C library for reading and writing PNM (PBM/PGM/PPM) and PFM images.
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README.rst

libpnmio user manual

Title libpnmio (I/O PNM library)
Author Nikolaos Kavvadias 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
Contact nikolaos.kavvadias@gmail.com
Website http://www.nkavvadias.com
Release Date 10 March 2016
Version 1.2.6
Rev. history  
v1.2.6

2016-03-10

Add sftbyvec.c, related changes.

v1.2.5

2014-10-28

Fixed bugs in PFM format I/O.

v1.2.4

2014-10-28

Added names to prototype parameters.

v1.2.3

2014-10-28

Documentation update; add get_pnm_type and reference to the IrfanView image viewer.

v1.2.2

2014-10-26

  • New test application, rnwimg for reading and writing PBM, PGM, PPM and PFM images.
  • Numerous bug fixes to read_p*m_header routines.
  • Added get_pnm_type.
  • Removed squares.binary.pgm (all-black image).
  • Removed feep.ascii.ppm (incomplete image).
  • PFM reading still needs work.
v1.2.1

2014-10-25

Added sample PBM, PGM, PPM and PFM images for testing.

v1.2.0

2014-10-25

Added support for reading and writing PFM (Portable Float Map) image data files.

v1.1.1

2014-10-01

Date notation change.

v1.1.0

2014-09-23

Moved AUTHORS, LICENSE, README, VERSION to top-level.

v1.0.1

2014-06-14

Changed README to README.rst.

v1.0.0

2014-02-20

First public release.

1. Introduction

The libpnmio library provides an implementation and API for reading and writing PNM (some times termed as Portable AnyMap) images. The PNM convention is collectively used to address PBM (Portable Bitmap), PGM (Portable Greymap) and PPM (Portable Pixmap) images.

The current version of libpnmio supports the ASCII variation of the PNM formats, however, it will be extended in order to support the corresponding binary formats.

The library is accompanied by the following test applications:

  • randimg: produces PBM/PGM/PPM image files filled with random data
  • doset: generates a color illustration of the Mandelbrot set
  • rnwimg: reads and writes PBM/PGM/PPM/PFM images for testing the library
  • sftbyvec: reads an input ASCII PGM image, shifts its contents by a given vector and then writes it back.

Since version 1.2.0, support for the Portable Float Map format (PFM) has been added.

Additional information on the PFM format can be found at the PFM page by Paul Bourke.

Reference documentation for LIBPNMIO can be found in the /doc subdirectory in plain text, HTML and PDF form.

2. File listing

The libpnmio distribution includes the following files:

/libpnmio Top-level directory
AUTHORS List of authors.
LICENSE License agreement (modified BSD license).
README.rst This file.
README.html HTML version of README.rst.
README.pdf PDF version of README.rst.
VERSION Current version of the LIBPNMIO distribution.
rst2docs.sh Shell script for generating the documentation using docutils.
/bin Executables directory (initially empty)
/images Image data (PBM, PGM, PPM, PFM) for testing
*.pbm, *.pgm, *.ppm, *.pfm Sample images.
/lib Compiled static library directory
/src Source code directory
Makefile Makefile for compiling the library and generating the executables.
doset.c Generates a color visualization of the Mandelbrot set.
pnmio.c Implementation of the libpnmio library in C.
pnmio.h Header file (interface) of the libpnmio library.
randimg.c Random PBM/PGM/PPM/PFM image generator.
rnwimg.c Reads and writes PBM/PGM/PPM/PFM images for exercising the libpnmio API.
sftbyvec.c Read an input ASCII PGM image, shift its contents by a given vector and then writes it back
/test Test script directory
run-doset.sh Bash script for running the Mandelbrot set example.
run-randimg.sh Bash script for running the random image generator.
run-rnwimg.sh Bash script for running the read-and-write API tests.
run-sftbyvec.sh Bash script for running the shift-by-vector tests.

The original sources for the images included in the /libpnmio/images directory are the following:

3. API description

This section summarizes the intended functionality of the functions supported by the libpnmio application programming interface.

