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libottery-lite -- drop-in secure replacement for your RNG. ========================================================== This project is meant to provide a good portable implemented-from-scratch secure RNG. Libottery-lite based on my earlier project "Libottery", with some architectural differences. Notably, libottery-lite is not as optimized as libottery, but it is much shorter, less configurable, and much simpler architecturally. I believe that the performance fallout will be acceptable: OpenBSD has started using an unoptimized ChaCha20 for their arc4random() PRNG, and it hasn't hurt them much. It currently uses Dan Bernstein's ChaCha20 stream cipher as its base. It uses Blake2[bs] as a hash function for dealing with multiple entropy sources. This time, I've written all the code from scratch, so that I can comfortably dedicate the whole thing under cc0 or whatever license I want. If "libottery-lite" is too long to type, you are encouraged to abbreviate it as "lol". Current status -------------- Libottery-lite compiles and runs for me on Linux 3.17 and OSX 10.10. It cross-compiles with mingw, but I haven't run the tests there yet. There hasn't been any code review. Don't use it yet. WARNING WARNING WARNING ----------------------- (Copied from the Libottery README) YOU WOULD HAVE TO BE SOME KIND OF LUNATIC TO USE THIS IN PRODUCTION CODE RIGHT NOW. It is so alpha that it begins the Greek alphabet. It is so alpha that Jean-Luc Godard is filming there. It is so alpha that it's 64-bit RISC from the 1990s. It's so alpha that it'll try to tell you that you belong to everyone else. It's so alpha that when you turn it sideways, it looks like an ox. It's so alpha that the Planck constant wobbles a little bit whenever I run the unit tests. I *will* break backward compatibility more than once. (Probably.) I *will* change something you were depending on. (Or at least, I won't promise not to.) There *might* be horrible security bugs left in it. If there are, I won't be very embarrassed: I told you not to use it yet! If it breaks, you *don't* get to keep both pieces! I will come over and break the pieces into even smaller pieces, then break something else that you actually liked, then point at them and laugh and laugh and laugh. DO YOU BEGIN TO GRASP THE TRUE MEANING OF "ALPHA"? (To people without my particular sense of humor: the purpose of this section is to make you not use libottery in production code yet, because it isn't ready. If it makes you nervous about using this version of the software in production: good! That's the point.) How to build it --------------- gcc -Wall -O2 -c -I src src/otterylite.c If that doesn't work, debug the program. How to use it ------------- Don't, yet. What's different from Libottery? -------------------------------- * Libottery-lite is less tested. * The entropy collection is much better (unless it's buggy). * The API is much simpler, and designed to be harder to misuse. * The fork detection is better. * It's more memory-safe. * Libottery-lite is much more reluctant to crash due to running on a horrible system. * Libottery-lite incorporates many ideas pioneered by OpenBSD's arc4random() and libressl-portable. * Libottery-lite emphasizes simplicity over performance. I expect that with work, the overhead for small requests will come down, but libottery is going to remain faster for generating gigabytes of noise at a time. What's different between this and a modern arc4random()? -------------------------------------------------------- Not too much, ideally. One of my goals here is to make the successor to libottery work as an independent drop-in arc4random() replacement for systems that don't have a good one. (Since OpenBSD got getentropy(), MAP_INHERIT_ZERO, and switched away from RC4, I've run out of objections to its userspace PRNG code.) If you're on any recent version of OpenBSD, there's no reason to use this. I discuss some differences below, but I don't pretend they're all improvements: I've made some API decisions to serve to my own needs as a writer of cryptographic networking tools. Most users won't benefit from those. Details ------- === Cryptography To gather entropy: we use all the available high-entropy sources. If none are available, we fall back to an old-school "read all the stuff on the system we can find" test. We then compress the data using Blake2b to generate a key and IV for the ChaCha20 stream cipher. Like Ottery and like OpenBSD's new arc4random, we use the ChaCha20 core to generate a lot of bytes at once. The last 40 bytes will become the next key and IV; the rest go into a buffer. When the user requests bytes, we yield them from the buffer, and clear them as we yield them. When the buffer runs out, we generate a new batch of ChaCha20 output using the Key and IV we had set aside, and start the process over. Note that since we destroy each key as soon as we use it, and overwrite each part of the stream as soon as we yield it, we should maintain forward secrecy (backtracking resistance) in the presence of information leaks. === API Libottery-lite can be built in any of 3 main API modes: built-in, stateful, and arc4 emulation. By default, we build in built-in mode, and the available APIs are as follow: unsigned ottery_random(void); unsigned ottery_random_uniform(unsigned limit); uint64_t ottery_random64(void); uint64_t ottery_random_uniform64(uint64_t limit); uint64_t ottery_random_buf(void *buf, size_t n); These are the only functions you should need to know about. The "random" and "random64" functions return a random value in the full range of their type. The "random_uniform" and "random_uniform64" functions return a value between 0 and limit-1, inclusive. The "random_buf" function fills a provided n-byte buffer with random bytes. void ottery_addrandom(const unsigned char *input, int n); This function adds more bytes to the entropy