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"""
General Utilities
(part of web.py)
"""
__all__ = [
"Storage", "storage", "storify",
"iters",
"rstrips", "lstrips", "strips", "utf8",
"TimeoutError", "timelimit",
"Memoize", "memoize",
"re_compile", "re_subm",
"group",
"IterBetter", "iterbetter",
"dictreverse", "dictfind", "dictfindall", "dictincr", "dictadd",
"listget", "intget", "datestr",
"numify", "denumify", "dateify",
"CaptureStdout", "capturestdout", "Profile", "profile",
"tryall",
"ThreadedDict",
"autoassign",
"to36",
"safemarkdown",
"sendmail"
]
import re, sys, time, threading, os
try: import datetime
except ImportError: pass
class Storage(dict):
"""
A Storage object is like a dictionary except `obj.foo` can be used
in addition to `obj['foo']`.
>>> o = storage(a=1)
>>> o.a
1
>>> o['a']
1
>>> o.a = 2
>>> o['a']
2
>>> del o.a
>>> o.a
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
AttributeError: 'a'
"""
def __getattr__(self, key):
try:
return self[key]
except KeyError, k:
raise AttributeError, k
def __setattr__(self, key, value):
self[key] = value
def __delattr__(self, key):
try:
del self[key]
except KeyError, k:
raise AttributeError, k
def __repr__(self):
return '<Storage ' + dict.__repr__(self) + '>'
storage = Storage
def storify(mapping, *requireds, **defaults):
"""
Creates a `storage` object from dictionary `mapping`, raising `KeyError` if
d doesn't have all of the keys in `requireds` and using the default
values for keys found in `defaults`.
For example, `storify({'a':1, 'c':3}, b=2, c=0)` will return the equivalent of
`storage({'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3})`.
If a `storify` value is a list (e.g. multiple values in a form submission),
`storify` returns the last element of the list, unless the key appears in
`defaults` as a list. Thus:
>>> storify({'a':[1, 2]}).a
2
>>> storify({'a':[1, 2]}, a=[]).a
[1, 2]
>>> storify({'a':1}, a=[]).a
[1]
>>> storify({}, a=[]).a
[]
Similarly, if the value has a `value` attribute, `storify will return _its_
value, unless the key appears in `defaults` as a dictionary.
>>> storify({'a':storage(value=1)}).a
1
>>> storify({'a':storage(value=1)}, a={}).a
<Storage {'value': 1}>
>>> storify({}, a={}).a
{}
"""
def getvalue(x):
if hasattr(x, 'value'):
return x.value
else:
return x
stor = Storage()
for key in requireds + tuple(mapping.keys()):
value = mapping[key]
if isinstance(value, list):
if isinstance(defaults.get(key), list):
value = [getvalue(x) for x in value]
else:
value = value[-1]
if not isinstance(defaults.get(key), dict):
value = getvalue(value)
if isinstance(defaults.get(key), list) and not isinstance(value, list):
value = [value]
setattr(stor, key, value)
for (key, value) in defaults.iteritems():
result = value
if hasattr(stor, key):
result = stor[key]
if value == () and not isinstance(result, tuple):
result = (result,)
setattr(stor, key, result)
return stor
iters = [list, tuple]
import __builtin__
if hasattr(__builtin__, 'set'):
iters.append(set)
try:
from sets import Set
iters.append(Set)
except ImportError:
pass
class _hack(tuple): pass
iters = _hack(iters)
iters.__doc__ = """
A list of iterable items (like lists, but not strings). Includes whichever
of lists, tuples, sets, and Sets are available in this version of Python.
"""
def _strips(direction, text, remove):
if direction == 'l':
if text.startswith(remove):
return text[len(remove):]
elif direction == 'r':
if text.endswith(remove):
return text[:-len(remove)]
else:
raise ValueError, "Direction needs to be r or l."
return text
def rstrips(text, remove):
"""
removes the string `remove` from the right of `text`
>>> rstrips("foobar", "bar")
'foo'
"""
return _strips('r', text, remove)
def lstrips(text, remove):
"""
removes the string `remove` from the left of `text`
>>> lstrips("foobar", "foo")
'bar'
"""
return _strips('l', text, remove)
def strips(text, remove):
"""removes the string `remove` from the both sides of `text`
>>> strips("foobarfoo", "foo")
'bar'
"""
return rstrips(lstrips(text, remove), remove)
def utf8(text):
"""Encodes text in utf-8.