3.1 get_pnm_type

int get_pnm_type(FILE *f);

Read the header contents of a PBM/PGM/PPM/PFM file up to the point of extracting its type. Valid types for a PNM image are as follows:

  • PBM_ASCII = 1
  • PGM_ASCII = 2
  • PPM_ASCII = 3
  • PBM_BINARY = 4
  • PGM_BINARY = 5
  • PPM_BINARY = 6
  • PAM = 7 (unimplemented)
  • PFM_RGB = 16
  • PFM_GREYSCALE = 17

The result (pnm_type) is returned.

3.2 read_pbm_header

void read_pbm_header(FILE *f, int *img_xdim, int *img_ydim, int is_ascii);

Read the header contents of a PBM (portable bit map) file. A PBM image file follows the format:

P1
<X> <Y>
<I1> <I2> ... <IMAX>

A binary PBM image file uses P4 instead of P1 and the data values are represented in binary. Comment lines start with #. < > denote integer values (in decimal). For the PBM format, they can take only the 0 and 1 values. img_xdim and img_ydim correspond to X and Y, respectively. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PBM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PBM file is.

3.3 read_pgm_header

read_pgm_header(FILE *f, int *img_xdim, int *img_ydim, int *img_colors, int is_ascii);

Read the header contents of a PGM (portable grey map) file. A PGM image file follows the format:

P2
<X> <Y>
<levels>
<I1> <I2> ... <IMAX>

A binary PGM image file uses P5 instead of P2 and the data values are represented in binary. Comment lines start with #. < > denote integer values (in decimal). img_xdim, img_ydim, and img_colors correspond to X, Y and levels, respectively. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PGM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PGM file is.

3.4 read_ppm_header

void read_ppm_header(FILE *f, int *img_xdim, int *img_ydim, int *img_colors, int is_ascii);

Read the header contents of a PPM (portable pix map) file. A PPM image file follows the format:

P3
<X> <Y>
<levels>
<R1> <G1> <B1> ... <RMAX> <GMAX> <BMAX>

A binary PPM image file uses P6 instead of P3 and the data values are represented in binary. Comment lines start with #. < > denote integer values (in decimal). img_xdim, img_ydim, and img_colors correspond to X, Y and levels, respectively. Each color component, R, G, and B can take any value from 0 to levels. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PPM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PPM file is.

3.5 read_pfm_header

void read_pfm_header(FILE *f, int *img_xdim, int *img_ydim, int *img_type, int *endianess);

Read the header contents of a PFM (portable float map) file. A PFM image file follows the format:

[PF|Pf]
<X> <Y>
(endianess)
{R1}{G1}{B1} ... {RMAX}{GMAX}{BMAX}

A PFM image file has its data values represented in binary. Comment lines start with #. < > denote integer values (in decimal). ( ) denote floating-point values (in decimal). { } denote floating-point values (coded in binary). img_xdim and img_ydim correspond to X and Y, respectively. If img_type is equal to 1, the PFM image encodes RGB (color) information, otherwise if it is equal to 0, it stores greyscale information. If endianess is negative (-1), the binary data are encoded in little-endian ordering, otherwise if endianess is positive (+1), the data follow big-endian ordering.

3.6 read_pbm_data

void read_pgm_data(FILE *f, int *img_in, int is_ascii);

Read the data contents of a PBM (portable bit map) file. img_in denotes an array of integer values representing image data. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PBM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PBM file is.

3.7 read_pgm_data

void read_pgm_data(FILE *f, int *img_in, int is_ascii);

Read the data contents of a PGM (portable grey map) file. img_in denotes an array of integer values representing image data. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PGM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PGM file is.

3.8 read_ppm_data

void read_ppm_data(FILE *f, int *img_in, int is_ascii);

Read the data contents of a PPM (portable pix map) file. img_in denotes an array of integer values representing image data. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PPM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PPM file is.

