracking ones. If found on more than one branch, it gives the user a choice whether to switch.

Sync operation will also download non-develop mode dependencies versions described in the lock file if they are not already present in the Nimble cache.

If the -l, --list-only option is given then the command only lists development mode dependencies whose working copies are out of sync, without actually syncing them and without downloading missing non-develop mode dependencies.

Important implementation details:

To be able to determine whether a working copy of development mode dependency needs to be synced, locked again, or merged with or re-based on some other branch a special sync file is kept in the VCS directory (.git or .hg) of the current package. It keeps a record for every development mode dependency for its current working copy revision during the last lock, sync, or develop operation. The name of the file is <package_name>.nimble.sync.

nimble setup

The nimble setup command creates a nimble.paths file containing file system paths to the dependencies. It also includes the paths file in the config.nims file (by creating it if it does not already exist) to make them available for the compiler. nimble.paths file is user-specific and MUST NOT be committed.

The command also adds nimble.develop and nimble.paths files to the .gitignore file.

nimble uninstall

The uninstall command will remove an installed package. Attempting to remove a package that other packages depend on will result in an error. You can use the --inclDeps or -i flag to remove all dependent packages along with the package.

Similar to the install command you can specify a version range, for example:

$ nimble uninstall nimgame@0.5

nimble build

The build command is mostly used by developers who want to test building their .nimble package. This command will build the package with default flags, i.e. a debug build which includes stack traces but no GDB debug information. The install command will build the package in release mode instead.

Nim flags provided to nimble build will be forwarded to the compiler. Such compiler flags can be made persistent by using Nim configuration files.

nimble run

The run command can be used to build and run any binary specified in your package's bin list. The binary needs to be specified after any compilation flags if there are several binaries defined. Any flags after the binary or -- are passed to the binary when it is run. It is possible to run a binary from some dependency package. To do this pass the --package, -p option to Nimble. For example:

nimble --package:foo run <compilation_flags> bar <run_flags>

nimble c

The c (or compile, js, cc, cpp) command can be used by developers to compile individual modules inside their package. All options passed to Nimble will also be passed to the Nim compiler during compilation.

Nimble will use the backend specified in the package's .nimble file if the command c or compile is specified. The more specific js, cc, cpp can be used to override that.

nimble list

The list command will display the known list of packages available for Nimble. An optional --ver parameter can be specified to tell Nimble to query remote Git repositories for the list of versions of the packages and to then print the versions. Please note however that this can be slow as each package must be queried separately.

nimble search

If you don't want to go through the whole output of the list command you can use the search command specifying as parameters the package name and/or tags you want to filter. Nimble will look into the known list of available packages and display only those that match the specified keywords (which can be substrings). Example:

$ nimble search math
linagl:
  url:         https://bitbucket.org/BitPuffin/linagl (hg)
  tags:        library, opengl, math, game
  description: OpenGL math library
  license:     CC0

extmath:
  url:         git://github.com/achesak/extmath.nim (git)
  tags:        library, math, trigonometry
  description: Nim math library
  license:     MIT

Searches are case insensitive.

An optional --ver parameter can be specified to tell Nimble to query remote Git repositories for the list of versions of the packages and then print the versions. However, please note that this can be slow as each package must be queried separately.

nimble path

The nimble path command will show the absolute path to the installed packages matching the specified parameters. Since there can be many versions of the same package installed, the path command will list all of them.

nimble init

The nimble init command will start a simple wizard which will create a quick .nimble file for your project in the current directory.

As of version 0.7.0, the .nimble file that this command creates will use the new NimScript format. Check out the Creating Packages section for more info.

nimble publish

Publishes your Nimble package to the official Nimble package repository.

Note: Requires a valid GitHub account with an SSH key attached to it. To upload your public key onto your GitHub account, follow this link.

nimble tasks

For a Nimble package in the current working directory, list the tasks which that package defines. This is only supported for packages utilising the new nimscript .nimble files.

nimble dump

Outputs information about the package in the current working directory in an ini-compatible format. Useful for tools wishing to read metadata about Nimble packages who do not want to use the NimScript evaluator.

The format can be specified with --json or --ini (and defaults to --ini). Use nimble dump pkg to dump information about provided pkg instead.

Configuration

At startup Nimble will attempt to read ~/.config/nimble/nimble.ini on Linux (on Windows it will attempt to read C:\Users\<YourUser>\AppData\Roaming\nimble\nimble.ini).

