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%% Copyright (c) 2011-2014, Loïc Hoguin <essen@ninenines.eu>
%%
%% Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
%% purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
%% copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
%%
%% THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
%% WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
%% MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
%% ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
%% WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
%% ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
%% OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
%% Cowboy supports versions 7 through 17 of the Websocket drafts.
%% It also supports RFC6455, the proposed standard for Websocket.
-module(cowboy_websocket).
-behaviour(cowboy_sub_protocol).
-export([upgrade/6]).
-export([takeover/7]).
-export([handler_loop/3]).
-type call_result(State) :: {ok, State}
| {ok, State, hibernate}
| {reply, cow_ws:frame() | [cow_ws:frame()], State}
| {reply, cow_ws:frame() | [cow_ws:frame()], State, hibernate}
| {stop, State}.
-type terminate_reason() :: normal | stop | timeout
| remote | {remote, cow_ws:close_code(), binary()}
| {error, badencoding | badframe | closed | atom()}
| {crash, error | exit | throw, any()}.
-callback init(Req, any())
-> {ok | module(), Req, any()}
| {module(), Req, any(), hibernate}
| {module(), Req, any(), timeout()}
| {module(), Req, any(), timeout(), hibernate}
when Req::cowboy_req:req().
-callback websocket_init(State)
-> call_result(State) when State::any().
-optional_callbacks([websocket_init/1]).
-callback websocket_handle({text | binary | ping | pong, binary()}, State)
-> call_result(State) when State::any().
-callback websocket_info(any(), State)
-> call_result(State) when State::any().
%% @todo OK this I am not sure what to do about it. We don't have a Req anymore.
%% We probably should have a websocket_terminate instead.
-callback terminate(any(), cowboy_req:req(), any()) -> ok.
-optional_callbacks([terminate/3]).
-record(state, {
socket = undefined :: inet:socket(),
transport = undefined :: module(),
handler :: module(),
key = undefined :: undefined | binary(),
timeout = infinity :: timeout(),
timeout_ref = undefined :: undefined | reference(),
messages = undefined :: undefined | {atom(), atom(), atom()},
hibernate = false :: boolean(),
frag_state = undefined :: cow_ws:frag_state(),
frag_buffer = <<>> :: binary(),
utf8_state = 0 :: cow_ws:utf8_state(),
extensions = #{} :: map()
}).
%% Stream process.
-spec upgrade(Req, Env, module(), any(), timeout(), run | hibernate)
-> {ok, Req, Env}
when Req::cowboy_req:req(), Env::cowboy_middleware:env().
%% @todo Immediately crash if a response has already been sent.
%% @todo Error out if HTTP/2.
upgrade(Req0, Env, Handler, HandlerState, Timeout, Hibernate) ->
try websocket_upgrade(#state{handler=Handler, timeout=Timeout,
hibernate=Hibernate =:= hibernate}, Req0) of
{ok, State, Req} ->
websocket_handshake(State, Req, HandlerState, Env)
catch _:_ ->
%% @todo Probably log something here?
%% @todo Test that we can have 2 /ws 400 status code in a row on the same connection.
%% @todo Does this even work?
{ok, cowboy_req:reply(400, Req0), Env}
end.
-spec websocket_upgrade(#state{}, Req)
-> {ok, #state{}, Req} when Req::cowboy_req:req().
websocket_upgrade(State, Req) ->
ConnTokens = cowboy_req:parse_header(<<"connection">>, Req),
true = lists:member(<<"upgrade">>, ConnTokens),
%% @todo Should probably send a 426 if the Upgrade header is missing.
[<<"websocket">>] = cowboy_req:parse_header(<<"upgrade">>, Req),
Version = cowboy_req:header(<<"sec-websocket-version">>, Req),
IntVersion = binary_to_integer(Version),
true = (IntVersion =:= 7) orelse (IntVersion =:= 8)
orelse (IntVersion =:= 13),
Key = cowboy_req:header(<<"sec-websocket-key">>, Req),
false = Key =:= undefined,
websocket_extensions(State#state{key=Key}, Req#{websocket_version => IntVersion}).
