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Welcome to Toupee

Toupee Logo

"The ugly thing on top that covers up what's missing"

A library for Deep Learning ensembles, with a tooolkit for running experiments, based on Keras.


Experiments are described in a common YAML format, and each network structure is in serialised Keras format.

Supports saving results to MongoDB for analysis later on.

In bin/ you will find two files:

  • takes an experiment description and runs it as a single network. Ignores all ensemble directives.

  • takes an experiment description and runs it as an ensemble.

In examples/ there are a few ready-cooked models that you can look at.


  • Clone this repo
  • In examples/ there are a few working examples of experiments. You can download the necessary datasets by using bin/
  • Run bin/ for single network experiments, and bin/ for ensemble experiments


Datasets are saved in the .npz format, with three files in a directory:

  • train.npz: the training set
  • valid.npz: the validation set
  • test.npz: the test set Each of these files is a serialised dictionary {x: numpy.array, y: numpy.array} where x is the input data and y is the expected classification output.

Experiment files

This is the file given as an argument to, or It is a yaml description of the experiment. Here is an example experiment file:

## MLP Parameters ##
dataset: ../cifar-100/
data_format: npz
convert_labels_to_one_hot: true
model_file: examples/experiments/cifar-100/densenet121.model
  factor: 0.1
  patience: 5
  cooldown: 0
  min_lr: 0.0000001
    class_name: Adam
        0:  0.001
        75: 0.0001
    class_name: SGD
        0: 0.1
        150: 0.01
        250: 0.001
      momentum: 0.9
      decay: 0.0005
epochs: 300
batch_size: 32
loss: categorical_crossentropy
shuffle: true
multi_gpu: 2

#use online image transformations by specifying arguments to ImageDataGenerator
  #zoom_range: 0.15
  width_shift_range: 0.125
  height_shift_range: 0.125
  horizontal_flip: true
  rotation_range: 15
  featurewise_std_normalization: true
  featurewise_center: true
  #zca_whitening: true

## Ensemble Parameters ##
  class_name: Bagging
    size: 10
    aggregator: averaging

The parameters are as follows:

network parameters

  • dataset: the location of the dataset (format dependent).
  • model_file: the location of the serialised Keras model description.
  • optimizer: the optimization method. See separate section for description.
  • epochs: the number of training epochs.
  • batch_size: the number of samples to use at each iteration
  • loss: the loss/cost function to use. Any string accepted by Keras works.
  • shuffle: whether to shuffle the dataset at each epoch.

ensemble parameters

  • ensemble_method: the name of the Ensemble method.
  • params: a method-dependent set of parameters for the Ensemble.

optimizer subparameters The optimizer is defined per-epoch. This means that in the example above, we start with Adam and then switch to SGD at epoch 100.

  • class_name: a string that Keras can deserialise to a learning algorithm. WAME, presented at ESANN, is currently not available.
  • config:
    • learning_rate: either a float for a fixed learning rate, or a dictionary of (epoch, rate) pairs
    • decay: learning rate decay
    • momentum: (only valid in SGD) momentum value

ensemble methods

  • Bagging: Bagging
  • AdaBoostM1: AdaBoost.M1
  • DIB: Deep Incremental Boosting. Parameters are as follows.
    • n_epochs_after_first: The number of epochs for which to train from the second round onwards
    • freeze_old_layers: true if the layers transferred to the next round are to be frozen (made not trainable)
    • incremental_index: the location where the new layers are to be inserted
    • incremental_layers: a serialized yaml of the layers to be added at each round

Model files

These are standard Keras models, serialised to yaml. Effectively, this is the verbatim output of a model's to_yaml(). In the examples directory you will find both some example models, and the code that was run to generate them.


A library for Deep Learning Ensembles


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