The format of this file corresponds to the ini format with some Nim enhancements. For example:

nimbleDir = r"C:\Nimble\"

[PackageList]
name = "CustomPackages"
url = "http://mydomain.org/packages.json"

[PackageList]
name = "Local project packages"
path = r"C:\Projects\Nim\packages.json"

You can currently configure the following in this file:

  • nimbleDir - The directory which Nimble uses for package installation. Default: ~/.nimble/
  • chcp - Whether to change the current code page when executing Nim application packages. If true this will add chcp 65001 to the .cmd stubs generated in ~/.nimble/bin/. Default: true
  • [PackageList] + name + (url|path) - You can use this section to specify a new custom package list. Multiple package lists can be specified. Nimble defaults to the "Official" package list, you can override it by specifying a [PackageList] section named "official". Multiple URLs can be specified under each section, Nimble will try each in succession if downloading from the first fails. Alternatively, path can specify a local file path to copy a package list .json file from.
  • cloneUsingHttps - Whether to replace any git:// inside URLs with https://. Default: true
  • httpProxy - The URL of the proxy to use when downloading package listings. Nimble will also attempt to read the http_proxy and https_proxy environment variables. Default: ""

Creating Packages

Nimble works on Git repositories as its primary source of packages. Its list of packages is stored in a JSON file which is freely accessible in the nim-lang/packages repository. This JSON file provides Nimble with the required Git URL to clone the package and install it. Installation and build instructions are contained inside a file with the .nimble file extension. The Nimble file shares the package's name, i.e. a package named "foobar" should have a corresponding foobar.nimble file.

These files specify information about the package including its author, license, dependencies and more. Without one, Nimble is not able to install a package.

A .nimble file can be created easily using Nimble's init command. This command will ask you a bunch of questions about your package, then generate a .nimble file for you in the current directory.

A bare minimum .nimble file follows:

# Package

version     = "0.1.0"
author      = "Your Name"
description = "Example .nimble file."
license     = "MIT"

# Deps

requires "nim >= 0.10.0"

You may omit the dependencies entirely, but specifying the lowest version of the Nim compiler required is recommended.

You can also specify multiple dependencies like so:

# Deps

requires "nim >= 0.10.0", "foobar >= 0.1.0"
requires "fizzbuzz >= 1.0"
requires "https://github.com/user/pkg#5a54b5e"

There are also following version selector operators available for "requires": <,>, >=, <=, ==, ^= and ~=.

The operator specification of ^= is similar to ^ in npm, while the ~= operator is similar to ~= in python:

  • ^= is selecting the latest compatible version according to semver. Major release number changes cause incompatibility.
  • ~= is selecting the latest version by increasing the last given digit to the highest version.

Both operators ^= and ~= were not available yet for Nimble 0.13.1 and earlier and would cause error messages if used there. Other more complex comparison operators that would be available in npm like !=, ||, -, * and X are also not available in Nimble.

# Examples for selector ^= and ~=

requires "nim ^= 1.2.2" # nim >= 1.2.2 & < 2.0.0 
requires "nim ~= 1.2.2" # nim >= 1.2.2 & < 1.3.0 
requires "jester ^= 0.4.1" # jester >= 0.4.1 & < 0.5.0 
requires "jester ~= 0.4.1" # jester >= 0.4.1 & < 0.5.0 
requires "jester ~= 0.4" # jester >= 0.4.0 & < 1.0.0 
requires "choosenim ~= 0" # choosenim >= 0.0.0 & < 1.0.0 
requires "choosenim ^= 0" # choosenim >= 0.0.0 & < 1.0.0 

Nimble currently supports the installation of packages from a local directory, a Git repository and a mercurial repository. The .nimble file must be present in the root of the directory or repository being installed.

The .nimble file is very flexible because it is interpreted using NimScript. Because of Nim's flexibility, the definitions remain declarative. With the added ability to use the Nim language to enrich your package specification. For example, you can define dependencies for specific platforms using Nim's when statement.

Another great feature is the ability to define custom Nimble package-specific commands. These are defined in the .nimble files of course.

task hello, "This is a hello task":
  echo("Hello World!")

You can then execute nimble hello, which will result in the following output:

Executing task hello in /Users/user/projects/pkg/pkg.nimble
Hello World!

