Steps GLAD
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Steps GLAD

Copyright (C) 2015 Naoki Otani Kyoto University

Please use the following reference for citation of work that benefits from use of any portion of the Steps GLAD software:

author = {Otani, Naoki and Baba, Yukino and Kashima, Hisashi},
title = {Quality control for crowdsourced hierarchical classification},
booktitle = {2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM)},
doi = {10.1109/ICDM.2015.83},
pages = {937--942},
year = {2015}

For questions and comments, plase contact Naoki Otani at:


  1. Install GSL, if not already installed.
    • Download .tar.gz from the official page
    • ./configure (--prefix={target dir})
    • make
    • make install
  2. Modify Makefile to point to the locations of the GSL if needed.
  3. cd src && make && cd ../.
  4. Run the demo ./bin/steps_glad data/sample_labels.dat data/sample_hierarchy.dat.



In the 1st row:

    <#labels> <#workers> <#tasks> <#classes> <#steps>

followed by

    <taskID> <workerID> <labelId>

All IDs start from 0.

See data/sample_labels.dat.

Class hierarchies

Suppose a class hierarchy has N tiers.

<classID at N-th tier> <ClassID at 1st tier> <ClassID at 2nd tier>...<ClassID at (N-1)th tier>

All IDs start from 0 for each tier.

See data/sample_hierarchy.dat.


  ./bin/steps_glad <input> <hierarchy> [options]

See ./bin/steps_glad -h for details.


We can specify the model setting by -m <int> option.

  • 1: Steps GLAD with a task dependent approach
  • 2: Steps GLAD with a class dependent approach
  • 3: Steps GLAD with a task-and-class dependent approach
  • 4: Steps Rasch model (as an extention example, not presented in the paper)


  mkdir sample_output
  ./bin/steps_glad data/sample_labels.dat data/sample_hierarchy.dat -p sample_output/model0

The results will be written in sample_output/:

  • model0_alpha.csv: worker accuracy parameters
  • model0_beta.csv: task difficulty parameters
  • model0_probs.csv: probabilities


This software was implemented based on GLAD, proposed the following paper.

Whitehill, J., Wu, T., Bergsma, J., Movellan, J. R., & Ruvolo, P. L. (2009). Whose Vote Should Count More: Optimal Integration of Labels from Labelers of Unknown Expertise. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22 (NIPS) (pp. 2035–2043).