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Add a framing format description. We do not have any implementation o…

…f this at

the current point, but there seems to be enough of a general interest in the
topic (cf. public bug #34).

R=csilvers,sanjay
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commit 3f224ea18fa8974786c7acc382a4d99199274386 1 parent 74f4ffc
snappy authored
Showing with 125 additions and 1 deletion.
  1. +1 −1  Makefile.am
  2. +124 −0 framing_format.txt
2  Makefile.am
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@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ TESTS = snappy_unittest
noinst_PROGRAMS = $(TESTS)
EXTRA_DIST = autogen.sh testdata/alice29.txt testdata/asyoulik.txt testdata/baddata1.snappy testdata/baddata2.snappy testdata/baddata3.snappy testdata/cp.html testdata/fields.c testdata/geo.protodata testdata/grammar.lsp testdata/house.jpg testdata/html testdata/html_x_4 testdata/kennedy.xls testdata/kppkn.gtb testdata/lcet10.txt testdata/mapreduce-osdi-1.pdf testdata/plrabn12.txt testdata/ptt5 testdata/sum testdata/urls.10K testdata/xargs.1
-dist_doc_DATA = ChangeLog COPYING INSTALL NEWS README format_description.txt
+dist_doc_DATA = ChangeLog COPYING INSTALL NEWS README format_description.txt framing_format.txt
libtool: $(LIBTOOL_DEPS)
$(SHELL) ./config.status --recheck
124 framing_format.txt
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@@ -0,0 +1,124 @@
+Snappy framing format description
+Last revised: 2011-12-15
+
+This format decribes a framing format for Snappy, allowing compressing to
+files or streams that can then more easily be decompressed without having
+to hold the entire stream in memory. It also provides data checksums to
+help verify integrity. It does not provide metadata checksums, so it does
+not protect against e.g. all forms of truncations.
+
+Implementation of the framing format is optional for Snappy compressors and
+decompressor; it is not part of the Snappy core specification.
+
+
+1. General structure
+
+The file consists solely of chunks, lying back-to-back with no padding
+in between. Each chunk consists first a single byte of chunk identifier,
+then a two-byte little-endian length of the chunk in bytes (from 0 to 65535,
+inclusive), and then the data if any. The three bytes of chunk header is not
+counted in the data length.
+
+The different chunk types are listed below. The first chunk must always
+be the stream identifier chunk (see section 4.1, below). The stream
+ends when the file ends -- there is no explicit end-of-file marker.
+
+
+2. File type identification
+
+The following identifiers for this format are recommended where appropriate.
+However, note that none have been registered officially, so this is only to
+be taken as a guideline. We use "Snappy framed" to distinguish between this
+format and raw Snappy data.
+
+ File extension: .sz
+ MIME type: application/x-snappy-framed
+ HTTP Content-Encoding: x-snappy-framed
+
+
+3. Checksum format
+
+Some chunks have data protected by a checksum (the ones that do will say so
+explicitly). The checksums are always masked CRC-32Cs.
+
+A description of CRC-32C can be found in RFC 3720, section 12.1, with
+examples in section B.4.
+
+Checksums are not stored directly, but masked, as checksumming data and
+then its own checksum can be problematic. The masking is the same as used
+in Apache Hadoop: Rotate the checksum by 15 bits, then add the constant
+0xa282ead8 (using wraparound as normal for unsigned integers). This is
+equivalent to the following C code:
+
+ uint32_t mask_checksum(uint32_t x) {
+ return ((x >> 15) | (x << 17)) + 0xa282ead8;
+ }
+
+Note that the masking is reversible.
+
+The checksum is always stored as a four bytes long integer, in little-endian.
+
+
+4. Chunk types
+
+The currently supported chunk types are described below. The list may
+be extended in the future.
+
+
+4.1. Stream identifier (chunk type 0xff)
+
+The stream identifier is always the first element in the stream.
+It is exactly six bytes long and contains "sNaPpY" in ASCII. This means that
+a valid Snappy framed stream always starts with the bytes
+
+ 0xff 0x06 0x00 0x73 0x4e 0x61 0x50 0x70 0x59
+
+The stream identifier chunk can come multiple times in the stream besides
+the first; if such a chunk shows up, it should simply be ignored, assuming
+it has the right length and contents. This allows for easy concatenation of
+compressed files without the need for re-framing.
+
+
+4.2. Compressed data (chunk type 0x00)
+
+Compressed data chunks contain a normal Snappy compressed bitstream;
+see the compressed format specification. The compressed data is preceded by
+the CRC-32C (see section 3) of the _uncompressed_ data.
+
+Note that the data portion of the chunk, i.e., the compressed contents,
+can be at most 65531 bytes (2^16 - 1, minus the checksum).
+However, we place an additional restriction that the uncompressed data
+in a chunk must be no longer than 32768 bytes. This allows consumers to
+easily use small fixed-size buffers.
+
+
+4.3. Uncompressed data (chunk type 0x01)
+
+Uncompressed data chunks allow a compressor to send uncompressed,
+raw data; this is useful if, for instance, uncompressible or
+near-incompressible data is detected, and faster decompression is desired.
+
+As in the compressed chunks, the data is preceded by its own masked
+CRC-32C (see section 3).
+
+An uncompressed data chunk, like compressed data chunks, should contain
+no more than 32768 data bytes, so the maximum legal chunk length with the
+checksum is 32772.
+
+
+4.4. Reserved unskippable chunks (chunk types 0x02-0x7f)
+
+These are reserved for future expansion. A decoder that sees such a chunk
+should immediately return an error, as it must assume it cannot decode the
+stream correctly.
+
+Future versions of this specification may define meanings for these chunks.
+
+
+4.5. Reserved skippable chunks (chunk types 0x80-0xfe)
+
+These are also reserved for future expansion, but unlike the chunks
+described in 4.4, a decoder seeing these must skip them and continue
+decoding.
+
+Future versions of this specification may define meanings for these chunks.
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