Dependencies that are only needed for a certain task can be declared with taskRequires like so

taskRequires "hello", "choosenim == 0.4.0"

You can place any Nim code inside these tasks. As long as that code does not access the FFI. The nimscript module in Nim's standard library defines additional functionality such as the ability to execute external processes which makes this feature very powerful.

You can also check what tasks are supported by the package in the current directory by using the tasks command.

Nimble provides an API that adds even more functionality. For example, you can specify pre and post hooks for any Nimble command (including commands that you define yourself). To do this you can add something like the following:

before hello:
  echo("About to call hello!")

That will result in the following output when nimble hello is executed (you must also specify the task shown above).

Executing task hello in /Users/user/projects/pkg/pkg.nimble
About to call hello!
Hello World!

Similar to this an after block is also available for post hooks, which are executed after Nimble finished executing a command. You can also return false from these blocks to stop further execution.

The nimscriptapi.nim module specifies this and includes other definitions which are also useful. Take a look at it for more information.

Tasks support two kinds of flags: nimble <compflags> task <runflags>. Compile flags are those specified before the task name and are forwarded to the Nim compiler that runs the .nimble task. This enables setting --define:xxx values that can be checked with when defined(xxx) in the task, and other compiler flags that are applicable in Nimscript mode. Run flags are those after the task name and are available as command-line arguments to the task. They can be accessed per usual from commandLineParams: seq[string].

In order to forward compiler flags to exec("nim ...") calls executed within a custom task, the user needs to specify these flags as run flags which will then need to be manually accessed and forwarded in the task.

Project structure

For a package named "foobar", the recommended project structure is the following:

.                   # The root directory of the project
├── LICENSE
├── README.md
├── foobar.nimble   # The project .nimble file
└── src
    └── foobar.nim  # Imported via `import foobar`
└── tests           # Contains the tests
    ├── config.nims
    ├── tfoo1.nim   # First test
    └── tfoo2.nim   # Second test

Note that the .nimble file needs to be in the project's root directory. This directory structure will be created if you run nimble init inside a foobar directory.

Warning: When source files are placed in a src directory, the .nimble file must contain a srcDir = "src" directive. The nimble init command takes care of that for you.

When introducing more modules into your package, you should place them in a separate directory named foobar (i.e. your package's name). For example:

.                   # The root directory of the project
├── ...
├── foobar.nimble   # The project .nimble file
├── src
│   ├── foobar
│   │   ├── utils.nim   # Imported via `import foobar/utils`
│   │   └── common.nim  # Imported via `import foobar/common`
│   └── foobar.nim      # Imported via `import foobar`
└── ...

Private modules

You may wish to hide certain modules in your package from the users. Create a private directory for that purpose. For example:

.                   # The root directory of the project
├── ...
├── foobar.nimble   # The project .nimble file
├── src
│   ├── foobar
│   │   ├── private
│   │   │   └── hidden.nim  # Imported via `import foobar/private/hidden`
│   │   ├── utils.nim       # Imported via `import foobar/utils`
│   │   └── common.nim      # Imported via `import foobar/common`
│   └── foobar.nim          # Imported via `import foobar`
└── ...

Tests

A common problem that arises with tests is the fact that they need to import the associated package. But the package is in the parent directory. This can be solved in a few different ways:

  • Expect that the package has been installed locally into your ~/.nimble directory.
  • Use a simple path modification to resolve the package properly.

The latter is highly recommended. Reinstalling the package to test an actively changing codebase is a massive pain.

To modify the path for your tests only, simply add a nim.cfg file into your tests directory with the following contents:

--path:"../src/"

Nimble offers a pre-defined test task that compiles and runs all files in the tests directory beginning with 't' in their filename. Nim flags provided to nimble test will be forwarded to the compiler when building the tests.

You may wish to override this test task in your .nimble file. This is particularly useful when you have a single test suite program. Just add the following to your .nimble file to override the default test task.

task test, "Runs the test suite":
  exec "nim c -r tests/tester"

Running nimble test will now use the test task you have defined.

Libraries

Library packages are likely the most popular form of Nimble packages. They are meant to be used by other library or binary packages.

When Nimble installs a library, it will copy all of its files into $nimbleDir/pkgs2/pkgname-ver-checksum. It's up to the package creator to make sure that the package directory layout is correct, this is so that users of the package can correctly import the package.