>> utf8(u'\u1234') # doctest doesn't seem to like utf-8
'\xe1\x88\xb4'
>>> utf8('hello')
'hello'
>>> utf8(42)
'42'
"""
if isinstance(text, unicode):
return text.encode('utf-8')
elif isinstance(text, str):
return text
else:
return str(text)
class TimeoutError(Exception): pass
def timelimit(timeout):
"""
A decorator to limit a function to `timeout` seconds, raising `TimeoutError`
if it takes longer.
>>> import time
>>> def meaningoflife():
... time.sleep(.2)
... return 42
>>>
>>> timelimit(.1)(meaningoflife)()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TimeoutError: took too long
>>> timelimit(1)(meaningoflife)()
42
_Caveat:_ The function isn't stopped after `timeout` seconds but continues
executing in a separate thread. (There seems to be no way to kill a thread.)
inspired by <http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/473878>
"""
def _1(function):
def _2(*args, **kw):
class Dispatch(threading.Thread):
def __init__(self):
threading.Thread.__init__(self)
self.result = None
self.error = None
self.setDaemon(True)
self.start()
def run(self):
try:
self.result = function(*args, **kw)
except:
self.error = sys.exc_info()
c = Dispatch()
c.join(timeout)
if c.isAlive():
raise TimeoutError, 'took too long'
if c.error:
raise c.error[0], c.error[1]
return c.result
return _2
return _1
class Memoize:
"""
'Memoizes' a function, caching its return values for each input.
>>> import time
>>> def meaningoflife():
... time.sleep(.2)
... return 42
>>> fastlife = memoize(meaningoflife)
>>> meaningoflife()
42
>>> timelimit(.1)(meaningoflife)()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TimeoutError: took too long
>>> fastlife()
42
>>> timelimit(.1)(fastlife)()
42
"""
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
self.cache = {}
def __call__(self, *args, **keywords):
key = (args, tuple(keywords.items()))
if key not in self.cache:
self.cache[key] = self.func(*args, **keywords)
return self.cache[key]
memoize = Memoize
re_compile = memoize(re.compile) #@@ threadsafe?
re_compile.__doc__ = """
A memoized version of re.compile.
"""
class _re_subm_proxy:
def __init__(self):
self.match = None
def __call__(self, match):
self.match = match
return ''
def re_subm(pat, repl, string):
"""
Like re.sub, but returns the replacement _and_ the match object.
>>> t, m = re_subm('g(oo+)fball', r'f\\1lish', 'goooooofball')
>>> t
'foooooolish'
>>> m.groups()
('oooooo',)
"""
compiled_pat = re_compile(pat)
proxy = _re_subm_proxy()
compiled_pat.sub(proxy.__call__, string)
return compiled_pat.sub(repl, string), proxy.match
def group(seq, size):
"""
Returns an iterator over a series of lists of length size from iterable.
>>> list(group([1,2,3,4], 2))
[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
"""
if not hasattr(seq, 'next'):
seq = iter(seq)
while True:
yield [seq.next() for i in xrange(size)]
class IterBetter:
"""
Returns an object that can be used as an iterator
but can also be used via __getitem__ (although it
cannot go backwards -- that is, you cannot request
`iterbetter[0]` after requesting `iterbetter[1]`).
>>> import itertools
>>> c = iterbetter(itertools.count())
>>> c[1]
1
>>> c[5]
5
>>> c[3]
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IndexError: already passed 3
"""
def __init__(self, iterator):
self.i, self.c = iterator, 0
def __iter__(self):
while 1:
yield self.i.next()
self.c += 1
def __getitem__(self, i):
#todo: slices
if i < self.c:
raise IndexError, "already passed "+str(i)
try:
while i > self.c:
self.i.next()
self.c += 1
# now self.c == i
self.c += 1
return self.i.next()
except StopIteration:
raise IndexError, str(i)
iterbetter = IterBetter
def dictreverse(mapping):
"""
>>> dictreverse({1: 2, 3: 4})
{2: 1, 4: 3}
"""
return dict([(value, key) for (key, value) in mapping.iteritems()])
def dictfind(dictionary, element):
"""
Returns a key whose value in `dictionary` is `element`
or, if none exists, None.
