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brat rapid annotation tool (brat) - for all your textual annotation needs

Merge pull request #1085 from priancho/master

Add: Dictionary-based NER tagger server is added.
latest commit 8e88fdd1ba
Pontus Stenetorp ninjin authored
Octocat-spinner-32 client protect against undefined (#1087) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 configurations Move example .confs to configurations/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 example-data Sentence splitting pre-processing broken, remove hard newlines November 06, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 external Compatibility issue with `readlink` fixed December 21, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 res This should settle it. September 10, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 server move .css to static/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 static move .css to static/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 tools Add: Dictionary-based NER tagger server is added. It uses PubDictiona… April 06, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 .gitignore Ignore default data and work directories October 11, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 .htaccess typo fix August 02, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 A first file September 20, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Adding Jörn Kottmann as a contributor August 21, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 Forgot that we are on this side of new year. January 06, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Merge branch 'master' of November 08, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 ajax.cgi Corrected spelling. March 07, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 ajax.fcgi Protecting sys.path with a thread lock for #612. January 06, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Separate script for finding apache user. November 06, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Don't match the script itself November 06, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Require tutorials to be explicitly enabled November 12, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 diff.xhtml move .css to static/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 favicon.ico Added favicon.ico January 28, 2011
Octocat-spinner-32 index.html Added DirectoryIndex. Fixes #103 April 20, 2011
Octocat-spinner-32 index.xhtml move .css to static/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 Move example .confs to configurations/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 lighttpd.conf Spelling correction. September 14, 2011
Octocat-spinner-32 lighttpd_fcgi.conf Multiple processes for LigHTTPD. September 14, 2011
Octocat-spinner-32 offline.xhtml move .css to static/ (#1086) April 13, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 Standalone server address un-hardcoded, fixes #1072 February 05, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 fix cgi parameter handling in testserver September 19, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 tutorial.cgi Hashes go negative, use the absolute value November 12, 2012

brat rapid annotation tool (brat)


In an attempt to keep all user-facing documentation in one place, please visit the brat homepage which contains extensive documentation and examples of how to use and configure brat. We apologise for only providing minimal documentation along with the installation package but the risk of having out-dated documentation delivered to our end-users is unacceptable.

If you find bugs in your brat installation or errors in the documentation, please file an issue at our issue tracker and we will strive to address it promptly.

About brat

brat (brat rapid annotation tool) is based on the stav visualiser which was originally made in order to visualise BioNLP'11 Shared Task data. brat aims to provide an intuitive and fast way to create text-bound and relational annotations. Recently, brat has been widely adopted in the community. It has been used to create well-over 50,000 annotations by the Genia group and several other international research groups for a number of annotation projects.

brat aims to overcome short-comings of previous annotation tools such as:

  • De-centralisation of configurations and data, causing synchronisation issues
  • Annotations and related text not being visually adjacent
  • Complexity of set-up for annotators
  • Etc.

brat does this by:

  • Data and configurations on a central web server (as Mark Twain said: "Put all your eggs in one basket, and then guard that basket!")
  • Present text as it would appear to a reader and maintain annotations close to the text
  • Zero set-up for annotators, leave configurations and server/data maintainence to other staff


brat itself is available under the permissive MIT License but incorporates software using a variety of open-source licenses, for details please see see


If you do make use of brat or components from brat for annotation purposes, please cite the following publication:

    author      = {Stenetorp, Pontus and Pyysalo, Sampo and Topi\'{c}, Goran
            and Ohta, Tomoko and Ananiadou, Sophia and Tsujii, Jun'ichi},
    title       = {{brat}: a Web-based Tool
            for {NLP}-Assisted Text Annotation},
    booktitle   = {Proceedings of the Demonstrations Session
            at {EACL} 2012},
    month       = {April},
    year        = {2012},
    address     = {Avignon, France},
    publisher   = {Association for Computational Linguistics},

If you make use of brat or its components solely for visualisation purposes, please cite the following publication:

  author    = {Stenetorp, Pontus and Topi\'{c}, Goran and Pyysalo, Sampo
      and Ohta, Tomoko and Kim, Jin-Dong and Tsujii, Jun'ichi},
  title     = {BioNLP Shared Task 2011: Supporting Resources},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of BioNLP Shared Task 2011 Workshop},
  month     = {June},
  year      = {2011},
  address   = {Portland, Oregon, USA},
  publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
  pages     = {112--120},
  url       = {}

Lastly, if you have enough space we would be very happy if you also link to the brat homepage:

...the brat rapid annotation tool\footnote{


As with any software brat is under continuous development. If you have requests for features please file an issue describing your request. Also, if you want to see work towards a specific feature feel free to contribute by working towards it. The standard procedure is to fork the repository, add a feature, fix a bug, then file a pull request that your changes are to be merged into the main repository and included in the next release. If you seek guidance or pointers please notify the brat developers and we will be more than happy to help.

If you send a pull request you agree that the code will be distributed under the same license as brat (MIT). Additionally, all non-anonymous contributors are recognised in the file.


For help and feedback please contact the authors below, preferably with all on them on CC since their responsibilities and availability may vary:

  • Goran Topić <goran_topic nii ac jp>
  • Sampo Pyysalo <sampo.pyysalo gmail com>
  • Pontus Stenetorp <pontus stenetorp se>
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