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HDBC Snaplet Tutorial

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HDBC Snaplet Tutorial

About the snaplet-hdbc library

Many applications use a relational database for information storage. A popular library, called HDBC, already exists to make this possible. The snaplet-hdbc library provides two snaplets to make it easier to integrate HDBC into your web application: Snap.Snaplet.Auth.Backends.Hdbc and Snap.Snaplet.Hdbc. The former serves as a backend for Snap's own authentication snaplet, while the latter provides an abstraction over the plain HDBC functions. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with writing your own snaplet. If you are not familiar with snaplets yet, please consider studying the snaplet tutorial first.

In this tutorial we will write a small application that uses these two snaplets to interact with an SQLite database. The ideas presented here are implemented in one of my applications.

Installing

Installing the snaplets is easy: just do a cabal install snaplet-hdbc and you're all set.

Snaplet state

Our goal is to be able to authenticate against a database, remember the fact that we are logged in and then retrieve some information from the database. Before we can do so, we need to define our snaplet's state and generate the corresponding lenses:

data App
  = App
  { _authLens :: Snaplet (AuthManager App)
  , _sessLens :: Snaplet SessionManager
  , _dbLens   :: Snaplet (HdbcSnaplet Connection IO)
  }

makeLens ''App

The authLens allows us to do the actual authentication, while the sessLens allows us to remember the result of the authentication attempt. As you might have guessed, the dbLens allows us to interact with the database. The AuthManager, SessionManager and HdbcSnaplet types are provided by the corresponding snaplets, while the Connection type is provided by HDBC. In this case, Connection represents a connection to our SQLite database.

After having defined the application state, we can start writing our initialiser:

tutorialAppInit :: SnapletInit App App
tutorialAppInit = makeSnaplet "snaplet-hdbc-tutorial"
  "A tutorial snaplet showing the use of snaplet-hdbc" Nothing $ do
    addRoutes  [ ("/some/:num",  someNumHandler) ]
    _sesslens' <- nestSnaplet "session" sessLens $ initCookieSessionManager
                    "config/site_key.txt" "_session" Nothing
    let sqli = connectSqlite3 "resources/tutorial.db"
    _dblens'   <- nestSnaplet "hdbc" dbLens $ hdbcInit sqli
    _authlens' <- nestSnaplet "auth" authLens $ initHdbcAuthManager
                    defAuthSettings sessLens sqli defAuthTable defQueries
    return  $ App _authlens' _sesslens' _dblens'

Many things are happening in this initialiser. First we define a route and a fallback handler, after which we initialise a session manager which stores the session information in a cookie. We then use the connectSqlite3 function from HDBC to make a connection to the tutorial.db file locate in the resources directory, which sits in our project directory. This gives us a value of type IO Connection in sqli. We use this raw connection to initialise both the HDBC snaplet and the HDBC authentication snaplet, which happens on the following two lines.

Initialising the HDBC snaplet is simple enough. We just pass the SQLite connection we obtained earlier to the initialiser and use to usual nestSnaplet function to nest the HDBC snaplet in our application snaplet. The HDBC authentication snaplet on the other hand, has several parameters. Lets go through them one by one:

  • defAuthSettings is exposed by the authentication snaplets and offers a default value of type AuthSettings, which contains information about your sessions.
  • sessLens is the session lens that has been generated by Template Haskell using the makeLens function.
  • sqli is the raw database connection we have defined earlier in the initialiser.
  • defAuthTable is exposed by the HDBC authentication snaplet and it provides a default set of column names for the table against you will authenticate. It is of type AuthTable.
  • defQueries is again exposed by the HDBC authentication snaplet and contains a default set of functions which generate the SQL queries the snaplet uses for the authentication process. Its type is Queries.

By separating the column names from the actual queries, it becomes possible to support varying use-cases. In the simplest case, the application uses the default table layout and the default queries. When different column names are desired, one will only need to provide a custom value of type AuthTable and the queries will automatically use these new names. If completely custom queries are desired, one can easily override them by providing a custom value of type Queries. This allows for, e.g., using stored procedures for authentication. This tutorial will not cover authentication (that's another tutorial), nor overriding the default queries. Please see the snaplet's API documentation and code to learn how to do that.

After all lenses are initialised, the App constructor is applied to all newly created lenses and the initialiser's work is done.

Querying the database

Now that the snaplet is initialised, we can start querying our database. Amongst other functions, the HDBC snaplet offers the query and query' functions:

query  :: HasHdbc m c s => String -> [SqlValue] -> m [Row]
query' :: HasHdbc m c s => String -> [SqlValue] -> m Integer

These functions make it easy to execute basic queries. The first one is intended to be used for SELECT queries. It takes a String with the query and a list of SqlValues. The SqlValues will be inserted on the places where there is have a ? in the query. The result of the query is a list of Rows. A row is nothing more than a type synonym for a Map:

type Row = Map String SqlValue

The second one is intended to be used with any other type of query, usually the INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE queries.