-spec websocket_extensions(#state{}, Req)
-> {ok, #state{}, Req} when Req::cowboy_req:req().
websocket_extensions(State, Req=#{ref := Ref}) ->
%% @todo We want different options for this. For example
%% * compress everything auto
%% * compress only text auto
%% * compress only binary auto
%% * compress nothing auto (but still enabled it)
%% * disable compression
Compress = maps:get(websocket_compress, ranch:get_protocol_options(Ref), false),
case {Compress, cowboy_req:parse_header(<<"sec-websocket-extensions">>, Req)} of
{true, Extensions} when Extensions =/= undefined ->
websocket_extensions(State, Req, Extensions, []);
_ ->
{ok, State, Req}
end.
websocket_extensions(State, Req, [], []) ->
{ok, State, Req};
websocket_extensions(State, Req, [], [<<", ">>|RespHeader]) ->
{ok, State, cowboy_req:set_resp_header(<<"sec-websocket-extensions">>, lists:reverse(RespHeader), Req)};
websocket_extensions(State=#state{extensions=Extensions}, Req=#{pid := Pid},
[{<<"permessage-deflate">>, Params}|Tail], RespHeader) ->
%% @todo Make deflate options configurable.
Opts = #{level => best_compression, mem_level => 8, strategy => default},
case cow_ws:negotiate_permessage_deflate(Params, Extensions, Opts#{owner => Pid}) of
{ok, RespExt, Extensions2} ->
websocket_extensions(State#state{extensions=Extensions2},
Req, Tail, [<<", ">>, RespExt|RespHeader]);
ignore ->
websocket_extensions(State, Req, Tail, RespHeader)
end;
websocket_extensions(State=#state{extensions=Extensions}, Req=#{pid := Pid},
[{<<"x-webkit-deflate-frame">>, Params}|Tail], RespHeader) ->
%% @todo Make deflate options configurable.
Opts = #{level => best_compression, mem_level => 8, strategy => default},
case cow_ws:negotiate_x_webkit_deflate_frame(Params, Extensions, Opts#{owner => Pid}) of
{ok, RespExt, Extensions2} ->
websocket_extensions(State#state{extensions=Extensions2},
Req, Tail, [<<", ">>, RespExt|RespHeader]);
ignore ->
websocket_extensions(State, Req, Tail, RespHeader)
end;
websocket_extensions(State, Req, [_|Tail], RespHeader) ->
websocket_extensions(State, Req, Tail, RespHeader).
-spec websocket_handshake(#state{}, Req, any(), Env)
-> {ok, Req, Env}
when Req::cowboy_req:req(), Env::cowboy_middleware:env().
websocket_handshake(State=#state{key=Key},
Req=#{pid := Pid, streamid := StreamID}, HandlerState, Env) ->
Challenge = base64:encode(crypto:hash(sha,
<< Key/binary, "258EAFA5-E914-47DA-95CA-C5AB0DC85B11" >>)),
Headers = cowboy_req:response_headers(#{
<<"connection">> => <<"Upgrade">>,
<<"upgrade">> => <<"websocket">>,
<<"sec-websocket-accept">> => Challenge
}, Req),
Pid ! {{Pid, StreamID}, {switch_protocol, Headers, ?MODULE, {State, HandlerState}}},
{ok, Req, Env}.
%% Connection process.
%% @todo Keep parent and handle system messages.
-spec takeover(pid(), ranch:ref(), inet:socket(), module(), any(), binary(),
{#state{}, any()}) -> ok.
takeover(_Parent, Ref, Socket, Transport, _Opts, Buffer,
{State0=#state{handler=Handler}, HandlerState}) ->
ranch:remove_connection(Ref),
State1 = handler_loop_timeout(State0#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport}),
State = State1#state{key=undefined, messages=Transport:messages()},
case erlang:function_exported(Handler, websocket_init, 1) of
true -> handler_call(State, HandlerState, Buffer, websocket_init, undefined, fun handler_before_loop/3);
false -> handler_before_loop(State, HandlerState, Buffer)
end.
-spec handler_before_loop(#state{}, any(), binary())
%% @todo Yeah not env.
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
handler_before_loop(State=#state{
socket=Socket, transport=Transport, hibernate=true},
HandlerState, SoFar) ->
Transport:setopts(Socket, [{active, once}]),
proc_lib:hibernate(?MODULE, handler_loop,
[State#state{hibernate=false}, HandlerState, SoFar]);
handler_before_loop(State=#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport},
HandlerState, SoFar) ->
Transport:setopts(Socket, [{active, once}]),
handler_loop(State, HandlerState, SoFar).
