I use Docker to build an environment with all the requirements. The Docker container runs an SSH server so I can log in and run the build scripts. There are various references on the web that argue if you run SSHD in your Docker containers, you're doing it wrong. However, in this particular case it's quite convenient.
Build/run the docker container
host $ bash ./build_docker.sh
host $ docker pull njgraham/nathangraham.info
host $ bash ./run_docker.sh
Edit site content
Use a text editor of your choice to edit files on the host (such as the main page, resume, etc.). Note that the resume is automatically converted to .docx and .pdf and links to download are added to the online resume page.
Update the Nikola configuration for things like Google Analytics, comment system, desired theme, etc.
Log in to the container via SSH and render the site (username: root, password: root)
host $ ssh root@localhost -p 2200 root@njginfo:~# cd /nathangraham.info/ root@njginfo:/nathangraham.info# bash ./build.sh
Preview the site
root@njginfo:/nathangraham.info# nikola serve
Then, visit http://localhost:8000.
root@njginfo:/nathangraham.info# bash ./sync.sh
See also Hosting a Static Website on Amazon S3.
The rendered site is written to subdirectories of the repository directory on the host. On Linux hosts at least, these files are owned by root which can be inconvenient.