Now suppose we have some table containing messages, we can now define a function to retrieve them based on the value of some integer:

data Message = Message String

getMessages :: HasHdbc m c s => ByteString -> m [Message]
getMessages n = do
  rows <- query "SELECT * FROM messages WHERE somenum = ?" [toSql n]
  return $ map toMsg rows
  where toMsg :: Row -> Message
        toMsg = ...

Normally you would expect to apply this function in your application's handlers, but these query functions are not of type Handler, nor are they of type MonadSnap! Instead, we expect our query to be executed in the context of the HasHdbc typeclass. What is that all about?

The HasHdbc typeclass

One of the goals when designing the HDBC snaplet was to separate the functions from the Handler monad, or any Snap-related monad, so that the same queries could also be run outside of a Snap context, for example in a command-line tool. This goal is accomplished by the HasHdbc class. Whenever we are in some monad and a corresponding connection for which this class is defined, we can use the functions provided by the snaplet. In order to be able to use the snaplet's functions in our application handlers, we need to make sure that our application's handlers become an instance of HasHdbc. Before we can do that, however, we need to understand the HasHdbc typeclass:

class  (  IConnection c
       ,  ConnSrc s
       ,  MonadCatchIO m
       )
  =>   HasHdbc m c s | m -> c s where
  getHdbcState :: m (HdbcSnaplet c s)

Again there are many things happening on only three lines of code. First we see that the typeclass is parameterised by three type variables, m, c and s. The m is any monad for which there is a MonadCatchIO instance available. As it so happens, Handler has an instance for this out of the box. The second parameter needs to be some type for which we also have an instance of IConnection, which is a typeclass provided by HDBC. The Connection type we saw earlier is such a type. The s parameter needs to be something of type ConnSrc; some context from which we can get a new connection. By default, the snaplet provides ConnSrc instances for IO and Pool (from the resource-pool package; it offers resource pooling capabilities). Since our example state type defines s to be IO, we don't have to worry about this parameter anymore. Finally, the functional dependency m -> c s says: "if we know the type of m, we also know the corresponding types of c and s". Or: "m uniquely determines c and s". This is very powerful, because we can now do things with a connection, even if we only know in which monad we are. The downside is that we cannot use two different adapter types with our application handlers. The typeclass defines an expression getHdbcState, which only requires you to yield the snaplet's state type in the context of monad m.

Getting back to our application, we want to define an instance of HasHdbc for our application's handlers and we want the getHdbcState expression to give us something of type HdbcSnaplet Connection IO in the context of these handlers. A common type for an application handler would be Handler App App. With that in mind, lets see what the getHdbcState type would look like if we were to instantiate the typeclass:

getHdbcState :: Handler App App (HdbcSnaplet Connection IO)

It looks like we're just defining a regular Handler, like we always do in our Snap applications, but where do we get an HdbcSnaplet Connection IO? It turns out that this is exactly the HDBC snaplet's state type, so all we need to do is get the state from the snaplet using the dbLens and the state monad's get function:

instance HasHdbc (Handler App App) Connection IO where
  getHdbcState = with dbLens get

And we're done! Now we can interact with the database in our handlers, using the functions provided by the HDBC snaplet.

Putting it all together

Now that we have all the basics, we can finally write a handler which interacts with the database. Lets create the someNumHandler from the example initialiser. It reads an integer from the URL and uses that integer to parameterise a database query:

someNumHandler :: Handler App App ()
someNumHandler = do
  mnum <- getParam "num"
  let n = fromMaybe "11" mnum
  msgs <- getMessages n
  writeBS . pack $ show msgs

Since Handler now has a HasHdbc instance, we can happily execute our queries from the context of our handlers.

Wrapping up

If you are already a bit more familiar with snaplets, you might have notices that the HasHdbc instance for Handler is not as general as it could be. Since our implementation of getConnSrc is only interested in the current snaplet's state, we can leave the type of the first parameter to Handler variable. This gives us the instance:

instance HasHdbc (Handler b App) Connection IO where
  getHdbcState = with dbLens get

That's it! You can now write web applications, backed by an HDBC-supported database of your choosing.

Using resource-pool

The snaplet comes with support for the resource-pool package built-in. If you wish to use it, change the type of the subsnaplet from

  , _dbLens   :: Snaplet (HdbcSnaplet Connection IO)

to

  , _dbLens   :: Snaplet (HdbcSnaplet Connection Pool)

and do not forget to import Data.Pool.

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