-spec handler_loop_timeout(#state{}) -> #state{}.
handler_loop_timeout(State=#state{timeout=infinity}) ->
State#state{timeout_ref=undefined};
handler_loop_timeout(State=#state{timeout=Timeout, timeout_ref=PrevRef}) ->
_ = case PrevRef of undefined -> ignore; PrevRef ->
erlang:cancel_timer(PrevRef) end,
TRef = erlang:start_timer(Timeout, self(), ?MODULE),
State#state{timeout_ref=TRef}.
-spec handler_loop(#state{}, any(), binary())
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
handler_loop(State=#state{socket=Socket, messages={OK, Closed, Error},
timeout_ref=TRef}, HandlerState, SoFar) ->
receive
{OK, Socket, Data} ->
State2 = handler_loop_timeout(State),
websocket_data(State2, HandlerState,
<< SoFar/binary, Data/binary >>);
{Closed, Socket} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState, {error, closed});
{Error, Socket, Reason} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState, {error, Reason});
{timeout, TRef, ?MODULE} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, timeout);
{timeout, OlderTRef, ?MODULE} when is_reference(OlderTRef) ->
handler_loop(State, HandlerState, SoFar);
Message ->
handler_call(State, HandlerState,
SoFar, websocket_info, Message, fun handler_before_loop/3)
end.
-spec websocket_data(#state{}, any(), binary())
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
websocket_data(State=#state{frag_state=FragState, extensions=Extensions}, HandlerState, Data) ->
case cow_ws:parse_header(Data, Extensions, FragState) of
%% All frames sent from the client to the server are masked.
{_, _, _, _, undefined, _} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, {error, badframe});
{Type, FragState2, Rsv, Len, MaskKey, Rest} ->
websocket_payload(State#state{frag_state=FragState2}, HandlerState, Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, undefined, <<>>, 0, Rest);
more ->
handler_before_loop(State, HandlerState, Data);
error ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, {error, badframe})
end.
websocket_payload(State=#state{frag_state=FragState, utf8_state=Incomplete, extensions=Extensions},
HandlerState, Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode, Unmasked, UnmaskedLen, Data) ->
case cow_ws:parse_payload(Data, MaskKey, Incomplete, UnmaskedLen, Type, Len, FragState, Extensions, Rsv) of
{ok, CloseCode2, Payload, Utf8State, Rest} ->
websocket_dispatch(State#state{utf8_state=Utf8State},
HandlerState, Type, << Unmasked/binary, Payload/binary >>, CloseCode2, Rest);
{ok, Payload, Utf8State, Rest} ->
websocket_dispatch(State#state{utf8_state=Utf8State},
HandlerState, Type, << Unmasked/binary, Payload/binary >>, CloseCode, Rest);
{more, CloseCode2, Payload, Utf8State} ->
websocket_payload_loop(State#state{utf8_state=Utf8State},
HandlerState, Type, Len - byte_size(Data), MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode2,
<< Unmasked/binary, Payload/binary >>, UnmaskedLen + byte_size(Data));
{more, Payload, Utf8State} ->
websocket_payload_loop(State#state{utf8_state=Utf8State},
HandlerState, Type, Len - byte_size(Data), MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode,
<< Unmasked/binary, Payload/binary >>, UnmaskedLen + byte_size(Data));
Error = {error, _Reason} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, Error)
end.
websocket_payload_loop(State=#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport,
messages={OK, Closed, Error}, timeout_ref=TRef},
HandlerState, Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode, Unmasked, UnmaskedLen) ->
Transport:setopts(Socket, [{active, once}]),
receive
{OK, Socket, Data} ->
State2 = handler_loop_timeout(State),
websocket_payload(State2, HandlerState,
Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode, Unmasked, UnmaskedLen, Data);
{Closed, Socket} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState, {error, closed});
{Error, Socket, Reason} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState, {error, Reason});
{timeout, TRef, ?MODULE} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, timeout);
{timeout, OlderTRef, ?MODULE} when is_reference(OlderTRef) ->
websocket_payload_loop(State, HandlerState,
Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode, Unmasked, UnmaskedLen);
Message ->
handler_call(State, HandlerState,
<<>>, websocket_info, Message,
fun (State2, HandlerState2, _) ->
websocket_payload_loop(State2, HandlerState2,
Type, Len, MaskKey, Rsv, CloseCode, Unmasked, UnmaskedLen)
end)
end.
websocket_dispatch(State=#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport, frag_state=FragState, frag_buffer=SoFar, extensions=Extensions},
HandlerState, Type0, Payload0, CloseCode0, RemainingData) ->
case cow_ws:make_frame(Type0, Payload0, CloseCode0, FragState) of
%% @todo Allow receiving fragments.