It is suggested that the layout be as follows. The directory layout is determined by the nature of your package, that is, whether your package exposes only one module or multiple modules.

If your package exposes only a single module, then that module should be present in the source directory of your Git repository and should be named whatever your package's name is. A good example of this is the jester package which exposes the jester module. In this case, the jester package is imported with import jester.

If your package exposes multiple modules then the modules should be in a PackageName directory. This will allow for a certain measure of isolation from other packages which expose modules with the same names. In this case, the package's modules will be imported with import PackageName/module.

Here's a simple example multi-module library package called kool:

.
├── kool
│   ├── useful.nim
│   └── also_useful.nim
└── kool.nimble

In regards to modules which you do not wish to be exposed. You should place them in a PackageName/private directory. Your modules may then import these private modules with import PackageName/private/module. This directory structure may be enforced in the future.

All files and folders in the directory where the .nimble file resides will be copied as-is, you can however skip some directories or files by setting the skipDirs, skipFiles or skipExt options in your .nimble file. Directories and files can also be specified on a whitelist basis, if you specify either of installDirs, installFiles or installExt then Nimble will only install the files specified.

Binary packages

These are application packages which require building prior to installation. A package is automatically a binary package as soon as it sets at least one bin value, like so:

bin = @["main"]

In this case when nimble install is invoked, Nimble will build the main.nim file, copy it into $nimbleDir/pkgs2/pkgname-ver-checksum/ and subsequently create a symlink to the binary in $nimbleDir/bin/. On Windows, a stub .cmd file is created instead.

The binary can be named differently than the source file with the namedBin table:

namedBin["main"] = "mymain"
namedBin = {"main": "mymain", "main2": "other-main"}.toTable()

Note that namedBin entries override duplicates in bin.

Dependencies are automatically installed before building. It's a good idea to test that the dependencies you specified are correct by running nimble build or nimble install in the directory of your package.

Hybrids

Binary packages will not install .nim files so include installExt = @["nim"] in your .nimble file if you intend for your package to be a hybrid binary/library combo.

Historically, binaries that shared the name of a pkgname directory that contains additional .nim files required workarounds. This is now handled behind the scenes by appending a .out extension to the binary and is transparent to commands like nimble run or symlinks which can still refer to the original binary name.

Dependencies

Dependencies are specified using the requires function. For example:

# Dependencies
requires "nim >= 0.10.0", "jester > 0.1 & <= 0.5"

Dependency lists support version ranges. These versions may either be a concrete version like 0.1, or they may contain any of the less-than (<), greater-than (>), less-than-or-equal-to (<=) and greater-than-or-equal-to (>=) operators. Two version ranges may be combined using the & operator, for example > 0.2 & < 1.0, which will install a package with the version greater than 0.2 and less than 1.0.

Specifying a concrete version as a dependency is not a good idea because your package may end up depending on two different versions of the same package. If this happens, Nimble will refuse to install the package.

In addition to versions you may also specify Git/Mercurial tags, branches and commits. Although these have to be specific; ranges of commits are not supported. This is done with the # character, for example: jester#head. Which will make your package depend on the latest commit of Jester.

External dependencies

Warning: This feature is brand new in Nimble v0.8.0. Breaking changes related to it are more likely to be introduced than for any other Nimble features.

Starting with Nimble v0.8.0, you can now specify external dependencies. These dependencies are not managed by Nimble and can only be installed via your system's package manager or downloaded manually via the internet.

As an example, to specify a dependency on openssl you may put this in your .nimble file:

when defined(nimdistros):
  import distros
  if detectOs(Ubuntu):
    foreignDep "libssl-dev"
  else:
    foreignDep "openssl"

The when branch is important to support installation using older versions of Nimble.

The distros module in Nim's standard library contains a list of all the supported Operating Systems and Linux distributions.

With this inside your .nimble file, Nimble will output the following after installing your package (on macOS):

  Hint: This package requires some external dependencies.
  Hint: To install them you may be able to run:
  Hint:   brew install openssl

Versions

Versions of cloned packages via Git or Mercurial are determined through the repository's tags.