pool. For almost all users, using this interface is a mistake. Unless you're writing GPG or LibNSS or something, just leave it alone. The arc4random() designers probably think it shouldn't exist. int ottery_set_egd_address(const struct sockaddr *sa, int socklen); Sets an address that Ottery-lite can use for getting data from an entropy-gathering daemon. This is not thread-safe; don't do it concurrently with anything else. void ottery_need_reseed(void); Mark the RNG for needing a reseed. For almost all users, using this interface is a mistake. Unless you're writing OTR or Tor or something, just leave it alone. The arc4random() designers probably think it shouldn't exist. void ottery_teardown(void); Release all resources held by the RNG. This is useful if you're about to exit, and you don't want valgrind complaining about leaks. int ottery_status(void); Return an estimate of the quality of the seeding on the RNG. 2 is good, 1 is questionable, 0 is iffy, and -1 or lower is completely busted and should never happen. This function, unlike the others above, can return -1 rather than abort() if initializing the PRNG is impossible. You can use it to give a graceful error message rather than crashing if the environment is broken. But for one last time, for almost all users, using this interface is a mistake. Unless you're generating master-keys for signing TAILS or something, just leave it alone. The arc4random() designers probably think it shouldn't exist. All of the functions above are threadsafe. With the exception of ottery_status(), they may all call abort() if they cannot find any entropy source. === arc4random compatibility mode OpenBSD's arc4random() API is the most well-established secure CSPRNG API, so let's aim for compatibility with it. If you build with OTTERY_BE_ARC4RANDOM defined, then the APIs above become: unsigned arc4random(void); unsigned arc4random_uniform(unsigned limit); uint64_t arc4random64(void); uint64_t arc4random_uniform64(uint64_t limit); uint64_t arc4random_buf(void *buf, size_t n); void arc4random_addrandom(const unsigned char *input, int n); int arc4random_set_egd_address(const struct sockaddr *sa, int socklen); void arc4random_need_reseed(void); void arc4random_teardown(void); int arc4random_status(void); In addition, we define a stub "arc4random_stir()" macro that does nothing, but which some programs expect to find. === Stateful mode Some programs need a PRNG that they can heap-allocate or stick inside a structure or keep different versions of. If you build otterylite.c with OTTERY_STRUCT defined, the APIs above become: unsigned ottery_st_random(struct ottery_state *state); unsigned ottery_st_random_uniform(struct ottery_state *state, unsigned limit); uint64_t ottery_st_random64(struct ottery_state *state); uint64_t ottery_st_random_uniform64(struct ottery_state *state, uint64_t limit); uint64_t ottery_st_random_buf(struct ottery_state *state, void *buf, size_t n); void ottery_st_addrandom(struct ottery_state *state, const unsigned char *input, int n); int ottery_st_set_egd_address(const struct sockaddr *sa, int socklen); void ottery_st_need_reseed(struct ottery_state *state); void ottery_st_teardown(struct ottery_state *state); int ottery_st_status(struct ottery_state *state); (Note the lack of change to ottery_set_egd_address.) To construct an ottery_state structure, use the API: int ottery_st_init(struct ottery_state *state); And to learn how many bytes to allocate, use: size_t ottery_st_size(void); Memory- and fork-security ------------------------- Where possible, we allocate the RNG state in a private mapping, and disable swapping for the page it's on. On Windows, since there is no fork(), we don't need any special fork handling. So that's convenient. We use INHERIT_ZERO where available, since that's the easiest way to make sure that child processes don't share RNG state with their parents. Where INHERIT_ZERO isn't available, we use getpid() (and pthread_atfork() if possible) to try to notice forks. These methods are imperfect, so as a last resort, we turn on INHERIT_NONE if we have it, to ensure that missing a fork causes a crash instead of a security failure. Practically speaking, this means that OpenBSD and Windows (!) are your most secure options from this POV, and Linux is the least secure among the free operating systems. Let's hope that changes. Getting entropy --------------- Ottery-lite has a list of entropy sources, a guess about how good they are, and one or more ways to get entropy from each. We try to get entropy from each source, in more or less the order suggested below. Once we have read from a source using one method, we don't try any other methods listed for that source. If we can get any entropy from any "strong" method, we don't try any source marked as "best avoided." * Recent Intel CPUs - RDRAND (recent x86. not strong.) We look at RDRAND if it's available, since it's definitely hard for most attackers to predict, but we don't treat it as strong. (I personally don't think it's backdoored, but by treat it as sufficient? Also, yes, I am aware of that blogpost. See the references below.) * Kernel entropy, syscall based - getentropy() (recent *bsd) - getrandom() (recent linux) - CryptGenRandom() (windows) - sysctl(...RANDOM_UUID) (old linux, best avoided) - sysctl(...KERN_ARND) (older *bsd) Here's the best option if you've got a fairly recent OS. The first two interfaces above are pretty good, though getrandom() is a little more error-prone. (Please review the code and make sure I didn't make any of the errors.) CryptGenRandom() is kind of a black box, but everybody uses it on Windows, so let's hope it's not too bad. The sysctl-based options are kind of yucky, and the Linux one hasn't worked for a while. * Kernel entropy, device-based - /dev/urandom - /dev/srandom - /dev/random - /proc/sys/kernel/random/uuid (Linux only, best avoided) These are fine if they're