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Mono is a software platform designed to allow developers to easily create cross platform applications. Mono is an open source implementation of Microsoft's .NET Framework based on the ECMA standards for C# and the Common Language Runtime.

Build Status

  1. Installation
  2. Using Mono
  3. Directory Roadmap
  4. [Contributing to Mono] (#contributing-to-mono)
  5. Git submodules maintenance
  6. Reporting bugs

Compilation and Installation

a. Build Requirements

  1. Make sure that you used GNU tar to unpack this package, as Solaris tar will not unpack this correctly, and you will get strange errors.

  2. Make sure that you use the GNU toolchain to build the software.

  3. Optional dependencies

  • libgdiplus - Required for System.Drawing. This library in turn requires glib and pkg-config

  • pkg-config - Available at:

  • glib 2.4 - Available at:

  • libzlib - This library and the development headers are required for compression file support in the 2.0 profile.

  1. Mono is required to build Mono. Use a system package or monolite (explained further below)

  2. If you have a system Mono (not monolite), you will need to read this:

b. Building the Software

If you obtained this package as an officially released tarball, this is very simple, use configure and make:

./configure --prefix=/usr/local ; make ; make install

Mono supports a JIT engine on x86, SPARC, SPARCv9, S/390, S/390x, AMD64, ARM and PowerPC systems.

If you obtained this as a snapshot, you will need an existing Mono installation. To upgrade your installation, unpack both mono and mcs:

tar xzf mcs-XXXX.tar.gz
tar xzf mono-XXXX.tar.gz
mv mono-XXX mono
mv mcs-XXX mcs
cd mono
./ --prefix=/usr/local

The Mono build system is silent for most compilation commands. To enable a more verbose compile (for example, to pinpoint problems in your makefiles or your system) pass the V=1 flag to make, like this:

make V=1

c. Building the software from GIT

If you are building the software from GIT, make sure that you have up-to-date mcs and mono sources:

  • If you are an anonymous user: git clone git://

  • If you are a Mono contributor with read/write privileges: git clone

Then, go into the mono directory, and configure:

cd mono
./ --prefix=/usr/local

For people with non-standard installations of the auto* utils and of pkg-config (common on misconfigured OSX and windows boxes), you could get an error like this:

./configure: line 19176: syntax error near unexpected token 'PKG_CHECK_MODULES(BASE_DEPENDENCIES,' ...

This means that you need to set the ACLOCAL_FLAGS environment variable when invoking, like this:

    ACLOCAL_FLAGS="-I $acprefix/share/aclocal" ./ --prefix=/usr/local

where $acprefix is the prefix where aclocal has been installed. This will automatically go into the mcs/ tree and build the binaries there.

This assumes that you have a working mono installation, and that there's a C# compiler named 'mcs', and a corresponding IL runtime called 'mono'. You can use two make variables EXTERNAL_MCS and EXTERNAL_RUNTIME to override these. e.g., you can say:

make EXTERNAL_MCS=/foo/bar/mcs EXTERNAL_RUNTIME=/somewhere/else/mono

If you don't have a working Mono installation

If you don't have a working Mono installation, an obvious choice is to install the latest released packages of 'mono' for your distribution and running; make; make install in the mono module directory.

You can also try a slightly more risky approach: this may not work, so start from the released tarball as detailed above.

This works by first getting the latest version of the 'monolite' distribution, which contains just enough to run the 'mcs' compiler. You do this with:

# Run the following line after ./
make get-monolite-latest

This will download and automatically gunzip and untar the tarball, and place the files appropriately so that you can then just run: make EXTERNAL_MCS=${PWD}/mcs/class/lib/monolite/gmcs.exe

That will use the files downloaded by 'make get-monolite-latest.

Testing and Installation

You can run (part of) the mono and mcs test suites with the command: make check. All tests should pass.

If you want more extensive tests, including those that test the class libraries, you need to re-run 'configure' with the '--enable-nunit-tests' flag, and try: make -k check

Expect to find a few test suite failures. As a sanity check, you can compare the failures you got with

You can now install mono with: make install

You can verify your installation by using the mono-test-install script, it can diagnose some common problems with Mono's install. Failure to follow these steps may result in a broken installation.

d. Configuration Options

The following are the configuration options that someone building Mono might want to use:

  • --with-sgen=yes,no - Generational GC support: Used to enable or disable the compilation of a Mono runtime with the SGen garbage collector.

    • On platforms that support it, after building Mono, you will have both a mono binary and a mono-sgen binary. Mono uses Boehm, while mono-sgen uses the Simple Generational GC.
  • --with-gc=[boehm, included, sgen, none] - Selects the default Boehm garbage collector engine to use.