{fragment, nofin, _, Payload} ->
websocket_data(State#state{frag_buffer= << SoFar/binary, Payload/binary >>}, HandlerState, RemainingData);
{fragment, fin, Type, Payload} ->
handler_call(State#state{frag_state=undefined, frag_buffer= <<>>}, HandlerState, RemainingData,
websocket_handle, {Type, << SoFar/binary, Payload/binary >>}, fun websocket_data/3);
close ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, remote);
{close, CloseCode, Payload} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState, {remote, CloseCode, Payload});
Frame = ping ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame(pong, Extensions)),
handler_call(State, HandlerState, RemainingData, websocket_handle, Frame, fun websocket_data/3);
Frame = {ping, Payload} ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({pong, Payload}, Extensions)),
handler_call(State, HandlerState, RemainingData, websocket_handle, Frame, fun websocket_data/3);
Frame ->
handler_call(State, HandlerState, RemainingData, websocket_handle, Frame, fun websocket_data/3)
end.
-spec handler_call(#state{}, any(), binary(), atom(), any(), fun())
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
handler_call(State=#state{handler=Handler}, HandlerState,
RemainingData, Callback, Message, NextState) ->
try case Callback of
websocket_init -> Handler:websocket_init(HandlerState);
_ -> Handler:Callback(Message, HandlerState)
end of
{ok, HandlerState2} ->
NextState(State, HandlerState2, RemainingData);
{ok, HandlerState2, hibernate} ->
NextState(State#state{hibernate=true}, HandlerState2, RemainingData);
{reply, Payload, HandlerState2} ->
case websocket_send(Payload, State) of
ok ->
NextState(State, HandlerState2, RemainingData);
stop ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState2, stop);
Error = {error, _} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState2, Error)
end;
{reply, Payload, HandlerState2, hibernate} ->
case websocket_send(Payload, State) of
ok ->
NextState(State#state{hibernate=true},
HandlerState2, RemainingData);
stop ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState2, stop);
Error = {error, _} ->
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState2, Error)
end;
{stop, HandlerState2} ->
websocket_close(State, HandlerState2, stop)
catch Class:Reason ->
_ = websocket_close(State, HandlerState, {crash, Class, Reason}),
erlang:raise(Class, Reason, erlang:get_stacktrace())
end.
-spec websocket_send(cow_ws:frame(), #state{}) -> ok | stop | {error, atom()}.
websocket_send(Frames, State) when is_list(Frames) ->
websocket_send_many(Frames, State, []);
websocket_send(Frame, #state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport, extensions=Extensions}) ->
Res = Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame(Frame, Extensions)),
case is_close_frame(Frame) of
true -> stop;
false -> Res
end.
websocket_send_many([], #state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport}, Acc) ->
Transport:send(Socket, lists:reverse(Acc));
websocket_send_many([Frame|Tail], State=#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport,
extensions=Extensions}, Acc0) ->
Acc = [cow_ws:frame(Frame, Extensions)|Acc0],
case is_close_frame(Frame) of
true ->
_ = Transport:send(Socket, lists:reverse(Acc)),
stop;
false ->
websocket_send_many(Tail, State, Acc)
end.
is_close_frame(close) -> true;
is_close_frame({close, _}) -> true;
is_close_frame({close, _, _}) -> true;
is_close_frame(_) -> false.
-spec websocket_close(#state{}, any(), terminate_reason())
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
websocket_close(State=#state{socket=Socket, transport=Transport, extensions=Extensions},
HandlerState, Reason) ->
case Reason of
Normal when Normal =:= stop; Normal =:= timeout ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({close, 1000, <<>>}, Extensions));
{error, badframe} ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({close, 1002, <<>>}, Extensions));
{error, badencoding} ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({close, 1007, <<>>}, Extensions));
{crash, _, _} ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({close, 1011, <<>>}, Extensions));
remote ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame(close, Extensions));
{remote, Code, _} ->
Transport:send(Socket, cow_ws:frame({close, Code, <<>>}, Extensions))
end,
handler_terminate(State, HandlerState, Reason).
-spec handler_terminate(#state{}, any(), terminate_reason())
-> {ok, cowboy_middleware:env()}.
handler_terminate(#state{handler=Handler},
HandlerState, Reason) ->
cowboy_handler:terminate(Reason, undefined, HandlerState, Handler),
exit(normal).