present, though a fair amount can go wrong when you read from them. You might run out of fds, or find yourself stuck in a chroot, or something like that. What's more, with older Linux systems, /dev/urandom might give you data before it's seeded. I also hear tell that on some sufficiently broken Linuxes, you can squeeze some kernel entropy from the /proc file above. We look there if the other options above don't work. Still, because the syscall-based interfaces aren't ubiquitous, and where they _are_ present they're still kinda new, I've decided to be (pointlessly?) conservative and treat a kernel device as an independent source from a syscall. That means that if both are available, we'll check both and combine them. * Hardware entropy, device-based * /dev/hw_random (?) I hear tell some people have strong entropy sources at /dev/hw_random. We'll read from that if it's present. * Entropy gathering daemon * socket-based interface Some people like running Brian Warner's EGD, or one of several workalikes. If for some reason you need to run on an old broken OS, this is a better option than many. To use EGD, you need to set an address for it. * Kludgey fallback entropy collection method (best avoided, not strong) If no other strong method works, libottery-lite will fall back to reading various kinds of system information, enumerating processes, checking network stats, and so on, checking syscall timings, and so on. The Windows and Linux suites of things to look at here aren't too bad, but the others could use some work. This is also a matter of some controversy. Some folks feel that, if you find yourself in this position, you're better off just crashing the application and giving up. If you're one of them, build with "OTTERY_DISABLE_FALLBACK_RNG" defined, or write your code to check ottery_status(). Testing ------- Line coverage is around 80-something% right now -- 93% with EGD turned off. It passes dieharder. The underlying primitives are tested independently to make sure they match blake2b and chacha. It needs a lot more testing, though. I'm not going to be happy with this until it's got something close to 100%. Speed comparison ---------------- (Done on my desktop soon after I started hacking.) Right now, with no effort optimizing (and no effort debugging!) it's actually about 0-25% faster as libottery for 4-byte outputs. Looks like simplicity pays off for low output sizes where the overhead of outputting the bytes dominates. For 1024-byte outputs, libottery-lite is about 150% slower than libottery. (4.4 microseconds instead of 1.8.) That's as expected; when generating a lot of bytes at once, cipher performance will dominate. References ---------- DJB's post at http://blog.cr.yp.to/20140205-entropy.html discusses some pitfalls with trying to combine multiple entropy sources, some of which might be hostile, and some of which might be observed. I _think_ that the setup I'm doing here doesn't fall so well into that category, but best make up your own mind. The chacha20 stream cipher's page at http://cr.yp.to/chacha.html has reference implementations and papers for the ChaCha cipher family. (I picked ChaCha20 because that's what everybody else is doing, though ChaCha12 is probably good enough.) The BLAKE2 hash function (https://blake2.net/) is based on BLAKE, a SHA3 finalist that was based on ChaCha. I chose it because it's fairly simple to implement, and I like the designers. You could drop in any cryptographic digest with wide enough outputs with minimal effort, though. (Why not use Blake2 for the whole thing? ChaCha has been more studied, and we seem to be converging to ChaCha20 for free software userspace PRNGs. I don't mind, since that's what I did in Ottery. I am not competent to turn Blake2 into a stream generator, or to evaluate the wisdom of doing so.) If you're interested in userspace PRNG design, you should definitely have a look at Theo de Raadt's November 2014 talk (http://www.openbsd.org/papers/hackfest2014-arc4random/index.html) on OpenBSD's design progress on arc4random(). Libottery-lite is, for most practical purposes, an arc4random() clone. If you're trying to work around a lack of a kernel RNG, or to improve a kernel RNG, you should read Peter Gutmann's publications, especially the revised vesion of his 1998 paper "Software Generation of Practically Strong Random Numbers" that lives at http://www.cypherpunks.to/~peter/06_random.pdf . Also read https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~pgut001/pubs/nist_rng.pdf . The original libottery design (whose choices of cryptographic algorithms influenced the October 2013 changes to OpenBSD arc4random, which in turn lead to libottery-lite) still lives at my github page at https://github.com/nmathewson/libottery . See "what's different" above for a dicussion of how libottery-lite differs from libottery. For on entropy pooling inside operating system kernels or EGD-like systems, libottery-lite's constructions would be more or less totally wrong. Instead, you might want to look into Ferguson and Schneier's Fortuna (https://www.schneier.com/fortuna.html). A survey of which operating systems behave sensibly internally is beyond the scope of this README. For more information on EGD, see http://egd.sourceforge.net/ -- I don't think it's been maintained in a while, though, and there may well be nicer clones of it. (My mention of any people and organizations above doesn't mean that I'm necessarily doing this the way they'd want me to, or that they're doing everything they do the way I think best.) Acknowledgments --------------- XXXX write this. Copyright-related notices ------------------------- To the extent possible under law, Nick Mathewson has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to libottery-lite, using the creative commons "cc0" public domain dedication. See doc/cc0.txt or <http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/> for full details.