    • included: (slighty modified Boehm GC) This is the default value, and its the most feature complete, it will allow Mono to use typed allocations and support the debugger.

    • boehm: This is used to use a system-install Boehm GC, it is useful to test new features available in Boehm GC, but we do not recommend that people use this, as it disables a few features.

    • none: Disables the inclusion of a garbage collector.

    • This defaults to included.

  • --with-tls=__thread,pthread

    • Controls how Mono should access thread local storage, pthread forces Mono to use the pthread APIs, while __thread uses compiler-optimized access to it.

    • Although __thread is faster, it requires support from the compiler, kernel and libc. Old Linux systems do not support with __thread.

    • This value is typically pre-configured and there is no need to set it, unless you are trying to debug a problem.

  • --with-sigaltstack=yes,no

    • Experimental: Use at your own risk, it is known to cause problems with garbage collection and is hard to reproduce those bugs.

    • This controls whether Mono will install a special signal handler to handle stack overflows. If set to yes, it will turn stack overflows into the StackOverflowException. Otherwise when a stack overflow happens, your program will receive a segmentation fault.

    • The configure script will try to detect if your operating system supports this. Some older Linux systems do not support this feature, or you might want to override the auto-detection.

  • --with-static_mono=yes,no

    • This controls whether mono should link against a static library (libmono.a) or a shared library (

    • This defaults to yes, and will improve the performance of the mono program.

    • This only affects the `mono' binary, the shared library will always be produced for developers that want to embed the runtime in their application.

  • --with-xen-opt=yes,no - Optimize code for Xen virtualization.

    • It makes Mono generate code which might be slightly slower on average systems, but the resulting executable will run faster under the Xen virtualization system.

    • This defaults to yes.

  • --with-large-heap=yes,no - Enable support for GC heaps larger than 3GB.

    • This defaults to no.
  • --enable-small-config=yes,no - Enable some tweaks to reduce memory usage and disk footprint at the expense of some capabilities.

    • Typically this means that the number of threads that can be created is limited (256), that the maximum heap size is also reduced (256 MB) and other such limitations that still make mono useful, but more suitable to embedded devices (like mobile phones).

    • This defaults to no.

  • --with-ikvm-native=yes,no - Controls whether the IKVM JNI interface library is built or not.

    • This is used if you are planning on using the IKVM Java Virtual machine with Mono.

    • This defaults to yes.

  • --with-profile4=yes,no - Whether you want to build the 4.x profile libraries and runtime.

    • This defaults to yes.
  • --with-moonlight=yes,no

    • Whether you want to generate the Silverlight/Moonlight libraries and toolchain in addition to the default (1.1 and 2.0 APIs).

    • This will produce the smcs compiler which will reference the Silverlight modified assemblies (mscorlib.dll, System.dll, System.Code.dll and System.Xml.Core.dll) and turn on the LINQ extensions for the compiler.

  • --with-moon-gc=boehm,sgen - Select the GC to use for Moonlight.

    • boehm: Selects the Boehm Garbage Collector, with the same flags as the regular Mono build. This is the default.

    • sgen: Selects the new SGen Garbage Collector, which provides Generational GC support, using the same flags as the mono-sgen build.

    • This defaults to boehm.

  • --with-libgdiplus=installed,sibling,<path> - Configure where Mono searches for libgdiplus when running System.Drawing tests.

    • It defaults to installed, which means that the library is available to Mono through the regular system setup.

    • `sibling' can be used to specify that a libgdiplus that resides as a sibling of this directory (mono) should be used.

  • Or you can specify a path to a libgdiplus.

  • --disable-shared-memory

    • Use this option to disable the use of shared memory in Mono (this is equivalent to setting the MONO_DISABLE_SHM environment variable, although this removes the feature completely).

    • Disabling the shared memory support will disable certain features like cross-process named mutexes.

  • --enable-minimal=LIST

    • Use this feature to specify optional runtime components that you might not want to include. This is only useful for developers embedding Mono that require a subset of Mono functionality.

    • The list is a comma-separated list of components that should be removed, these are:

      • aot: Disables support for the Ahead of Time compilation.

      • attach: Support for the Mono.Management assembly and the VMAttach API (allowing code to be injected into a target VM)

      • com: Disables COM support.

      • debug: Drop debugging support.

      • decimal: Disables support for System.Decimal.

      • full_messages: By default Mono comes with a full table of messages for error codes. This feature turns off uncommon error messages and reduces the runtime size.