When installing a package that needs to be downloaded, after the download is complete and if the package is distributed through a VCS, Nimble will check the cloned repository's tags list. If no tags exist, Nimble will simply install the HEAD (or tip in Mercurial) of the repository. If tags exist, Nimble will attempt to look for tags that resemble versions (e.g. v0.1) and will then find the latest version out of the available tags, once it does so it will install the package after checking out the latest version.

You can force the installation of the HEAD of the repository by specifying #head after the package name in your dependency list.

Releasing a new version

Version releases are done by creating a tag in your Git or Mercurial repository.

Whenever you want to release a new version, you should remember to first increment the version in your .nimble file and commit your changes. Only after that is done should you tag the release.

To summarise, the steps for release are:

  • Increment the version in your .nimble file.
  • Commit your changes.
  • Tag your release, by for example running git tag v0.2.0.
  • Push your tags and commits.

Once the new tag is in the remote repository, Nimble will be able to detect the new version.

Git Version Tagging

Use dot-separated numbers to represent the release version in the git tag label. Nimble will parse these git tag labels to know which versions of a package are published.

v0.2.0        # 0.2.0
v1            # 1
v1.2.3-zuzu   # 1.2.3
foo-1.2.3.4   # 1.2.3.4

Publishing packages

Publishing packages isn't a requirement. But doing so allows people to associate a specific name to a URL pointing to your package. This mapping is stored in an official packages repository located here.

This repository contains a packages.json file that lists all the published packages. It contains a set of package names with associated metadata. You can read more about this metadata in the readme for the packages repository.

To publish your package you need to fork that repository and add an entry into the packages.json file for your package. Then create a pull request with your changes. You only need to do this once.

Nimble includes a publish command which does this for you automatically.

.nimble reference

[Package]

Required

  • name - The name of the package. (This is not required in the new NimScript format)
  • version - The current version of this package. This should be incremented before tagging the current version using git tag or hg tag.
  • author - The name of the author of this package.
  • description - A string describing the package.
  • license - The name of the license under which this package is licensed.

Optional

  • skipDirs - A list of directory names which should be skipped during installation, separated by commas.
  • skipFiles - A list of file names which should be skipped during installation, separated by commas.
  • skipExt - A list of file extensions which should be skipped during installation, the extensions should be specified without a leading . and should be separated by commas.
  • installDirs - A list of directories which should exclusively be installed, if this option is specified nothing else will be installed except the dirs listed here, the files listed in installFiles, the files which share the extensions listed in installExt, the .nimble file and the binary (if bin / namedBin is specified). Separated by commas.
  • installFiles - A list of files which should be exclusively installed, this complements installDirs and installExt. Only the files listed here, directories listed in installDirs, files which share the extension listed in installExt, the .nimble file and the binary (if bin / namedBin is specified) will be installed. Separated by commas.
  • installExt - A list of file extensions which should be exclusively installed, this complements installDirs and installFiles. Separated by commas.
  • srcDir - Specifies the directory which contains the .nim source files. Default: The directory in which the .nimble file resides; i.e. root dir of the package.
  • binDir - Specifies the directory where nimble build will output binaries. Default: The directory in which the .nimble file resides; i.e. root dir of the package.
  • bin - A list of files which should be built separated by commas with no file extension required. This option turns your package into a binary package, Nimble will build the files specified and install them appropriately.
  • namedBin - A list of name:value files which should be built with specified name, no file extension required. This option turns your package into a binary package, Nimble will build the files specified and install them approriately. namedBin entries override duplicates in bin.
  • backend - Specifies the backend which will be used to build the files listed in bin. Possible values include: c, cc, cpp, objc, js. Default: c

[Deps]/[Dependencies]

Optional

  • requires - Specified a list of package names with an optional version range separated by commas. Example: nim >= 0.10.0, jester; with this value your package will depend on nim version 0.10.0 or greater and on any version of jester.

Nimble's folder structure and packages

Nimble stores all installed packages and metadata in $HOME/.nimble by default. Libraries are stored in $nimbleDir/pkgs2, and compiled binaries are linked in $nimbleDir/bin. The Nim compiler is aware of Nimble and will automatically find modules so you can import modulename and have that working without additional setup.

However, some Nimble packages can provide additional tools or commands. If you don't add their location ($nimbleDir/bin) to your $PATH they will not work properly and you won't be able to run them.

If the nimbledeps directory exists next to the package .nimble file, Nimble will use that directory as $nimbleDir and $HOME/.nimble will be ignored. This allows for project local dependencies and isolation from other projects. The -l | --localdeps flag can be used to setup a project in local dependency mode.