>>> d = {1:2, 3:4}
>>> dictfind(d, 4)
3
>>> dictfind(d, 5)
"""
for (key, value) in dictionary.iteritems():
if element is value:
return key
def dictfindall(dictionary, element):
"""
Returns the keys whose values in `dictionary` are `element`
or, if none exists, [].
>>> d = {1:4, 3:4}
>>> dictfindall(d, 4)
[1, 3]
>>> dictfindall(d, 5)
[]
"""
res = []
for (key, value) in dictionary.iteritems():
if element is value:
res.append(key)
return res
def dictincr(dictionary, element):
"""
Increments `element` in `dictionary`,
setting it to one if it doesn't exist.
>>> d = {1:2, 3:4}
>>> dictincr(d, 1)
3
>>> d[1]
3
>>> dictincr(d, 5)
1
>>> d[5]
1
"""
dictionary.setdefault(element, 0)
dictionary[element] += 1
return dictionary[element]
def dictadd(*dicts):
"""
Returns a dictionary consisting of the keys in the argument dictionaries.
If they share a key, the value from the last argument is used.
>>> dictadd({1: 0, 2: 0}, {2: 1, 3: 1})
{1: 0, 2: 1, 3: 1}
"""
result = {}
for dct in dicts:
result.update(dct)
return result
def listget(lst, ind, default=None):
"""
Returns `lst[ind]` if it exists, `default` otherwise.
>>> listget(['a'], 0)
'a'
>>> listget(['a'], 1)
>>> listget(['a'], 1, 'b')
'b'
"""
if len(lst)-1 < ind:
return default
return lst[ind]
def intget(integer, default=None):
"""
Returns `integer` as an int or `default` if it can't.
>>> intget('3')
3
>>> intget('3a')
>>> intget('3a', 0)
0
"""
try:
return int(integer)
except (TypeError, ValueError):
return default
def datestr(then, now=None):
"""
Converts a (UTC) datetime object to a nice string representation.
>>> from datetime import datetime, timedelta
>>> d = datetime(1970, 5, 1)
>>> datestr(d, now=d)
'0 microseconds ago'
>>> for t, v in {
... timedelta(microseconds=1): '1 microsecond ago',
... timedelta(microseconds=2): '2 microseconds ago',
... -timedelta(microseconds=1): '1 microsecond from now',
... -timedelta(microseconds=2): '2 microseconds from now',
... timedelta(microseconds=2000): '2 milliseconds ago',
... timedelta(seconds=2): '2 seconds ago',
... timedelta(seconds=2*60): '2 minutes ago',
... timedelta(seconds=2*60*60): '2 hours ago',
... timedelta(days=2): '2 days ago',
... }.iteritems():
... assert datestr(d, now=d+t) == v
>>> datestr(datetime(1970, 1, 1), now=d)
'January 1'
>>> datestr(datetime(1969, 1, 1), now=d)
'January 1, 1969'
>>> datestr(datetime(1970, 6, 1), now=d)
'June 1, 1970'
"""
def agohence(n, what, divisor=None):
if divisor: n = n // divisor
out = str(abs(n)) + ' ' + what # '2 day'
if abs(n) != 1: out += 's' # '2 days'
out += ' ' # '2 days '
if n < 0:
out += 'from now'
else:
out += 'ago'
return out # '2 days ago'
oneday = 24 * 60 * 60
if not now: now = datetime.datetime.utcnow()
if type(now).__name__ == "DateTime":
now = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(now)
if type(then).__name__ == "DateTime":
then = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(then)
delta = now - then
deltaseconds = int(delta.days * oneday + delta.seconds + delta.microseconds * 1e-06)
deltadays = abs(deltaseconds) // oneday
if deltaseconds < 0: deltadays *= -1 # fix for oddity of floor
if deltadays:
if abs(deltadays) < 4:
return agohence(deltadays, 'day')
out = then.strftime('%B %e') # e.g. 'June 13'
if then.year != now.year or deltadays < 0:
out += ', %s' % then.year
return out
if int(deltaseconds):
if abs(deltaseconds) > (60 * 60):
return agohence(deltaseconds, 'hour', 60 * 60)
elif abs(deltaseconds) > 60:
return agohence(deltaseconds, 'minute', 60)
else:
return agohence(deltaseconds, 'second')
deltamicroseconds = delta.microseconds
if delta.days: deltamicroseconds = int(delta.microseconds - 1e6) # datetime oddity
if abs(deltamicroseconds) > 1000:
return agohence(deltamicroseconds, 'millisecond', 1000)
return agohence(deltamicroseconds, 'microsecond')
def numify(string):
"""
Removes all non-digit characters from `string`.
