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#include <stdio.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
int numbers[4] = {0};
// note: null terminator is only added if there is room.
// see:
char name[4] = {'a'};
// Note: when this line is moved here (as suggesd in
// "How to break it"), later output is garbled.
// Also, valgrind prints: "Syscall param write(buf) points to uninitialised byte(s)"
// and "Address 0x4c0d00a is not stack'd, malloc'd or (recently) free'd"
// This is likely because the variable "name" was not null terminated, so
// the printf command spills over into memory section allocated for "numbers."
// int numbers[4] = {0};
// first print them out raw
printf("numbers: %d %d %d %d\n",
numbers[0], numbers[1],
numbers[2], numbers[3]);
printf("name each: %c %c %c %c\n",
name[0], name[1],
name[2], name[3]);
printf("name: %s\n", name);
// setup the numbers
numbers[0] = 1;
numbers[1] = 2;
numbers[2] = 3;
numbers[3] = 4;
// setup the name
name[0] = 'Z';
name[1] = 'e';
name[2] = 'd';
name[3] = '\0';
// then print them out intialized
printf("numbers: %d %d %d %d\n",
numbers[0], numbers[1],
numbers[2], numbers[3]);
printf("name each: %c %c %c %c\n",
name[0], name[1],
name[2], name[3]);
// print the name like a string
printf("name: %s\n", name);
// another way to use name
char *another = "Zed";
printf("another %s\n", another);
printf("another each: %c %c %c %c\n",
another[0], another[1],
another[2], another[3]);
// 1) Assign characters to numbers and then use printf to print them a
// character at at time.
// ANSWER: I didn't get any compiler errors. Printed out the following:
// numbers containing characters:
// 97 98 99 100
// (tried with %c format string too)
puts("\n** Extra Credit 1\n");
numbers[0] = 'a';
numbers[1] = 'b';
numbers[2] = 'c';
numbers[3] = 'd';
printf("numbers containing characters:\n %d %d %d %d\n",
numbers[0], numbers[1], numbers[2], numbers[3]);
// 2) Do the inverse of (1) for name, trying to treat it like an array of
// int and print out one int at a time. What does Valgrind think of this?
// ANSWER: Again, no compiler errors. Valgrind doesn't care. Prints out the following:
// name containing numbers:
// a b c d
// (tried with %i format string too)
puts("\n** Extra Credit 2\n");
name[0] = 97;
name[1] = 98;
name[2] = 99;
name[3] = 100;
printf("name containing numbers:\n %c %c %c %c\n",
name[0], name[1], name[2], name[3]);
// 3) How many other ways can you print this out?
puts("\n** Extra Credit 3\n");
printf("name as octal:\n %o %o %o %o\n",
name[0], name[1], name[2], name[3]);
// This line gets the following compiler warning:
// "format ‘%e’ expects type ‘double’, but argument 2 has type ‘int’"
// Valgrind has many errors including this one:
// "Use of uninitialised value of size 8"
// Indicating that the double is 8 bytes wide but the char value referenced
// is much smaller?
printf("name as double:\n %e %e %e %e\n",
name[0], name[1], name[2], name[3]);
printf("size of int: %ld\n", sizeof(int)); // 4
printf("size of char: %ld\n", sizeof(char)); // 1
printf("size of number[] element: %ld\n", sizeof(numbers[0])); // 4
printf("size of name[] element: %ld\n", sizeof(name[0])); // 1
printf("size of double: %ld\n", sizeof(double)); // 8
// 4) If an array of characters is 4 bytes long, and an integer is 4 bytes
// long, then you can you treat the whole name array like it's an integer?
printf("\n** Extra Credit 4\n");
printf("size of name: %ld\n", sizeof(name));
// This isn't the answer, it prints out a different value each run,
// meaning that casting it gets you the memory address, not the "number"
// stored in the array.
printf("name's memory address: %lld\n", (long long int) name);
// I did various searches for "covert char array to int" but many of the
// results had to do with "string-to-int" coverstion and the function 'atoi'
char c[4];
c[0] = 'Z';
c[1] = 'e';
c[2] = 'd';
c[3] = '\0';
printf("chars as hex bytes: %X %X %X %X\n", c[0], c[1], c[2], c[3]);
// How to get these into an integer? Bitwise manipulation.
// Inspired by (not copied from) this StackOverflow question:
unsigned int num;
num = c[0] << 24;
num = (c[1] << 16) | num;
num = (c[2] << 8) | num;
num = c[3] | num;
printf("char array as hexidecimal: %X\n", num);
printf("char array as integer: %d\n", num);
// 5) Take a piece of paper and draw out each of these arrays as a row of
// boxes. Then code the operations you just did on paper to see if you got
// them right.
puts("\n** Extra Credit 5\n");
puts("(on paper)");
// 6) Convert name to be in the style of another and see if the code keeps working.
puts("\n** Extra Credit 6\n");
char * z = "Zed";
unsigned int znum;
znum = z[0] << 24;
znum = z[1] << 16 | znum;
znum = z[2] << 8 | znum;
znum = z[3] | znum;
printf("name in the style of another as Hexidecimal: %X\n", znum);
printf("name in the style of another as integer: %d\n", znum);
// End extra credit
return 0;