Nimble also allows overriding $nimbleDir on the command-line with the --nimbleDir flag or the NIMBLE_DIR environment variable if required.

If the default $HOME/.nimble is overridden by one of the above methods, Nimble automatically adds $nimbleDir/bin to the PATH for all child processes. In addition, the NIMBLE_DIR environment variable is also set to the specified $nimbleDir to inform child Nimble processes invoked in tasks.

Nim compiler

The Nim compiler cannot read .nimble files. Its knowledge of Nimble is limited to the nimblePath feature which allows it to use packages installed in Nimble's package directory when compiling your software. This means that it cannot resolve dependencies, and it can only use the latest version of a package when compiling.

When Nimble builds your package it executes the Nim compiler. It resolves the dependencies and feeds the path of each package to the compiler so that it knows precisely which version to use.

This means that you can safely compile using the compiler when developing your software, but you should use Nimble to build the package before publishing it to ensure that the dependencies you specified are correct.

Compile with nim after changing the Nimble directory

The Nim compiler has been preconfigured to look at the default $HOME/.nimble directory while compiling, so no extra step is required to use Nimble managed packages. However, if a custom $nimbleDir is in use by one of the methods mentioned earlier, you need to specify the --nimblePath:PATH option to Nim.

For example, if your Nimble directory is located at /some/custom/path/nimble, this should work:

nim c --nimblePath:/some/custom/path/nimble/pkgs2 main.nim

In the case of package local dependencies with nimbledeps:

nim c --nimblePath:nimbledeps/pkgs2 main.nim

Some code editors rely on nim check to check for errors under the hood (e.g. VScode), and the editor extension may not allow users to pass custom option to nim check, which will cause nim check to scream Error: cannot open file:<the_package>. In this case, you will have to use the Nim compiler's configuration file capability. Simply add the following line to the nim.cfg located in any directory listed in the documentation.

nimblePath = "/some/custom/path/nimble/pkgs2"

For project local dependencies:

nimblePath = "$project/nimbledeps/pkgs2"

Troubleshooting

  • SSL support is not available. Cannot connect over SSL. [HttpRequestError]

Make sure that Nimble is configured to run with SSL, adding a -d:ssl flag to the file src/nimble.nim.cfg. After that, you can run src/nimble install and overwrite the existing installation.

  • Could not download: error:14077410:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:sslv3 alert handshake failure

If you are on macOS, you need to set and export the DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to the directory where your OpenSSL libraries are. For example, if you use OpenSSL, you have to set export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/opt/openssl/lib in your $HOME/.bashrc file.

  • Error: ambiguous identifier: 'version' --use nimscriptapi.version or system.version

Make sure that you are running at least version 0.16.0 of Nim (or the latest nightly).

  • Error: cannot open '/home/user/.nimble/lib/system.nim'.

Nimble cannot find the Nim standard library. This is considered a bug so please report it. As a workaround, you can set the NIM_LIB_PREFIX environment variable to the directory where lib/system.nim (and other standard library files) are found. Alternatively, you can also configure this in Nimble's config file.

Repository information

This repository has two main branches: master and stable.

The master branch is...

  • default
  • bleeding edge
  • tested to compile with a pinned (close to HEAD) commit of Nim

The stable branch is...

  • installed by koch tools/koch nimble
  • relatively stable
  • should compile with Nim HEAD as well as the latest Nim version

Note: The travis build only tests whether Nimble works with the latest Nim version.

A new Nim release (via koch xz) will always bundle the stable branch.

Contribution

If you would like to help, feel free to fork and make any additions you see fit and then send a pull request.

If you have any questions about the project, you can ask me directly on GitHub, ask on the Nim forum, or ask on Freenode in the #nim channel.

Implementation details

.nimble-link

These files are created by Nimble when using the develop command. They are very simple and contain two lines.

The first line: Always a path to the .nimble file.

The second line: Always a path to the Nimble package's source code. Usually $pkgDir/src, depending on what srcDir is set to.

The paths written by Nimble are always absolute. But Nimble (and the Nim compiler) also supports relative paths, which will be read relative to the .nimble-link file.

About

Nimble has been written by Dominik Picheta with help from a number of contributors. It is licensed under the 3-clause BSD license, see license.txt for more information.