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A memory profiler for Linux

Features

  • Can be used to analyze memory leaks, see where exactly the memory is being consumed, identify temporary allocations and investigate excessive memory fragmentation
  • Gathers every allocation and deallocation, along with full stack traces
  • Uses a custom, tailor-made stack unwinding implementation which makes it a lot cheaper than other similar tools, potentially up to orders of magnitude faster in some cases
  • Can export the data it gathered into various different formats; it can export the data as JSON (so you can analyze it yourself if you want), as Heaptrack (so you can use the excellent Heaptrack GUI for analysis) and as a flamegraph
  • Has its own Web-based GUI which can be used for analysis
  • Can dynamically stream the profiling data to another machine instead of saving it locally, which is useful for profiling on memory-constrained systems
  • Supports AMD64, ARM, AArch64 and MIPS64 architectures (where MIPS64 requires a tiny out-of-tree kernel patch for perf_event_open)

Screenshots

Building

  1. Install Rust nightly and the Yarn package manager (for building the GUI)

  2. Build it:

     $ cargo build --release -p memory-profiler
     $ cargo build --release -p memory-profiler-cli
    
  3. Grab the binaries from target/release/libmemory_profiler.so and target/release/memory-profiler-cli

Usage

Basic usage

$ LD_PRELOAD=./libmemory_profiler.so ./your_application
$ ./memory-profiler-cli server memory-profiling_*.dat

Then open your Web browser and point it at http://localhost:8080 to access the GUI.

If you'd rather not use the GUI you can also make use of the REST API exposed by the server. For example:

  • Generate a flamegraph of leaked allocations:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/data/last/export/flamegraph?lifetime=only_leaked" > flame.svg
    
  • Export the leaked allocations as an ASCII tree:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/data/last/allocation_ascii_tree?lifetime=only_leaked"
    
  • Export the biggest three allocations made by the application to JSON: (You should pipe the output to json_reformat for human readable output.)

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/data/last/allocations?sort_by=size&order=dsc&count=3"
    
  • Export the biggest three call sites with at least 10 allocations where at least 50% are leaked:

    $ curl "http://localhost:8080/data/last/allocation_groups?group_allocations_min=10&group_leaked_allocations_min=50%&sort_by=all.size&count=3"
    

REST API exposed by memory-profiler-cli server

Available endpoints:

  • A list of loaded data files:

    /list
    
  • JSON containing a list of matched allocations:

    /data/<id>/allocations?<allocation_filter>&sort_by=<sort_by>&order=<order>&count=<count>&skip=<skip>
    
  • JSON whose each entry corresponds to a group of matched allocations from a single, unique backtrace:

    /data/<id>/allocation_groups?<allocation_filter>&sort_by=<group_sort_by>&order=<order>&count=<count>&skip=<skip>
    
  • An ASCII tree with matched allocations:

    /data/<id>/allocation_ascii_tree?<allocation_filter>`
    
  • Exports matched allocations as a flamegraph:

    /data/<id>/export/flamegraph?<allocation_filter>
    
  • Exports matched allocations into a format accepted by flamegraph.pl:

    /data/<id>/export/flamegraph.pl?<allocation_filter>
    
  • Exports matched allocations into a format accepted by Heaptrack GUI:

    /data/<id>/export/heaptrack?<allocation_filter>
    
  • JSON containing a list of mmap calls:

    /data/<id>/mmaps
    
  • JSON containing a list of mallopt calls:

    /data/<id>/mallopts
    

The <id> can either be an actual ID of a loaded data file which you can get by querying the /list endpoint, or can be equal to last which will use the last loaded data file.

The <allocation_filter> can be composed of any of the following parameters:

  • from, to - a timestamp in seconds or a percentage (of total runtime) specifying the chronological range of matched allocations
  • lifetime - an enum specifying the lifetime of matched allocations:
    • all - matches every allocation (default)
    • only_leaked - matches only leaked allocations
    • only_not_deallocated_in_current_range - matches allocation which were not deallocated in the interval specified by from/to
    • only_deallocated_in_current_range - matches allocations which were deallocated in the interval specified by from/to
    • only_temporary - matches only temporary allocations
    • only_whole_group_leaked - matches only allocations whose whole group (that is - every allocation from a given call site) was leaked
  • address_min, address_max - an integer with a minimum/maximum address of matched allocations
  • size_min, size_max - an integer with a minimum/maximum size of matched allocations in bytes
  • lifetime_min, lifetime_max - an integer with a minimum/maximum lifetime of matched allocations in seconds
  • backtrace_depth_min, backtrace_depth_max
  • function_regex - a regexp which needs to match with one of the functions in the backtrace of the matched allocation
  • source_regex - a regexp which needs to match with one of the source files in the backtrace of the matched allocation
  • negative_function_regex - a regexp which needs to NOT match with all of the functions in the backtrace of the matched allocation
  • negative_source_regex - a regexp which needs to NOT match with all of the source files in the backtrace of the matched allocation
  • group_interval_min, group_interval_max - a minimum/maximum interval in seconds or a percentage (of total runtime) between the first and the last allocation from the same call site
  • group_allocations_min, group_allocations_max - an integer with a minimum/maximum number of allocations from the same call site
  • group_leaked_allocations_min, group_leaked_allocations_max - an integer or a percentage of all allocations which were leaked from the same call site