3.9 read_pfm_data

void read_ppm_data(FILE *f, float *img_in, int img_type, int endianess);

Read the data contents of a PFM (portable float map) file. img_in denotes an array of floating-point (float) values representing image data. If img_type is 1, color/RGB image data are assumed; otherwise (0) the image data are in greyscale. A negative endianess indicates little-endian ordering and positive one, big-endian.

3.10 write_pbm_file

void write_pbm_file(FILE *f, int *img_out, char *img_out_fname,
int x_size, int y_size, int x_scale_val, int y_scale_val, int linevals, int is_ascii);

Write the contents of a PBM (portable bit map) file. Data stored in array img_out are written to file f. This file is assumed to be already opened under the name img_out_fname. The image data represent an image of size x_size by y_size. x-axis and y-axis scaling factors can be defined by x_scale_val and y_scale_val. linevals determines the emission of newline characters for easier reading of the PBM file data. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PBM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PBM file is.

3.11 write_pgm_file

void write_pgm_file(FILE *f, int *img_out, char *img_out_fname,
int x_size, int y_size, int x_scale_val, int y_scale_val, int img_colors,
int linevals, int is_ascii);

Write the contents of a PGM (portable grey map) file. Data stored in array img_out are written to file f. This file is assumed to be already opened under the name img_out_fname. The image data represent an image of size x_size by y_size. x-axis and y-axis scaling factors can be defined by x_scale_val and y_scale_val. img_colors determines the levels (0 to levels) for the common color component. linevals determines the emission of newline characters for easier reading of the PGM file data. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PGM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PGM file is.

3.12 write_ppm_file

void write_ppm_file(FILE *f, int *img_out, char *img_out_fname,
int x_size, int y_size, int x_scale_val, int y_scale_val, int img_colors, int is_ascii);

Write the contents of a PPM (portable pix map) file. Data stored in array img_out are written to file f. This file is assumed to be already opened under the name img_out_fname. The image data represent an image of size x_size by y_size. x-axis and y-axis scaling factors can be defined by x_scale_val and y_scale_val. img_colors determines the levels (0 to levels) for the common color component. Each R-G-B triplet is printed to a separate line. If is_ascii is 1, an ASCII PPM file is assumed; otherwise a binary PPM file is.

3.13 write_pfm_file

void write_pfm_file(FILE *f, float *img_out, char *img_out_fname,
int x_size, int y_size, int img_type, int endianess);

Write the contents of a PFM (portable float map) file. Data stored in array img_out are written to file f. This file is assumed to be already opened under the name img_out_fname. The image data represent an image of size x_size by y_size. x-axis and y-axis scaling factors can be defined by x_scale_val and y_scale_val. If img_type is equal to 1, the PFM image encodes RGB (color) information, otherwise if it is equal to 0, it stores greyscale information. If endianess is negative (-1), the binary data are encoded in little-endian ordering, otherwise if endianess is positive (+1), the data follow big-endian ordering.

4. Build and setup

In order to produce the static library, change directory to /src and run the Makefile as follows:

$ make clean ; make

This will produce the static library libpnmio.a and copy it to the /lib subdirectory of the distribution. The executable files for the reference applications will also be generated and copied to the /bin subdirectory.

5. Run tests

Two sample scripts are provided in the /test subdirectory. Change directory to /test and run the scripts as follows:

$ cd test
$ ./run-doset.sh
$ ./run-randimg.sh
$ ./run-rnwimg.sh
$ ./run-sftbyvec.sh

PBM, PGM and PPM files can be directly visualized by using freeware image viewers such as XnView, IrfanView (non-commercial use only) and Imagine. The informal/non-standardized PFM format was introduced by Paul Debevec. A PFM viewer (HDRView) can be found here: http://web.archive.org/web/20060614160328/http://www.debevec.org/FiatLux/hdrview/ .

6. Prerequisites

  • Standard UNIX-based tools (tested with gcc-4.6.2 and gcc-4.8.1 on MinGW/x64).

    • make
    • bash (shell)

    For this reason, MinGW (http://www.mingw.org) or Cygwin (http://sources.redhat.com/cygwin) are suggested, since POSIX emulation environments of sufficient completeness.