>>> numify('800-555-1212')
'8005551212'
>>> numify('800.555.1212')
'8005551212'
"""
return ''.join([c for c in str(string) if c.isdigit()])
def denumify(string, pattern):
"""
Formats `string` according to `pattern`, where the letter X gets replaced
by characters from `string`.
>>> denumify("8005551212", "(XXX) XXX-XXXX")
'(800) 555-1212'
"""
out = []
for c in pattern:
if c == "X":
out.append(string[0])
string = string[1:]
else:
out.append(c)
return ''.join(out)
def dateify(datestring):
"""
Formats a numified `datestring` properly.
"""
return denumify(datestring, "XXXX-XX-XX XX:XX:XX")
class CaptureStdout:
"""
Captures everything `func` prints to stdout and returns it instead.
>>> def idiot():
... print "foo"
>>> capturestdout(idiot)()
'foo\\n'
**WARNING:** Not threadsafe!
"""
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
def __call__(self, *args, **keywords):
from cStringIO import StringIO
# Not threadsafe!
out = StringIO()
oldstdout = sys.stdout
sys.stdout = out
try:
self.func(*args, **keywords)
finally:
sys.stdout = oldstdout
return out.getvalue()
capturestdout = CaptureStdout
class Profile:
"""
Profiles `func` and returns a tuple containing its output
and a string with human-readable profiling information.
>>> import time
>>> out, inf = profile(time.sleep)(.001)
>>> out
>>> inf[:10].strip()
'took 0.0'
"""
def __init__(self, func):
self.func = func
def __call__(self, *args): ##, **kw): kw unused
import hotshot, hotshot.stats, tempfile ##, time already imported
temp = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile()
prof = hotshot.Profile(temp.name)
stime = time.time()
result = prof.runcall(self.func, *args)
stime = time.time() - stime
prof.close()
stats = hotshot.stats.load(temp.name)
stats.strip_dirs()
stats.sort_stats('time', 'calls')
x = '\n\ntook '+ str(stime) + ' seconds\n'
x += capturestdout(stats.print_stats)(40)
x += capturestdout(stats.print_callers)()
return result, x
profile = Profile
import traceback
# hack for compatibility with Python 2.3:
if not hasattr(traceback, 'format_exc'):
from cStringIO import StringIO
def format_exc(limit=None):
strbuf = StringIO()
traceback.print_exc(limit, strbuf)
return strbuf.getvalue()
traceback.format_exc = format_exc
def tryall(context, prefix=None):
"""
Tries a series of functions and prints their results.
`context` is a dictionary mapping names to values;
the value will only be tried if it's callable.
>>> tryall(dict(j=lambda: True))
j: True
----------------------------------------
results:
True: 1
For example, you might have a file `test/stuff.py`
with a series of functions testing various things in it.
At the bottom, have a line:
if __name__ == "__main__": tryall(globals())
Then you can run `python test/stuff.py` and get the results of
all the tests.
"""
context = context.copy() # vars() would update
results = {}
for (key, value) in context.iteritems():
if not hasattr(value, '__call__'):
continue
if prefix and not key.startswith(prefix):
continue
print key + ':',
try:
r = value()
dictincr(results, r)
print r
except:
print 'ERROR'
dictincr(results, 'ERROR')
print ' ' + '\n '.join(traceback.format_exc().split('\n'))
print '-'*40
print 'results:'
for (key, value) in results.iteritems():
print ' '*2, str(key)+':', value
class ThreadedDict:
"""
Takes a dictionary that maps threads to objects.