The <sort_by> for allocations can be one of:

  • timestamp
  • address
  • size

The <group_sort_by> for allocation groups can be one of:

  • only_matched.min_timestamp
  • only_matched.max_timestamp
  • only_matched.interval
  • only_matched.allocated_count
  • only_matched.leaked_count
  • only_matched.size
  • all.min_timestamp
  • all.max_timestamp
  • all.interval
  • all.allocated_count
  • all.leaked_count
  • all.size

The only_matched.* variants will sort by aggregate values derived only from allocations which were matched by the allocation_filter, while the all.* variants will sort by values derived from every allocation in a given group.

The <order> specifies the ordering of the results and can be either asc or dsc.

Environment variables used by libmemory_profiler.so

MEMORY_PROFILER_OUTPUT

Default: memory-profiling_%e_%t_%p.dat

A path to a file to which the data will be written to.

This environment variable supports placeholders which will be replaced at runtime with the following:

  • %p -> PID of the process
  • %t -> number of seconds since UNIX epoch
  • %e -> name of the executable
  • %n -> auto-incrementing counter (0, 1, .., 9, 10, etc.)

MEMORY_PROFILER_LOG

Default: unset

The log level to use; possible values:

  • trace
  • debug
  • info
  • warn
  • error

Unset by default, which disables logging altogether.

MEMORY_PROFILER_LOGFILE

Default: unset

Path to the file to which the logs will be written to; if unset the logs will be emitted to stderr (if they're enabled with MEMORY_PROFILER_LOG).

This supports placeholders similar to MEMORY_PROFILER_OUTPUT (except %n).

MEMORY_PROFILER_DISABLE_BY_DEFAULT

Default: 0

When set to 1 the tracing will be disabled be default at startup.

MEMORY_PROFILER_REGISTER_SIGUSR1

Default: 1

When set to 1 the profiler will register a SIGUSR1 signal handler which can be used to toggle (enable or disable) profiling.

If disabled and reenabled a new data file will be created according to the pattern set in MEMORY_PROFILER_OUTPUT.

MEMORY_PROFILER_REGISTER_SIGUSR2

Default: 1

When set to 1 the profiler will register a SIGUSR2 signal handler which can be used to toggle (enable or disable) profiling.

MEMORY_PROFILER_ENABLE_SERVER

Default: 0

When set to 1 the profiled process will start an embedded server which can be used to stream the profiling data through TCP using memory-profiler-cli gather and memory-profiler-gather.

This server will only be started when the profiling is enabled.

MEMORY_PROFILER_BASE_SERVER_PORT

Default: 8100

TCP port of the embedded server on which the profiler will listen on.

If the profiler won't be able to bind a socket to this port it will try to find the next free port to bind to. It will succesively probe the ports in a linear fashion, e.g. 8100, 8101, 8102, etc., up to 100 times before giving up.

Requires MEMORY_PROFILER_ENABLE_SERVER to be set to 1.

MEMORY_PROFILER_ENABLE_BROADCAST

Default: 0

When set to 1 the profiled process will send UDP broadcasts announcing that it's being profiled. This is used by memory-profiler-cli gather and memory-profiler-gather to automatically discover memory-profiler instances to which to connect.

Requires MEMORY_PROFILER_ENABLE_SERVER to be set to 1.

MEMORY_PROFILER_PRECISE_TIMESTAMPS

Default: 0

Decides whenever timestamps will be gathered for every event, or only for chunks of events. When enabled the timestamps will be more precise at a cost of extra CPU usage.

MEMORY_PROFILER_WRITE_BINARIES_TO_OUTPUT

Default: 1

Controls whenever the profiler will embed the profiled application (and all of the libraries used by the application) inside of the profiling data it writes to disk.

This makes it possible to later decode the profiling data without having to manually hunt down the original binaries.

MEMORY_PROFILER_ZERO_MEMORY

Default: 0

Decides whenever malloc will behave like calloc and fill the memory it returns with zeros.

MEMORY_PROFILER_USE_SHADOW_STACK

Default: 1

Whenever to use a more intrusive, faster unwinding algorithm; enabled by default.

Setting it to 0 will on average significantly slow down unwinding. This option is provided only for debugging purposes.

Currently supported only on Rust nightly; when compiled on stable this option is ignored and the shadow stack is never used.

Enabling full debug logs

By default the profiler is compiled with most of its debug logs disabled for performance reasons. To reenable them be sure to recompile it with the debug-logs feature, e.g. like this:

$ cd preload
$ cargo build --release --features debug-logs

License

Licensed under either of

at your option.

Contribution

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

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