      • generics: Generics support. Disabling this will not allow Mono to run any 2.0 libraries or code that contains generics.

      • jit: Removes the JIT engine from the build, this reduces the executable size, and requires that all code executed by the virtual machine be compiled with Full AOT before execution.

      • large_code: Disables support for large assemblies.

      • logging: Disables support for debug logging.

      • pinvoke: Support for Platform Invocation services, disabling this will drop support for any libraries using DllImport.

      • portability: Removes support for MONO_IOMAP, the environment variables for simplifying porting applications that are case-insensitive and that mix the Unix and Windows path separators.

      • profiler: Disables support for the default profiler.

      • reflection_emit: Drop System.Reflection.Emit support

      • reflection_emit_save: Drop support for saving dynamically created assemblies (AssemblyBuilderAccess.Save) in System.Reflection.Emit.

      • shadow_copy: Disables support for AppDomain's shadow copies (you can disable this if you do not plan on using appdomains).

      • simd: Disables support for the Mono.SIMD intrinsics library.

      • ssa: Disables compilation for the SSA optimization framework, and the various SSA-based optimizations.

  • --enable-llvm

  • --enable-loadedllvm

    • This enables the use of LLVM as a code generation engine for Mono. The LLVM code generator and optimizer will be used instead of Mono's built-in code generator for both Just in Time and Ahead of Time compilations.

    • See the for the full details and up-to-date information on this feature.

    • You will need to have an LLVM built that Mono can link against.

    • The --enable-loadedllvm variant will make the LLVM backend into a runtime-loadable module instead of linking it directly into the main mono binary.

  • --enable-big-arrays - Enable use of arrays with indexes larger than Int32.MaxValue.

    • By default Mono has the same limitation as .NET on Win32 and Win64 and limits array indexes to 32-bit values (even on 64-bit systems).

    • In certain scenarios where large arrays are required, you can pass this flag and Mono will be built to support 64-bit arrays.

    • This is not the default as it breaks the C embedding ABI that we have exposed through the Mono development cycle.

  • --enable-parallel-mark

    • Use this option to enable the garbage collector to use multiple CPUs to do its work. This helps performance on multi-CPU machines as the work is divided across CPUS.

    • This option is not currently the default as we have not done much testing with Mono.

  • --enable-dtrace

    • On Solaris and MacOS X builds a version of the Mono runtime that contains DTrace probes and can participate in the system profiling using DTrace.
  • --disable-dev-random

    • Mono uses /dev/random to obtain good random data for any source that requires random numbers. If your system does not support this, you might want to disable it.

    • There are a number of runtime options to control this also, see the man page.

  • --enable-nacl

    • This configures the Mono compiler to generate code suitable to be used by Google's Native Client:

    • Currently this is used with Mono's AOT engine as Native Client does not support JIT engines yet.

Using Mono

Once you have installed the software, you can run a few programs:

  • mono program.exe runtime engine

  • mcs program.cs C# compiler

  • monodis program.exe CIL Disassembler

See the man pages for mono(1), mint(1), monodis(1) and mcs(2) for further details.

Directory Roadmap

  • docs/ - Technical documents about the Mono runtime.

  • data/ - Configuration files installed as part of the Mono runtime.

  • mono/ - The core of the Mono Runtime.

    • metadata/ - The object system and metadata reader.

    • mini/ - The Just in Time Compiler.

    • dis/ - CIL executable Disassembler

    • io-layer/ - The I/O layer and system abstraction for emulating the .NET IO model.

    • cil/ - Common Intermediate Representation, XML definition of the CIL bytecodes.

  • arch/ - Architecture specific portions.

  • man/ - Manual pages for the various Mono commands and programs.

  • samples/ -Some simple sample programs on uses of the Mono runtime as an embedded library.

  • scripts/ - Scripts used to invoke Mono and the corresponding program.

  • runtime/ - A directory that contains the Makefiles that link the mono/ and mcs/ build systems.

  • ../olive/

    • If the directory ../olive is present (as an independent checkout) from the Mono module, that directory is automatically configured to share the same prefix than this module gets.

Contributing to Mono

Before submitting changes to Mono, please review the contribution guidelines at Please pay particular attention to the Important Rules section.

Git submodules maintenance

Read documentation at


Mono is maintained by

Reporting bugs

To submit bug reports, please use Xamarin's Bugzilla:

Please use the search facility to ensure the same bug hasn't already been submitted and follow our guidelines on how to make a good bug report:


Mono open source ECMA CLI, C# and .NET implementation.



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