When a thread tries to get or set an attribute or item
of the threadeddict, it passes it on to the object
for that thread in dictionary.
"""
def __init__(self, dictionary):
self.__dict__['_ThreadedDict__d'] = dictionary
def __getattr__(self, attr):
return getattr(self.__d[threading.currentThread()], attr)
def __getitem__(self, item):
return self.__d[threading.currentThread()][item]
def __setattr__(self, attr, value):
if attr == '__doc__':
self.__dict__[attr] = value
else:
return setattr(self.__d[threading.currentThread()], attr, value)
def __delattr__(self, item):
try:
del self.__d[threading.currentThread()][item]
except KeyError, k:
raise AttributeError, k
def __delitem__(self, item):
del self.__d[threading.currentThread()][item]
def __setitem__(self, item, value):
self.__d[threading.currentThread()][item] = value
def __hash__(self):
return hash(self.__d[threading.currentThread()])
threadeddict = ThreadedDict
def autoassign(self, locals):
"""
Automatically assigns local variables to `self`.
>>> self = storage()
>>> autoassign(self, dict(a=1, b=2))
>>> self
<Storage {'a': 1, 'b': 2}>
Generally used in `__init__` methods, as in:
def __init__(self, foo, bar, baz=1): autoassign(self, locals())
"""
for (key, value) in locals.iteritems():
if key == 'self':
continue
setattr(self, key, value)
def to36(q):
"""
Converts an integer to base 36 (a useful scheme for human-sayable IDs).
>>> to36(35)
'z'
>>> to36(119292)
'2k1o'
>>> int(to36(939387374), 36)
939387374
>>> to36(0)
'0'
>>> to36(-393)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: must supply a positive integer
"""
if q < 0: raise ValueError, "must supply a positive integer"
letters = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
converted = []
while q != 0:
q, r = divmod(q, 36)
converted.insert(0, letters[r])
return "".join(converted) or '0'
r_url = re_compile('(?<!\()(http://(\S+))')
def safemarkdown(text):
"""
Converts text to HTML following the rules of Markdown, but blocking any
outside HTML input, so that only the things supported by Markdown
can be used. Also converts raw URLs to links.
(requires [markdown.py](http://webpy.org/markdown.py))
"""
from markdown import markdown
if text:
text = text.replace('<', '&lt;')
# TODO: automatically get page title?
text = r_url.sub(r'<\1>', text)
text = markdown(text)
return text
def sendmail(from_address, to_address, subject, message, headers=None):
"""
Sends the email message `message` with mail and envelope headers
for from `from_address_` to `to_address` with `subject`.
Additional email headers can be specified with the dictionary
`headers.
If `web.config.smtp_server` is set, it will send the message
to that SMTP server. Otherwise it will look for
`/usr/lib/sendmail`, the typical location for the sendmail-style
binary.
"""
try:
import webapi
except ImportError:
webapi = Storage(config=Storage())
if headers is None: headers = {}
headers = dictadd(headers, {
'MIME-Version': '1.0',
'Content-Type': 'text/plain; charset=UTF-8',
'Content-Disposition': 'inline',
'From': from_address,
'To': to_address,
'Subject': subject
})
import email
from_address = email.Utils.parseaddr(from_address)[1]
to_address = email.Utils.parseaddr(to_address)[1]
message = ('\n'.join(['%s: %s' % x for x in headers.iteritems()])
+ "\n\n" + message)
if webapi.config.get('smtp_server'):
import smtplib
smtpserver = smtplib.SMTP(web.config.smtp_server)
smtpserver.sendmail(from_address, [to_address], message)
smtpserver.quit()
else:
assert not from_address.startswith('-') and not to_address.startswith('-'), 'security'
i, o = os.popen2(["/usr/lib/sendmail", '-f', from_address, to_address])
i.write(message)
i.close()
o.close()
del i, o
if __name__ == "__main__":
import doctest
doctest.testmod()
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